"CASTLETON, a parish, containing the post-office village of New Castleton, in the southern extremity of Roxburghshire. It has a somewhat triangular outline; and is bounded on one side by England, on the west by Dumfries-shire, and on the north by the parishes of Teviothead, Hobkirk and Southdean. Its area is greater than that of any other parish in the south of Scotland ... In history and poetry, and very frequently still in conversation, its name is Liddesdale, from the river Liddel, which runs through it from east to south. The upper or northern part is mountainous and bleak; but is generally dry, and affords good sheep-pasturage ... the most celebrated antiquity of the parish is Hermitage castle, which consists of a tall, massive, gloomy-looking, double-tower, protected by a ditch and strong rampart, and rising aloft from the centre of an extensive waste, overlooking the limpid, murmuring waters of the Hermitage river, amid a scene of barrenness and desolation. This fortress was one of the largest and strongest on the border ... Population in 1831, 2,227; in 1861, 3,688."
From the Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland, edited by John Marius Wilson, 1868.