"A parish in Roxburghshire, of an irregular rectangular figure, 9 miles long, by 5 miles broad, except at one place, where it is not more than 2. The general appearance is rather bleak and hilly; but the hills are of small elevation, and most of them are covered with green pasture .. On the S. where it joins to the English border, the hills are more elevated, and only fit for pasturage; but, on the banks of the rivers, there are many fertile arable fields. In the parish are several small villages, the chief of which are Oxnam and Newbigging. There are the remains of various military operations. The great Roman road from Borough Bridge to the Lothians can be traced the whole length of the parish, and there are vestiges of 3 ancient fortifications, particularly the tower of Dolphinston. Limestone is found on the banks of the Jed; but, though there are flattering appearances of coal, no attempt to discover it has been successful. Population in 1801, 688."
From the Gazetteer of Scotland published 1806, Edinburgh.