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People, Protest and Politics

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Case Studies in Nineteenth Century Wales

By David Egan, Gomer Press 1987.
Welsh History Teaching Materials
A Project funded by the Welsh Office Education Department and based at University College, Swansea.

This book is an excellent primer for anyone wishing to gain a basic grounding in the subject, the articles (which are not extracted here) are of necessity brief.
Because they form a very useful (in context)  bibliography in themselves, I have created a list of Sources with descriptions, referenced S.1 etc, (P is a picture/drawing, M a map/diagram, Q a quotation/statistics).
They are shown below in the same order as in the book.
(Gareth Hicks, August 2004)

Contents


 

The Merthyr Rising 1831

1.Introduction

 

2.Background to the Rising

The Growth of Merthyr Tydfil

From Rural Village to Industrial Town

  • S.1Q    A traveller from England's brief impression of the Taff Valley . A Tour Thro' The Whole Island of Great Britain, Daniel Defoe, 1724/5
  • S.2Q    Two lawyers from London visit South Wales....they describe travelling up the Taff Valley from Pontypridd. Tour by W and S Sandys, Oct 1819. Cwrtmawr Manuscripts, NLW
  • S.3P    The Penydarren Ironworks 1813, NLW
  • S.4M    Map showing industrial centres in South Wales in early 19th century

The Growth in Population

  • S.5Q    Tables showing population increase in Welsh counties and some Glamorgan parishes, 1801 to 1851. Census Returns
  • S.6Q    Further travellers comment re Merthyr Tydfil - its  Welshness.    Tour by W and S Sandys, Oct 1819. Cwrtmawr Manuscripts, NLW

Culture and Religion

................

Impressions of Merthyr

  • S.7P    Drawing/picture of Merthyr Tydfil in early 19th century. NLW
  • S.8M    Map of Merthyr Tydfil in 1828. Greenwood's Map of the South East Circuit of Wales 1828. Glamorgan Archive Service
  • S.9P    Map of Glamorganshire. Topographical Dictionary of Wales.  S Lewis, 1833
  • S.10Q    Table showing details of occupations of men over 20 in some Glamorgan townships/parishes. 1831 Census Report

The Iron Industry and its Masters

Natural Resources and the Welsh Iron Industry

  • S.11Q    Another traveller comments about profusion of coal, iron and limestone. The Scenery, Antiquities and Biography of South Wales.  Benjamin Heath Malkin, 1807
  • S.12P    Tintern Furnace, Monmouthshire. NLW
  • S.13M    Map of North-Eastern Rim of the South Wales Coalfield  showing main ironworks and date of their foundation.

The Merthyr Works and their Markets

  • S.14P    Painting of Dowlais Ironworks in 1840. By G Childs, NLW
  • S.15Q    Malkin describes the Cyfarthfa Ironworks in 1803.   The Scenery, Antiquities and Biography of South Wales, Benjamin Heath Malkin, 1807
  • S.16P    Artists Impression of Cyfarthfa ironworks, 1811. The Principal Rivers of Wales, J G Wood, 1813
  • S.17Q    Tonnage of iron sent from Merthyr Ironworks to Cardiff for export, 1796 & 1830. The Condition of the Working Classes in Merthyr, 1840-1850, K Strange, University of Wales Ph.D 1982

Transport and Coal

  • S.18Q    Arrival of the first barges laden with iron produce in Cardiff on Glamorgan Canal, 1794. The Gentleman's Magazine, Feb 1794
  • S.19Q    Graph showing tons of iron sent down from the  Merthyr works by  canal between 1818 and 1840. 'Industrial Developments to 1918': in Merthyr Teachers Centre, Merthyr Tydfil: a Valley Community, 1981
  • S.20M    Map showing various coal and iron ore mines serving Merthyr Ironworks up to 1860.  'Industrial Developments to 1918', by C Thomas: in Merthyr Teachers Centre, Merthyr Tydfil: a Valley Community, 1981

The Ironmasters

  • S.21Q    Part of speech by William Crawshay in 1843. The History of Merthyr, C Wilkins, 1867
  • S.22P    Portrait of Richard Crawshay, Cyfarthfa Castle Museum
  • S.23Q    Details of profits made by the Crawshays at Cyfarthfa, Hirwaun and George Yard. Cyfarthfa Papers, NLW
  • S.24P    Cyfarthfa Castle, NLW
  • S.25Q    Description of some features of Cyfarthfa Castle. Mechanics Magazine, 1830
  • S.26P    Cyfarthfa Ball, 1846. Cyfarthfa Castle Museum

Aspects of Working Class Life in Merthyr

Introduction

............

Work and Working Conditions

  • S.27P    Diagram illustrating various coal mining methods. Industrial Archaeology in Britain, R A Buchanan, 1972
  • S.28Q    An account of the work and working conditions of an ironstone miner. The Morning Chronicle Reports on South Wales, 1850
  • S.29Q    Description of work carried out by door boys in a Merthyr coalmine. Philip Jones aged 8 on his work at Plymouth Iron-works Mines. Report of the Children's Employment Commission, 1842
  • S.30P    Diagrams of children working underground as hauliers and a door boy. Report of the Children's Employment Commission, 1842
  • S.31P    Blaenavon Ironworks, 1820. NLW
  • S.32Q    Description of smelting process. Description of smelting process at Penydarren Ironworks, Clutterbuck's Tour through Glamorgan, 1799. Cardiff Central Library Manuscripts
  • S.33P    Shingling (hammering the iron). Working Iron at Merthyr Tydfil, J C Ibbetson, 1772. Cyfarthfa Castle Museum
  • S.34P    Rolling the iron. The Rolling Mills, Merthyr Tydfil, c 1817. NLW
  • S.35Q    Children as labourers in ironworks. Morgan Lewis aged 9 on his work as a 'puller-up'at Plymouth Iron-works Mines. Report of the Children's Employment Commission, 1842
  •  S.36Q   Wage rates in 1839 for a 12 hour day and 7 day week. Report by Samuel Homfray to The Times 15 Nov 1839

Housing

  •  S.37Q   Visitor to Merthyr in 1803 describes how housing developed. The Scenery, Antiquities and Biography of South Wales.  Benjamin Heath Malkin, 1807
  • S.38P   Ironworker's cottage in Merthyr. Children in the Iron Industry, 1840-42. R M Evans, 1972
  • S.39P   Ironworker's cottage in West Lane, Georgetown, MT. Children in the Iron Industry, 1840-42. R M Evans, 1972
  • S.40Q   Description of conditions in worst type of housing in Merthyr. Report on the Health of Towns, 1845

Public Health

  • S.41Q   Description of lack of sanitation in 1840s and 1850s by government investigator. Report on the State of Education in Wales, 1847.
  • S.42Q   Minister of religion describes to Enquiry the difficulties of obtaining water in the town. Enquiry into Merthyr Tydfil, 1850

The Truck System

  • S.43Q   Table of prices at Tommy Shops and Market Shops in Monmouthshire in 1830. Monmouthshire Merlin, March 1830

Protest and Radicalism

Working Class Protest

  • S.44Q   Extract from Rules of a Merthyr Friendly Society - The Union Society. National Library of Wales
  • S.45Q   Account of what appears to have been first organised strike in Merthyr. Account by striker at Dowlais Works 1810 cited in; History of Iron, Steel & Tinplate Trades, 1903. C Wilkins
  • S.46Q   Letter from William Crawshay to John Guest in 1816 re riots in iron works. Dowlais Iron Co Records. Glamorgan Record Office
  • S.47P   Artists impression of arrival of troops at Merthyr, 1816. Carmarthen Museum
  • S.48Q   Evidence by local resident re Scotch Cattle. History of Iron, Steel & Tinplate Trades, 1903. C Wilkins

Radicalism

  • S.49Q   Extract from document found near Merthyr during riots of 1800. An Address to the Workmen of Merthyr Tydfil, 1800. From Before Rebecca, D J V Jones, 1973
  • S.50Q   Extrtact from letter found at Penydarren in 1817 just after 1816 strike. Home Office Records

3.The Rising and its Aftermath

The Immediate Background to the Rising

Economic Depression and its Effects

  • S.51Q   Graph showing effect economic depression had on the Poor Rate in Merthyr after 1829. The Making of Radical Merthyr 1800-1836,  by G A Williams in The Welsh History Review, 1961
  • S.52Q   Table showing composition of the Vestry by occupations. Make up of the Merthyr Select Vestry from The Merthyr Rising by G A Williams, 1978

The Reform Campaign

  • S.53Q   William Crawshay describes an incident at Merthyr Tydfil in 1831. The Late Riots at Merthyr Tydfil, 1831, W Crawshay

Crawshay's Wage Cuts

  • S.54Q   Views of two officers in command of troops at Merthyr on immediate causes of the Rising. Home Office Records, HO 41/10

The Union

  • S.55Q   Account of what was discussed at the mass meeting meeting at Waun Common on 30 May 1831. The Late Riots at Merthyr Tydfil, 1831, W Crawshay
  • S.56Q   Another report of above meeting of a speaker (Union leader ?) exhorting people to stop working. Testimony of John Petherick, Agent of the Penydarren Ironworks. Home Office Records

The Rising

The First Actions: 31st May and 1 June

  • S.57Q   Description of reasons for workers' march on 1 June, Merthyr to Aberdare. The Late Riots at Merthyr Tydfil, 1831, W Crawshay
  • S.58P   Map of Merthyr. Based on Tithe Survey of 1850 and taken from 'Some Aspects of the Spatial Structure of Two Glamorgan Towns in the Nineteenth Century' by H Carter & S Wheatley in The Welsh History Review, 1978

The Attack on the Court of Requests, 2 June

  • S.59Q   Riot Act read by magistrate in English and Welsh at house of Thomas Lewis. The Riot Act, 1716
  • S.60Q   Account of crowd assembling outside house of Joseph Coffin, President of Court of Requests. The Late Riots at Merthyr Tydfil, 1831, W Crawshay
  • S.61P   Royal Glamorgan Militia soldier in uniform. The Royal Glamorgan Militia by L V Evans in Glamorgan Historian, vol 8

Riot outside the Castle Inn: 3 June

  • S.62P   Print of period showing Castle Inn and area around it. NLW
  • S.63Q   Demands put forward by deputation as reported by Anthony Hill to Home Secretary. Home Office Records
  • S.64Q   Address by Lewis Lewis to the crowd. Based on various contemporary reports and quoted in The Merthyr Rising by G A Williams, 1978
  • S.65Q   Description of fight between crowd and soldiers. The Late Riots at Merthyr Tydfil, 1831, W Crawshay
  • S.66Q   Description of scenes outside the inn once the crowd had cleared. The History of Merthyr Tydfil, C Wilkins, 1867
  • S.67P   Crowd sacrifices a calf and bathes a flag in its blood. Radio Times. Hulton Picture Library

Ambushes and the march on Penydarren House: 4 June

  • S.68Q   Two large troops of cavalry sent from Panydarren Houseto protect ammunition being sent from Brecon, a report of what they found. The Late Riots at Merthyr Tydfil, 1831, W Crawshay
  • S.69Q   William Crawshay describes approach of crown to Penydarren House. The Late Riots at Merthyr Tydfil, 1831, W Crawshay

The End of the Rising: 6 June

  • S.70Q   What happened at Cefn Coed when marchers stopped by troops. The Late Riots at Merthyr Tydfil, 1831, W Crawshay

The Aftermath

Reactions

.........

Trial

  • S.71Q   The charge against Lewis Lewis and Richard Lewis(Dic Penderyn). Home Office Records
  • S.72Q   Part of evidence in court by Donald Black, a soldier in the Highlanders stationed outside Castle Inn. Transcription of Evidence for the Prosecution, 14 July 1831. Home Office Records
  • S.73/4Q   Extracts from evidence by James Abbott and James Drew, Special Constables  at Castle Inn. Transcription of Evidence for the Prosecution, 14 July 1831. Home Office Records
  • S.75Q   Judge passes sentence on Richard Lewis as follows. Sentence List of the Trial, 14 July 1831. NLW

Petitions

  • S.76Q   What Richard Lewis said about the charge. Petition in the case of Richard Lewis, 27 July 1831, Home Office Records
  • S.77Q   Lord Melbourne's negative response to application for mercy for Richard Lewis made on evidence gathered by  Joseph Price, Neath iron master. Home Office Records

Execution and Martyrdom

  • S.78Q   Newspaper report of execution of Richard Lewis. The Cambrian, 20 August 1831
  • S.79P   Memorial erected at grave of Richard Lewis at Margam.

4. Conclusion

---


The Rebecca Riots

1. Introduction

  • S.80M   Map showing main towns, some villages and main roads in West Wales in 1830s. And they Blessed Rebecca, P Molloy, 1984
  • S.81P   Modern day re-enactment of demolition of Efailwen toll house and gate. Ken Davies (Photos), Carmarthen

2.The Background to Rebecca

The Rural Society of West Wales

Population

  • S.82M   The counties of Wales in the nineteenth century with population figures for each county in 1801/1841. Census Returns 1801 & 1841

Occupations

  • S.83M   Chart showing main occupations in West Wales in 1841 and numbers of adult men employed. 'Numbers and Employment of Able-bodied adults over 21 years of age in Carmarthenshire, Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire, 1841'. Based on 1841 census.

Agriculture

  • S.84Q   Account of farming in west Wales by visitor. Letters written during a tour through South Wales. Rev J Evans, 1804

Freeholders and Leaseholders

...........

Landlords

  • S.85P   Engraving of Dynevor Castle where Rice family lived. 'Dyneveor Castle in 1822' by C Ashey. NLW
  • S.86Q   Visitor to Cardiganshire in 1803 comments about landlord 'absenteeism'. The Scenery, Antiquities and Biography of South Wales.  Benjamin Heath Malkin, 1807

Political Power

.............

The Life of the Ordinary People

  • S.87Q   Journalist, Thomas C Foster, reports on what was happening in Rebecca Riots. The Times, 7 October 1843
  • S.88P   Typical farmer's cottage in Cardiganshire. 'Cardiganshire Cottage in the Nineteenth Century'. NLW
  • S.89Q   Thomas Foster supplies some information on diet of small farmers and their families. The Times, 2 December 1843
  • S.90Q   Evidence of farmer's wife to Government Enquiry. Evidence of Mary Thomas of Llanelli to Commission of Enquiry into South Wales, 1844
  • S.91Q   Thomas Foster describes a workhouse in West Wales. The Times, 27 June 1843
  • S.92P   Photograph of stone breaking cells at Cardigan Workhouse.   And they Blessed Rebecca, P Molloy, 1984
  • S.93Q   Corn dealer gives evidence to Enquiry about causes of the depression in agriculture. Evidence of James Rogers to Commission of Enquiry into South Wales, 1844

Protest and Public Opinion

  • S.94Q   Anonymous letter explaining distress and discontent in west Wales leading to appearance of Rebecca. The Welshman, 1 September 1843
  • S.95Q   Report on Ceffyl Pren incidents in Cardiganshire in 1839. Report on the Constabulary Force of England and Wales, 1839
  • S.96P   Photograph of Hugh Williams, a Carmarthen lawyer and Radical. NLW
  • S.97Q   Bible quote source as inspiration for Rebecca Rioters. The Old Testament, Genesis XXIV,60
  • S.98Q   Journalist Thomas Foster argues that Nonconformist groups encouraged the attacks. The Times, 31 July 1843

The Roads and Turnpike Trusts of West Wales

The Turnpike Trusts

  • S.99Q   Traveller's description of state of roads in West Wales in 1802. From an account of a journey by Sir Richard Colt Hoare to Wales in 1802. Published by M W Thompson (ed) in The Journeys of Sir Richard Colt Hoare Through Wales and England, 1793-1810. 1983
  • S.100M   Map showing Turnpike roads, (and Trusts that built them), built in south Carmarthenshire by 1840. The Rebecca Riots. D Williams, 1955

Gates and Tolls

  • S.101P   Turnpike road leading into Haverfordwest across river Cleddau. 'Haverfordwest in the Nineteenth Century'. Haverfordwest Public Library
  • S.102P   Toll-house at Penparcau, Aberystwyth. 'The South Gate Tollhouse, Penparcau, Aberystwyth'. Haverfordwest Public Library
  • S.103Q   Poster showing toll charges of Trust which owned road in S.102P.NLW

The Farmers and Tolls

  • S.104Q   Evidence by farmer re toll on  lime movements. Evidence given by William Williams of Carmarthen to Commission of Enquiry into South Wales, 1844
  • A.105Q   Evidence by powerful toll-farmer. Evidence by Thomas Bullin of Swansea  to Commission of Enquiry into South Wales, 1844
  • S.106Q   Thomas Foster reports on problems of too many Trusts competing against each other. The Times. 26 June 1843
  • S.107M   Map showing large number of different Turnpike Trusts in Towy Valley. Turnpike Trusts in the Towy Valley in The Rebecca Riots,  David Williams, 1955

Conclusion

  • S.108Q   Thomas Foster on role of Turnpike Trusts in causing the Rebecca Riots. The Times, 26 June 1843

3.The Riots

The Arrival of Rebecca

Efailwen 1839

  • S.109P   Print showing visit by Rebecca Rioters to a toll-gate. The Illustrated London News
  • S.110Q   Part of poem pointing to the identification of Hugh Williams (without naming him) as Rebecca. By Levi Gibbon
  • S.111P   Thomas Rees's farm, Carnabwth. And They Blessed Rebecca, P Molloy, 1984

Rebecca Re-appears 1842

  • S.112M   Map showing roads of the Main and other Turnpike Trusts on Carmarthenshire/Pembrokeshire border. 'Roads and Turnpike Trusts on the Carmarthenshire-Pembrokeshire Border' in The Rebecca Riots,  David Williams, 1955
  • S.113Q   Account of attack on tollgate in St Clears area. Carmarthen Journal, 16 December 1842
  • S.114P   Print of 'Rebecca and her Daughters'. NLW

The Forces of Law and Order

  • S.115P   Two Metropolitan policemen. Metropolitan Police of the 1840s. Police Staff College
  • S.116Q   Threatening letter from 'Becca & children' to a farmer. The First 'Rebecca Letter' sent 16 December 1842. Public Record Office
  • S.117P   Members of the Castlemartin Yeomanry Cavalry. The Pembroke Yeomanry Trust

Rebecca Spreads Her Wings

...........

The Carmarthen Riot

  • S.118Q   Description of attack on the Carmarthen Workhouse on 19 June 1843. Carmarthen Journal, 23 June 1843

The Attitude of the Authorities

  • S.119Q   Thomas Foster reports on disturbances. The Times, 26 June 1843
  • S.120P    Portrait of Colonel The Honourable George Rice Trevor. NLW
  • S.121Q   What Rice Trevor said at public meeting at Newcastle Emlyn. The Times, 29 June 1843
  • S.122Q   Letter from Edward Crompton Lloyd Hall of Cilgwyn conveying his views on Rebecca Riots.  Letter to Home Secretary, 24 June 1843. Public Record Office

Rebecca at its Height: The Summer of 1843

The Strengthening of Military Forces.

  • S.123Q   Report of attack on gates in Cardigan. Reproduced in The Rebecca Riots. V E Davies,1961
  • S.124Q   "                  "                    "                . Carmarthen Journal, 30 June 1843
  • S.125P   Portrait of Major-General James Love (in charge of military forces in west Wales). Crown Estate Commissioners
  • S.126P   Print showing soldiers of the 73rd Regiment of Foot. National Army Museum
  • S.127Q   Love's report to the Home Office. 11 July 1843. Public Record Office
  • S.128Q   Thomas Foster reports on lack of success of forces of law and order. The Times, 22 July 1843

The Widening of Rebeccaism

  • S.129Q   Reward Notice; £500 to an informant re 'Murderous Attack' on Mr John Edwards at Gellywerenen. And They Blessed Rebecca. P Molloy, 1984
  • S.130Q   Poster by Abel Lewes Gower, landowner, threatening to discharge his labourers should Rebecca attack his property. Warning Notice re Attack on Llechryd Weir, Cardiganshire. NLW

Rebecca Changes her tactics

  • S.131Q   Thomas Foster reports on Rebecca supporters meeting he attended at Cwm Ifor, near Llandilo. The Times, 7 August 1843.
  • S.132P   Illustration of mass meeting of farmers on 25 August 1843 at Mynydd Sylen between Llanon and Pontyberem. The Illustrated London News

The Last Phase of the Riots

New Areas and More Violent Attacks

  • S.133M   Map of south-east Carmarthenshire where Rebecca Riots occurred in late 1843. And They Blessed Rebecca. P Molloy, 1984
  • S.134Q   Evidence given in court by the Sandy Gate tollgate-keeper and his wife. Evidence of Jenkin and Catherine Hugh of Llanelli, taken on oath 14 August 1843, before magistrates. NLW
  • S.135P   Contemporary print of Rebeccaites. The Illustrated London News

The Pontarddulais Attack

  • S.136Q     William Chambers, local magistrate, relates what happened when Pontarddulais tollgate attacked. Evidence of William Chambers to Magistrates, 8 September 1843. NLW
  • S.137Q   Part of speech made by the judge at trial of John Hughes, David Jones and John Hugh in October 1843. Quoted in And They Blessed Rebecca. P Molloy, 1984
  • S.138Q   Confession of John Hughes, David Jones and John Hugh. NLW

Rioting Continues

  • S.139Q   Thomas Foster reports that the authorities hope that riots would cease after Pontarddulais trial/sentence is not to be. The Times, 20 September 1843
  • S.140Q   Evidence given about actions of Shoni Sgubor Fawr and Dai y Cantwr. Evidence of David Lewis of Trimsaran to Magistrates, 26 Sept 1843. NLW
  • S.141Q    Evidence given about actions of Shoni Sgubor Fawr and Dai y Cantwr. Evidence of Thomas Phillips of Topsail to Magistrates, 12 December 1843. NLW
  • S.142Q   Thomas Foster points out that the violent activities of Dai and Shoni was now turning away Rebecca supporters. The Times, 25 Sept 1843
  • S.143Q   Reward Poster, £500 offered to those prepared to inform on Rebeccaites. October 1843. NLW
  • S.144Q   Judge's comments when sentencing Dai and Shoni and 39 others at Carmarthen Assizes. The Welshman, 5 January 1844
  • S.145Q   Poem by Dai'r Cantwr composed before leaving for convict colony in Australia. Dai Cantwr's Threnody.

The End of Rebecca

  • S.146Q   Example of threatening letters still sent to landowners even after Rebecca movement had largely died out. Letter sent to William Chambers, Llanelli. NLW

4. Conclusion and Aftermath

  • S.147Q   Summary of the Report of the Commission of Enquiry into South Wales set up under landowner and Public servant Thomas Frankland Lewis as to the causes of the Rebecca Riots. 1844
  • S.148P   Picture of John Hughes at his farm in Tasmania. From The Rebecca Riots. D Williams, 1955
  • S.149Q   Thomas Frankland Lewis gives his view of matters 8 years after the events:
" The people saw that their only remedy was to take the law into their own hands. The Rebecca conspiracy was organised with much skill, and carried through with much fidelity......It was never diverted from its original purpose, and the instant that purpose seem likely to be attained, that is to say the instant that an enquiry into the Welsh turnpike system was instituted by the government, the association was dissolved and no one has ever proposed its revival.The Rebecca Riots are a very creditable portion of Welsh History."
'Nassau Senior in Wales', by E Evans in NLW Journal 1951

  Chartism in Wales

  1.Introduction: Background to Welsh Chartism

Politics in Early Nineteenth Century Wales

  • S.150Q   Details of expenses of a candidate in 1802 election in Carmarthenshire. Report on the Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouthshire, 1896
  • S.151Q   Newspaper report of Scotch Cattle incident in 1835. The Cambrian, 11 April 1835

The Emergence of Chartism

  • S.152Q   The Six Points of the Charter. Chartist Handbill quoted in British Working Class Movements. G D H Cole & A W Filson, 1967
  • S.153P   Illustration showing the Convention at work. The Chartist National Convention, February 1839. Guildhall Library

The Growth of Chartism in Wales

  • S.154Q   Liberty's address to the Welsh by Thomas Jenkins on April 10 1839 in Carmarthen. Published in National Songs by Hugh Williams, 1839
  • S.155Q   Speech of Chartist leader Dr William Price to meeting of Pontypridd Chartists in 1839. Quoted in A Welsh Heretic: Dr William Price of Llantrisant by T Islwyn Nicholas

2. Chartism in Mid-Wales

The Woollen Industry and Towns of Mid-Wales

The Woollen Industry

  • S.156M   Map of Montgomeryshire and its main towns. Main Towns and Geographical Features of Mid-Wales
  • S.157Q   Newspaper report on effects of introduction of machinery in spinning industry. Montgomeryshire Herald, 15 June 1835
  • S.158P   Print of Cambrian Woollen Mills, Newtown. NLW
  • S.159P   A Weaver at his hand-loom. Book of English Trades, 1824
  • S.160P   Photograph of a surviving weaver's house in Newtown. NLW
  • S.161M   Plan showing location of mills and weaving shops in Newtown. The Welsh Woollen Industry. J G Jenkins, 1969
  • S.162Q   Details of some of Newtown's weavers in 1841. Report of the Royal Commission on Hand Loom Weavers, 1841

The Woollen Towns

  • S.163P   Print of Newtown street scene in 1840s. Severn Press, Newtown
  • S.164Q   Description of flannel industry in Llanidloes. A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Samuel Lewis, 1834
  • S.165Q   Comment about Welsh language and Llanidloes. Brief Account of the Chartist Outbreak at Llanidloes. E Hamer, 1867
  • S.166Q   Comment on woollen workers's continuing connection with agriculture. Report of the Royal Commission on Handloom Weavers, 1841

Working and Social Conditions

  • S.167Q   Wages paid at Newtown in 1837. Report of the Royal Commission on Handloom Weavers, 1841
  • S.168Q   Prices at Newtown in 1837. Report of the Royal Commission on Handloom Weavers, 1841

Chartist Movement in Mid-Wales

The Development of Local Chartism

  • S.169Q   Description of activities of the Llanidloes Political Union. Brief Account of the Chartist Outbreak at Llanidloes. E Hamer, 1867
  • S.170Q   Pen-portrait of Charles Jones of Welshpool. History of the Chartist Movement. R G Gammage, 1854
  • S.171Q   Description of Chartist leaders in Mid-Wales. Poor Man's Guardian. Henry Hetherington, 1838
  • S.172P   Print of Henry Hetherington. History of the Chartist Movement. R G Gammage, 1854
  • S.173Q   Comment on Hetherington's ideas. Brief Account of the Chartist Outbreak at Llanidloes. E Hamer, 1867

The Chartist Disturbances at Llanidloes, April 1839

  • S.174Q   Action by Llanidloes Chartists to carry out Hetherington's wishes.   Brief Account of the Chartist Outbreak at Llanidloes. E Hamer, 1867
  • S.175Q   Limited reaction of the Home Secretary to Llanidloes magistrate's request for troops to be sent. Brief Account of the Chartist Outbreak at Llanidloes. E Hamer, 1867
  • S.176Q   Description of Chartists' Meeting at the 'Long Bridge' in Llanidloes, 30 April 1839. Brief Account of the Chartist Outbreak at Llanidloes. E Hamer, 1867
  • S.177Q   How Chartists used their control, under leadership of Thomas Powell,  over Llanidloes. Brief Account of the Chartist Outbreak at Llanidloes. E Hamer, 1867
  • S.178Q   Arrival of troops at Llanidloes on Saturday 3 May, and flight of local Chartists. Brief Account of the Chartist Outbreak at Llanidloes. E Hamer, 1867
  • S.179Q   Her Majesty's Proclamation  banning drilling by Chartists. Brief Account of the Chartist Outbreak at Llanidloes. E Hamer, 1867
  • S.180Q   £150 Reward offered to catch Thomas Jarman, David Jenkin Hughes and Abraham Owen of Llanidloes. Glamorgan, Monmouth and Brecon Gazette, 25 May 1839
  • S.181Q   Evidence that Chartists hadn't intended to attack the Trewythen Arms. Brief Account of the Chartist Outbreak at Llanidloes. E Hamer, 1867
  • S.182Q   Harsh sentences imposed on Chartists found guilty at Montgomery Assizes in July. Quoted in 'Who were the Montgomeryshire Chartists' by E R Morris in Montgomeryshire Collections lvii, 1963

Chartism in Mid-Wales after 1839

........

3. Chartism in Monmouthshire

The Economy and Society of Monmouthshire

Industry and Work

  • S.183M   Map showing main iron works and collieries in south-east Wales in 1839. From The Last Rising. D J V Jones, 1985
  • S.184Q   Details of sale-coal collieries in the Blackwood area, with numbers employed, 1841. From South Wales and the Rising of 1839. I Wilks, 1984
  • S.185Q   Comment on the work of coal miners. A Visit to Pontypool. Juan de Vega, 1828
  • S.186Q   The experience of child-workers in the iron industry. Evidence of 13 yr old Mary Ann Williams and 15 yr old John Williams, workers at the Ebbw Vale Ironworks, given to Commission of Enquiry into the Employment of Children, 1841.
  • S.187Q   Details of wages at an iron works. Wages paid weekly at the Tredegar Iron works, 1839.  From South Wales and the Rising of 1839. I Wilks, 1984

Social Conditions and Protest

  • S.188Q   Population figures for some Monmouthshire parishes taken from 1801 and 1841 census of population.
  • S.189Q   Housing and public health problems. Report by Seymour Tremenheere on Housing Conditions in South Wales. Minutes of the Committee of the Council on Education, 1839-1840.
  • S.190Q   Household budgets of colliers and furnacemen. Based on evidence in Seymour Tremenheere   Minutes of the Committee of the Council on Education, 1839-1840 and cited in  South Wales and the Rising of 1839. I Wilks, 1984
  • S.191Q   An observation on new tide of protest by 1839. Western Vindicator, 24 August 1839

The Growth of Chartism in Monmouthshire

Monmouthshire Politics and the Origins of Chartism

  • S.192P   Portrait of John Frost of Newport. From A History of Chartism. R G Gammage, 1854
  • S.193Q   Background of John Frost. The Rise and Fall of Chartism in Monmouthshire. E Dowling, 1840
  • S.194Q   Poster advertising first public Chartist meeting in Newport. Chartist Poster, Oct 1838. Newport Central Library.

Henry Vincent and the Spread of Chartism

  • S.195P   Portrait of Henry Vincent. From  History of Chartist Movement. R G Gammage, 1854
  • S.196Q   Intimidation used to join Chartists ? The Hereford Journal, 20 November 1839
  • S.197Q   Remarks by Henry Vincent at Newport in April 1839. The Rise and Fall of Chartism in Monmouthshire. E Dowling, 1840
  • S.198Q   Remarks by Henry Vincent at Blaina in April 1839. Unpublished letter to the Merthyr Guardian, Public record Office.

The Newport Rising

Preparation for a Rising

  • S.199P   Drawing showing John Frost of Newport, Zephaniah Williams of Blaina, and William Jones of Pontypool. The Rise and Fall of Chartism in Monmouthshire. E Dowling, 1840
  • S.200Q   Why they turned from 'moral force' to 'physical force' Chartism. The Western Vindicator, 16 November 1839
  • S.201Q   Comment on ease of hiding what was going on from the authorities due to 'a language unknown to the educated classes'. The Morning Chronicle, 7 November, 1839
  • S.202Q   Dr William Price, Chartist leader from Pontypridd, describes meeting at Blaina on 3 October. A Welsh Heretic: Dr William Price of Llantrisant. T Islwyn Nicholas.
  • S.203Q   Delegate at Blackwood meeting of 1 November describes some of preparations decided upon. Evidence of William Davies of Blackwood given to Solicitors preparing evidence for the Chartist Trials. Newport Central Library

Marching to Newport

  • S.204Q   Fear causes rush of new recruits. Evidence of Richard Davies of Nelson as to what Thomas Giles the Chartist leader told Nelson Colliers. Public Record Office
  • S.205M   Map of route of marches on 3 November 1839. The March on Newport in The Last Rising. D J V Jones, 1985
  • S.206Q   Evidence of what the wider plans of the Chartists were. The Times, 6 November 1839

The Rising

  • S.207M   Map of  route of march into Newport. The Last Rising. D J V Jones, 1985
  • S.208Q   Arrival of Chartists in Newport. The Rise and Fall of Chartism in Monmouthshire. E Dowling, 1840
  • S.209M   Ground-plan of the Westgate, Newport. The Last Rising. D J V Jones, 1985
  • S.210P   Print showing attack on Westgate Hotel. Newport Central Library
  • S.211Q   Account of fight in passageway of Westgate. The Chartist Movement in Monmouthshire. J Davies, 1939.
  • S.212Q   Chartists flee after soldiers open fire. The Rise and Fall of Chartism in Monmouthshire. E Dowling, 1840
  • S.213P   Illustration of Chartist flight from Westgate. Newport Central Library

The Aftermath of the Rising

  • S.214Q   Newspaper commentary about 'the Riot'. The Times, 11 November 1839
  • S.215Q   Delegate at national Chartist meeting denies they were beaten. Monmouthshire Merlin, 23 November 1839
  • S.216Q   Reward poster 'Newport riots - Three Hundred Pounds Reward'. Monmouthshire Merlin, 6  November 1839
  • S.217Q   Prosecution case for treason by Chartists. Sir John Campbell for the Prosecution Addressing the Jury at the Trial of the Newport Chartists. Report of State Trials. J E P Wallis (ed), 1892
  • S.218P   Illustration of court scene. Trial of Newport Chartists. History of Chartist Movement. R G Gammage, 1854
  • S.219Q   Poster listing sentences given to many of the Chartists. Newport Central Library
  • S.220Q   Sentences passed on Frost, Williams and Jones who were found guilty of high treason. From The Rise and Fall of Chartism in Monmouthshire. E Dowling, 1840

Chartism in Monmouthshire after Newport

......

4. Postscript

  • S.221Q   Account of the Merthyr Petition (in favour of the 'People's Charter')being taken from the town. The Merthyr Guardian

The Tithe War in North-East Wales 1886 -1892

1. Introduction

  • S.222M   Map showing Main Towns and Geographical Features in North-East Wales.

2. Background

North-East Wales in the Late Nineteenth Century

  • S.223Q   Author writes about way of life in Denbighshire. Letters from Wales. J E Vincent, 1889

Population and Industry

  • S.224Q   Population figures for Welsh counties. From 1881 and 1891 censuses.
  • S.225P   Photograph of Brymbo Steelworks in 1893. Clwyd Record Office

Agriculture

  • S.226Q   Figures showing male/female percentages employed in Agriculture in Welsh counties. From 1851 and 1881 censuses
  • S.227Q   Description of Vale of Clwyd and Denbighshire Moors. Letters from Wales. J E Vincent, 1889
  • S.228Q   Estimates of land held by Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn of Wynnstay, Ruabon in various counties. The Great Landowners of Great Britain and Ireland. John Bateman, 1883
  • S.229Q   Statistics of land occupied by tenants and landlords. Adapted from  The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas
  • S.230Q   Comment on condition of farming in Flintshire c 1890s.   Letters from Wales. J E Vincent, 1889
  • S.231P   Photograph of threshing being carried out on a Denbighshire farm c 1890. Clwyd Record Office
  • S.232P   Photograph of Farmworkers at Ty Gwyn, Pentre Llyn Cymer, Denbighshire in early C20th. NLW
  • S.233P   Photograph of gathering hay into cocks for loading, Brechfa, Dyfed, c 1898. NLW
  • S.234P   Photograph of Field workers binding corn into sheaves, Brechfa, Dyfed, c 1898. NLW

Living Conditions and Social Life

  • S.235P   Photograph of tenant farmer's cottage in north-east Wales. Cottage at Maes Hafn, Mold, Flintshire. Clwyd Record Office
  • S.236Q   Description of rural housing in second half of C19th. The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas
  • S.237Q   Description of the diet of rural families. The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas
  • S.238Q   Description of May Dancing ( dawnsio haf). Crefydd yr Oesoedd Tywyll by W Roberts. Translated in T M Owen, Welsh Folk Customs, 1959

Religion

  • S.239Q   Description of strength of Nonconformity in Flintshire. Letters from Wales. J E Vincent, 1889
  • S.240Q   Survey of people attending different places of worship in 1889. The North Wales Chronicle, 29 January  1889

Politics in North-East Wales

  • S.241Q   Ancient county families dominate politics. Parliamentary History of Wales. W R Williams
  • S.242P   Photograph of Thomas Gee of Denbigh
  • S.243Q   A Nonconformist member of parliament attacks the way politics and elections were carried out in Wales at this time. Henry Richard speaking in Aberdare, 11 November 1868. Aberdare Times, 14 November 1868
  • S.244Q   A table showing how the Ballot Act of 1872 changed election results. Political Parties of MPs elected for the Counties and Boroughs of Wales 1859-1895. The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas

The Land Question

  • S.245P   Photograph of T E Ellis MP. NLW
  • S.246Q   Ellis sets out the grievances of Welsh farmers. Evidence given by T E Ellis, MP to the Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouth, 1893.

Evictions

  • S.247Q   What Ellis meant by 'eviction for exercising independent judgement in politics'. The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas
  • S.248Q   What Ellis meant by 'eviction for exercising independent judgement in politics'. Henry Richard MP speaking in the House of Commons on Evictions after the 1868 General Election. Hansard Parliamentary Debates, 8 August 1871
  • S.249Q   Example of eviction - as much religious as political. The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas
  • S.250Q   Comment by Welsh Land Commission on eviction of tenants on religious and political grounds. The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas

Tenancies

  • S.251Q   Part of complicated tenant's agreement used by R J Lloyd Price of Rhiwlas, near Bala, Merioneth. From Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouthshire, 1893
  • S.252Q   Evidence of Vale of Clwyd farmer on how easily landlords could change agreements. Evidence of Mr Daniel Roberts to the Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouthshire, 1893
  • S.253Q   Royal Commission comment on 'Land Hunger'. The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas
  • S.254Q   Extract from survey of tenant farms in Anglesey re length of tenancies. The Land Question in North Wales.   J E Vincent, 1896

Rents and 'Improvements'

  • S.255Q   Example of type of claim/grievance many tenant farmers made re rents. Evidence of Mr Thomas Jones, Graig, Llanfair-Caereinion to the Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouthshire, 1893
  • S.256Q   Report on survey of rents on the Hafodunas Estate in Denbighshire. Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouthshire, 1893
  • S.257Q   Ellis explains about 'uncertainty of obtaining compensation for improvement'. Evidence of T E Ellis MP to the Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouthshire, 1893
  • S.258Q   Landlords' answer  to above claim. Evidence on Rents received and Amounts Spent on Improvements on the Earl of Powis's estate in Montgomeryshire, 1840-91. The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas
  • S.259Q   Religious differences between tenatnts and landlords a root cause of differences  leading to evictions ? Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouthshire, 1893
  • S.260Q   Suggestion that the Church had changed its attitudes to the mass of people. Letters from Wales. J E Vincent, 1889
  • S.261Q   The heart of 'The Land Question'. Baner ac Amserau Cymru, 2 November 1887

Tithes and the Tithe Campaign

  • S.262Q   Anti-tithe movement was  the Rebecca riots  over again ? The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas

Tithes

  • S.263Q   Nonconformist minister explains objections to tithes based on majority of people not being members of the Church of England. The Anti-Tithe Movement in Wales. Rev W Thomas, 1891

The Tithe Campaign

  • S.264Q   One opinion that root of Tithe Campaign less to do with depression in agriculture than advice farmers were getting that it was 'contrary to religion to pay'. Letters from Wales. J E Vincent, 1889
  • S.265Q   And Mr Thomas Gee of Denbigh (and his Baner ac Amserau Cymru)  blamed for this.... Letters from Wales. J E Vincent, 1889
  • S.266Q   Reasons suggested for the formation of The Welsh Land League which Gee played a major part in. The Chester Chronicle, 23 January 1886
  • S.267Q   Gee concentrates on tithe question in the  campaign of the Welsh Land League. Evidence of Thomas Gee to Committee of Enquiry into the Tithe Agitation in Wales, 1887

The 'Tithe War'

The Outbreak

  • S.268Q   Suggested reasons why Clergymen were forced to accept reduced tithes in Denbighshire. Letters from Wales. J E Vincent, 1889
  • S.269Q   Description of bailiffs distraining tenants' animals at Llanarmon on behalf of the Rev Evan Evans.   The Morning Post, August 1886
  • S.270Q   Disturbance caused when attempt at Llanarmon  to organise an auction to sell distrained animals. The Standard, 24 August 1886

The 'Tithe War' Spreads

  • S.271Q   Protest by a thousand or so farmers at auction sale at Whitford in December 1886. Evidence of Deputy Chief Constable Bolton of Flintshire Constabulary to Committee of Enquiry into the Tithe Agitation in Wales, 1887
  • S.272Q   Riot Act read at Mochdre in June 1887. The Flintshire Observer, 23 June 1887
  • S.273Q   Attack on police at Mochdre incident. Evidence of Chief Constable Leadbetter of Denbighshire to Committee of Enquiry into the Tithe Agitation in Wales, 1887

Llangwm and the Widening Outbreaks

  • S.274P   Photograph of 'The Llangwm Tithe Martyrs' - the 8 tried at Ruthin Assizes in February 1888 charged with assault and riot. Clwyd Record Office
  • S.275Q   Tithe Collectors attacked by farmers in Llannefydd area in Denbighshire in May 1888. Denbigh County Herald, 18 May 1888
  • S.276P   Photograph of Troops in Denbigh, May 1888. Clwyd Record Office
  • S.277P   Illustration of a scene in the Tithe Disturbances at Denbigh. Daily Graphic, August 1890

An Overview of the 'Tithe War'

  • S.278Q   Farmers often terrorised into supporting tithe campaign? Letters from Wales. J E Vincent, 1889
  • S.279Q   Thomas Gee sets out the Land League's viewpoint on principle of tithes. Banner ac Amserau Cymru, 21 December 1887
  • S.280P   Photograph of Thomas Gee on his horse 'Degwm'. Clwyd Record Office
  • S.281Q   Evidence on activities of the Welsh Land League in tithe campaign. The Welsh Land Commission: a Digest of its Report, 1896 by  D Ll Thomas
  • S.282Q   Evidence that local authoritoes acted with restraint in the period . Letters from Wales. J E Vincent, 1889
  • S.283Q   Opinion of Commissioners
    "The Commissioners express the opinion that in Wales it is the tenant farming class that have hitherto borne the brunt of depression. In the majority of cases the tenant has during recent years, found it increasingly difficult to pay his rent ...... Many tenant farmers have failed completely ... a very large number will shortly be face to face with the prospect of bankruptcy .... Next to the tenant farmers, the landowners of the country have suffered most .... The estate owners of Wales have naturally lived .... in a way that has .... left little or no margin ....But though this is the case, there is, so far ... no sign .... that the landowning class..... is in a postion of embarrassment."
      Report of the Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouthshire, 1896
  • S.284Q    Table headed 'Percentage of Holdings by Occupier' - showing the extent that land of the great landed estates was sold off post the 1914-18 War. 'The End of the Great Estates and the Rise of Freehold Farming in Wales' by J Davies in  The Welsh History Review.