Wales - Genealogy Help Pages - Not everyone knows this .... (2)


Not everyone knows this .... (2)

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Land Records

Are Land Records available for searching ?

A voluntary system of central registration of title to land was started in E & W in 1862 but only from 1899 was it made compulsory for some parts of the country, and even then only when the property changed hands. It was slowly extended and may well be compulsory all over by now but bear in mind the "change of ownership" condition. The Land Registration Act of 1988 made certain records open for public inspection, but only the records from first registration.

Apart from registration as above, actual title was traditionally conveyed and proved by physical deeds only. There was no central register of ownership, the ex banker in me recalls that there was something called a Land Charges register for recording mortgages etc.

Pre registration deeds are these days returned to the owner by the Land Registry on first registration, I know, because I had some back when I bought this place in Devon 7 years ago, built in 1924, that shows the scale of the problem. So, the whereabouts of original deeds is the question, may be destroyed or with solicitors, or in Archives vaults, or with the present owners, who knows.

[Gareth Hicks 19.5.2000 G]

The following reply was received from Sarah Henning, Archivist at the British Records Association in response to my asking her whether what I had said above was basically correct. The BRA have a Working Party currently considering the problem of preservation of deeds.

"Your email re: land registration was, to the best of my knowledge, correct, although I believe land registration is now compulsory. Some counties (eg Middlesex - held at London Metropolitan Archives ) have deeds registries dating from earlier times, so the location of deeds relating to them is not too difficult. For other pre-registration deeds, the situation is less clear.

Some will be in local record offices, having been deposited by property owners, solicitors, mortgage lenders, the British Records Association (a clearing house and rescue body for archives), or bought at auction, found dumped, etc. Others will be with the property owner. Large quantities remain with solicitors and mortgage lenders, and once land is registered, these will be of little legal importance, leaving them at some risk. The cost of storage is high and if the client/owner cannot be traced, then solicitors/mortgage lenders may well understandably think of destroying those deeds that may have ceased to be of legal significance. The law regarding the ownership of title deeds can be complicated, but Law Society guidelines (Annes 12A, Guide to the Professional Conduct of Solicitors, Law Society 1999) do state that solicitors should not destroy papers produced for or stored on behalf of the client. One of the Working Party's aims is to produce a leaflet advising solicitors, mortgage lenders and others involved with the transfer of property of the situation regarding the ownership of deeds and of their historical significance. It also aims to produce guidelines for the general public on how to deposit material with record offices. As more people are made aware of the usefulness of title deeds to historians, the better their chances of being deposited with a record office."

The following comments represent the views of 3 county Archivists asked to comment on the above view of the BRA.

> We certainly wouldn't welcome an influx of house deeds for every 19th century

> terrace in [any large city]. However, deeds for smaller communities can be very

> useful indeed, as the quantity of surviving records generally may be very

> much less.Also older deeds for city centre properties may be of great value whether the house still stands or not.

> I should think the message most county archivists would want to put over is

> please offer any old records but don't be offended if they are turned down.

<I suspect that if archivists want to truly represent the history of their area through documents, they are not in a position to refuse deposits of individual deeds. I would be very happy to receive redundant ( but historically interesting ! ) deeds packets from members of the public or though solicitors. This happens on a periodic basis already and can be particularly useful for firms of solicitors who have bulging strong-rooms and yet ( as Sarah Henning points out ) cannot destroy papers created or stored for clients. Although storage space is often at a premium in record offices archivists must accept that if records are considered important they must be accepted and found space. Archives usually expand and part of our role as archivists is to find more space within the council for their storage. I think it is worth pointing out that if householders want to retain their own deeds " for interest" then that is their absolute right and may be a great pleasure for them, but they should be passed on to new house owners in the event of a house sale, or sent to the record office if the new owners express no interest in them. The temptation to hang on to obsolete house deeds and take them out of context should be resisted, as they need to be either with the house or in appropriate local care e.g. the Record Office

[Gareth Hicks G/D 19 & 29 .6.2000]


Rebecca Riots

The population factor ?

"The rapid increase in population had overtaxed the economy of the countryside..........For a considerable proportion of the inhabitants existed on the verge of destitution..............The outbreak of rioting was due, to a great degree, to these intolerable conditions of life, to extreme discomfort and the recklessness born of despair."
The Rebecca Riots by David Williams 1986

The Rebecca Riots in West Wales began in 1839, stopped, and restarted in 1842 and continued throughout the following year. They spread from the CMN/PEM borders into the Teifi valley, then the Towy valley and finally into the semi- industrialised areas of south CMN. There were few incidents outside this compact geographical area.

It is the background to the population increase in the 3 shires that I find fascinating, it doubled between 1750 and 1851. The bare figures are as follows, 1750 is estimated but the others are based on census returns ;
1750 =CGN 32,000,CMN 62,000, PEM 44,800
1801=CGN 42,956, CMN 67,317, PEM 56,280
1851=CGN 70,796, CMN 110.632, PEM 94,140
It is emphasised that this was a "natural " increase, not due to immigration into the area. Migration into the growing industries of West Wales does not account for it, for in this period this was still " short-distance migration" within the 3 shires themselves. In fact immigration was more than offset by emigration.

The phenomenal rise in the population of industrial England over a similar period is generally attributed to the fall in the death rate due to increased medical knowledge and better sanitary conditions. But social conditions in West Wales were widely different, bearing a far greater resemblance to those prevailing in Ireland. What medical practitioners that existed were located in towns. In remote villages and upland farms the sick only had friends and neighbours to rely on. It is difficult to believe that there was any improvement in sanitation in rural West Wales either.

So, there was apparently no significant fall in the death rate in West Wales, which only leaves an increase in the birth rate. There is an generally accepted tendency for country-dwellers to raise large families. But why were families getting still larger over the 100 years ? The number of children born out of wedlock was large, a fact not perhaps unrelated to the remarkable excess of females over males in the 3 shires ! [ in 1841 there were c 16,000 more females in the 3 shires over a male total of c 123,000] But the real "problem" was primarily that of earlier marriages. Men married early with the expectation that the parish would assist them with their large families. This simply extended the child -bearing period for women. Early marriage was also facilitated by the social custom known as "bidding", a young pair would be induced to marry by the prospect of obtaining a little money to set up home. The gifts were actually in the nature of a loan, but probably inadequate resulting in later difficulties.

Another contributory factor to the growing population was the adoption of the potato as a universal article of diet. By 1814 it became a cheap substitute for bread, the price of the latter having increased through the years of the war with France. Potatoes could be grown on land which previously had been of little use. Therefore it became cheaper to feed large families. But the interaction of cause and effect in West Wales[as in Ireland] is seen in the statement,
"Poverty, potatoes, larger families, more potatoes, and greater poverty".
The pressure of an increased population lead to settlement higher up the hillsides[on marginal land], enabling the population to expand still further. In West Wales this process followed on from the various Enclosure Acts . But, for example, by the Land Commission of 1893 an unbelievable number of small holdings in upland CMN had fallen into ruin. Their remains may still be seen scattered over hillsides bearing witness to a pitiful attempt to wrest a livelihood from an inexorable environment.

[Based on a reading of The Rebecca Riots by David Williams 1986 . Gareth Hicks  1998 D ]

Deprivation ?

The industrial areas of south east Wales were being agitated by Chartism, the areas of the south west were disturbed by the protests known as the Rebecca Riots. There was a tollgate situated at Efailwen near St Clears which was destroyed by rioting on 13 May 1839, and attacked again in the months of June and July. Peace was kept until October 1842. The Rebecca Rioters wore women's clothes and is probably a reference to Genesis 24,60, a verse which claims that the seed of Rebecca shall inherit the gates of those that hate her.

Although the tollgates were the targets of the rioters, it is believed that this was not the main cause of their protests. More likely that the attacks were provoked by a deep rooted sense of deprivation.

[Based on an article from The History of Wales by John Davies. Debbie 10.4.2000 D]


Criminal records of the Courts of Great Sessions of Wales

These records are held at the National Library of Wales

Chester Circuit.......................................................................

Gaol Files

Flint 1543 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/966 to 1022

Denbigh 1546 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/1 to 74

Montgomery 1690 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/124 to 203

Rule Books, Minute Books, Order Books

Flint, Denbigh and Montgomery 1783 to 1830 ref. WALES 14/1 to 7

Flint 1574 to 1806 ref. WALES 14/71 to 86

Crown Books

Flint and Denbigh 1564 to 1667, ref. WALES 14/68 to 70

1707 to 1756 and NLW MS 6298D

North Wales Circuit.........................

Gaol Files
Anglesey 1708 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/250 to 261
Merioneth 1514 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/296 to 308
Caernarfon 1622 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/270 to 284

Rule Books, Minute Books, Order Books
Anglesey, Merioneth and Caernarfon 1783 to 1830 ref. WALES 14/14 to 18

Brecon Circuit.............................

Gaol Files
Brecon 1558 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/320 to 398
Radnor 1541 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/461 to 538
Glamorgan 1541 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/591 to 640

Black Books
Brecon, Radnor
and Glamorgan 1726 to 1830 ref. WALES 28/31 to 36

Rule Books, Minute Books, Order Books
Brecon, Radnor and Glamorgan 1725 to 1830 ref. WALES 14/22 to 30

Calendar Rolls of Indictments
Radnor 1553 to 1659 ref. WALES 7/1 to 3
Glamorgan 1553 to 1601 ref. WALES 7/4 to 5

Carmarthen Circuit................

Gaol Files
Carmarthen 1542 to 1630 ref. WALES 4/715 to 766
Pembroke 1547 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/775 to 837
Cardigan 1542 to 1830 ref. WALES 4/883 to 916

Rule Books, Minute Books, Order Books
Carmarthen, Pembroke and Cardigan 1661 to 1807 ref. WALES 14/52 to 56

Calendar Rolls of Indictments
Cardigan 1541 to 1602 ref. WALES 7/6 to 7
Pembroke 1541 to 1674 ref. WALES 7/8 to 11

[Gareth Hicks]

Commentary on the Iron Industry in South Wales

A little more information on the functions of a 'roller' in the early to mid 19th century.

The notes below are relevant until the death of the iron industry following the coming of age of the steel industry. Rolling began quite early in the development of the iron industry, crude at first in the 60's, 70's and 80's of the 18th century, it was to improve by leaps and bounds due to the efforts of Isaac Wilkinson. The early rolling mills were known as two roll mills and could only work in one direction, thus it was necessary to manually return the billet to the 'front end' in order to accomplish re-rollings, this was patently uneconomic so an additional roll was added above the top roll which pair would now work in the opposite direction thus enabling 'work strokes' in both directions. Later developments brought the 'guide mill' which, as its name implies, offered more control over the rolling process and, more development, eventually enabled an ever widening range of bar sections to be produced.

The use of rolling came much later to the tinplate industry where the Helve Hammer continued to reign supreme.The 'roller' or rollerman was never a member of the 'refined' classes but was,within his own sphere, a highly skilful and valuable member of any ironmaster's workforce as can be seen from the table below which shows his earnings relative to those of his fellow ironworkers.

At Merthyr, the centre of the iron industry, men earned less than 10/- per week in 1816, colliers and miners generally obtained 15/- and the furnace men 20/- to 25/-. At the Plymouth works in 1833 and also at the Aberdare works a year later, wages stood at 12/- per week for colliers and miners, 20/- for puddlers, 15/- to 16/- for fillers, and for rollermen 15/- per week. Wages rose again by the end of the decade. The wages of colliers were 22/6 in 1837, and 27/- two years later, from which high level they declined to 13/- in 1844.

Money wages in themselves, however, did not completely represent the real wages of the industrial workers. Occasionally, as at Ebbw Vale in 1797, they received their houses free, though in most cases they rented them from the works. Many of the workmen, especially in the smaller concerns. possessed gardens; ale and occasionally food were provided for special work. Practically all obtained their coal either free or below market prices.

Money wages too were not without certain deductions. The common stoppages included 1d or 2d for the works doctor, the cost of clay for repairing furnaces in the case of the puddlers and for gunpowder, candles and iron helves in the case of the collier. By 1850 there was also a contribution in many works to a sick fund, from which workmen were paid a weekly sum for a short period when ill or injured.

Deductions under the Truck System, though later oppressive in the extreme, were not originally detrimental to the worker. Except, perhaps, in the Swansea area, there were few industrialists at the beginning of the 19th. century who were not compelled to organise the supply of foodstuffs and goods for the isolated settlements they had created. Hence the Crawshays are found purchasing wheat abroad and the Llanelly copper company arranging for supplies from East Anglia. When conditions changed, the Truck System remained as a source of profit, closely related to the system of contractors.


The figures that follow for each trade relate to the years given in the first set of numbers.


  • 1844
  • 1845
  • 1846
  • 1847
  • 1848
  • 1849
  • 1850


  • 11/-
  • 11/-
  • 12/8
  • 13/9
  • 11/-
  • 11/-
  • 10/-


  • 23/9
  • 26/11
  • 33/8
  • 35/-
  • 35/-
  • 30/4
  • 26/6


  • 22/-
  • 25/10
  • 29/10
  • 31/3
  • 32/7
  • 30/4
  • 26/6


  • 21/-
  • 19/-
  • 21/8
  • 23/6
  • 22/11
  • 21/1
  • 16/8


  • 37/8
  • 39/3
  • 51/2
  • 40/7
  • 48/9
  • 39/6
  • 31/-


  • 23/7
  • 30/6
  • 35/8
  • 32/4
  • 30/11
  • 25/7
  • 23/-


  • 26/2
  • 32/7
  • 45/1
  • 38/8
  • 31/7
  • 23/-
  • 18/6


  • 33/7
  • 58/10
  • 72/-
  • 80/-
  • 60/9
  • 35/6
  • 32/-


  • 26/2
  • 35/5
  • 49/7
  • 47/8
  • 36/8
  • 18/2
  • 21/9

[Jeff Hampton 1999 G]

Early Welsh divorce, who got what ?

Extracted from the book "The Tribal System in Wales" by F Seebohm 1904.

I cannot tell you how complex the Ancient customs and traditions relating to blood relationships and property ownership were, it is truly mind boggling. However there is this one section that discusses the Dimetian, Gwentian and Venedotian Codes that has a piece that may be of topical interest and relates the system used for sharing the property of the ordinary married Welsh tribesman at the breakdown of a marriage pre the Norman Conquest, and beyond to a degree.

" If a man takes a wife by gift of kindred and leave her before the end of seven years, let him pay her agweddi to her.... if she be left after the end of seven years let there be an equal sharing between them, unless the privilege of the husband entitle him to more. [an agweddi was paid by the wife's father to the husband on consummation of her marriage]. beyond that,certain things were specially named as to be given to the husband and certain things to the wife."

Here is the list;

"The swine to the husband, and the sheep to the wife,[or] if there be only one kind they are to be shared.

If there be sheep and goats, the sheep to the husband and the goats to the wife.....

Of the children, two shares to the father, and one to the mother; the oldest and youngest to the father and the middle-most to the mother.

The household furniture is to be thus shared.

All the milking vessels except one pail go to the wife.

All the dishes except one dish go to the wife.

The wife is to have the car[??] and the yoke to convey her furniture from the house.

The husband is to have all the drinking vessels.

The husband the riddle, the wife the small sieve.

The husband the upper stone of the quern, the wife the lower.

The clothes that are over them to the wife,; the clothes that are under them to the husband...

To the husband the kettle, the bed coverlet, the bolster of the dormitory, the coulter, the fuel axe, the auger, the settle, and all the hooks save one.

To the wife the pan, the trivet, the broad axe, the hedge bill, the ploughshare, all the flax, the linseed, the wool, the house bag withits contents except gold and silver[which are to be shared].

If there be webs, they are to be shared.

The yarn balls to the children[if any]; if none then shared.

The husband is to have the barn, and all the corn above ground and underground.

The husband the poultry and one of the cats, the rest to the wife.

The provisions are thus to be shared;

To the wife the meat in the brine, and the cheese in the brine; and after they are hung up to the husband.

To the wife the vessels of butter in cut, the meat in cut, and the cheese in cut.

To the wife as much of the meal as she can carry between her arms and knees from the storeroom into the house.

As there is no mention of the cattle which were presumably the main part of the da [ separate assets] of both husband and wife they were presumably equally divided."

[Gareth Hicks 1999 G]


Pay Rates in the South Wales Coal Field

Average Weekly Earnings in the South Wales Coal Industry

Table G in 'The Miners of South Wales' by E.W. Evans


During this period nominal wages were rising rapidly in most industries. In South Wales the earnings of colliers appear to have risen as follows:

  • 1796 - 12s per week
  • 1801 - 15s per week
  • 1807 - 20/30s per week
  • 1810 - 35 s per week.


In these years the nominal wage rate was falling universally. In South Wales colliers' earnings seem to have fallen from the high level of 1810 to about 20s per week in 1830, despite brief periods during which this tendency was reversed.

  • 1814 - 18s per week
  • 1816 - 15s/18s per week
  • 1822 - 14s/15s per week
  • 1824 - 16s/18s per week
  • 1827 - 24 s per week
  • 1829 - 20s per week


The level of wages in most industries remained stationary in these years, and the same is largely true of colliers' earnings in South Wales although there appears to have been a considerable fall between 1848 and 1852

  • 1831 - 20s/23s per week
  • 1832 - 17s per week
  • 1833 - 18s per week
  • 1835 - 19s per week
  • 1836 - 16s per week
  • 1837 - 22s/23s per week
  • 1838 - 19s per week
  • 1839 - 22s/27s per week
  • 1840 - 21s/26s per week
  • 1841 - 20s per week
  • 1842 - 19s per week
  • 1843 - 18s/24s per week
  • 1844 - 18s per week
  • 1845 - 16s/24s per week
  • 1846 - 16s/24s per week
  • 1847 - 20s per week
  • 1848 - 16s per week
  • 1849 - 14s per week
  • 1850 - 14s/25s per week


While workmen in other occupations enjoyed a rapid increase in wages at this time, the South Wales colliers do not seem to have shared their good fortune. Undoubtedly earnings rose during the American Civil War, but the men were apparently little better-off in the later 60's than in 1850

  • 1857 - 24s per week
  • 1868 - 25s/30s per week
  • 1869 - 21s per week


Nominal wages in most trades rose rapidly during these three years, and the South Wales miners also gained by the general prosperity.

  • 1873 - 33s or more per week


In the depressed years which followed, however, wages were rapidly reduced in South Wales as in other districts.

  • 1879 - c. 20s per week


There was little change between 1879 and 1887, a period when wages were almost stationary apart from a short-lived increase which came to an end in 1884

  • 1883 - 26s per week
  • 1886 - 20s per week


The South Wales colliery workmen's earnings rose rapidly during this period, as did wages in most industries

  • 1887 - 20s per week
  • 1888 - 20s per week
  • 1889 - 24s per week
  • 1890 - 29s per week
  • 1891 - 29s per week


While wages in other trades remained almost unchanged, the earnings of the Welsh miners seem to have fallen, although not very greatly

  • 1892-4 - 23s per week
  • 1895-6 - 21s per week


The universal rise in wages which characterised these years was clearly discernible in South Wales.

  • 1898 - 23s per week
  • 1899 - 25s per week
  • 1900 - 33s per week


Although wages were generally stationary in this period, miners earnings in South Wales appear to have fallen fairly substantially by 1905 only to rise again to an even higher level in 1908.

  • 1901 - 32s per week
  • 1902- 28s per week
  • 1908 - 44s per week

[David Pike 20 Nov 2000 G]

War Memorials

I have noticed quite a lot of traffic concerning war memorials. As area Chairman for the Western Front Association 1914-1918, I frequently receive  enquiries about war memorials and the servicemen named on them. I may be  teaching my grandmother to suck eggs, but, I feel there are several pitfalls  regarding war memorials, that researchers should be aware of.

Do not take the info on a memorial as gospel. There can be countless mistakes. Some memorials within the Glamorgan area are as much as 50% inaccurate. This can be for a variety of reasons. Usually where the regiment is wrong it is often because the serviceman began in that regiment and moved on after leaving home.

Spellings of names vary widely. It is also common on larger memorials for men to be listed more than once, perhaps in each regiment he served in. One example on Swansea's main memorial has one man in at least three regiments.

With these memorials the emphasis was on not leaving anyone out, not checking the info supplied.

Men who died after their discharge, as a result of their war service are often included. This leaves the researcher with a problem. The War Graves Commission had guidelines to follow with regards to the servicemen they commemorated by headstone. These were quite complicated and are difficult to understand. E.g one man fell to his death from scaffolding a year after his death and he has a Commission headstone. One man who died, from blood poisoning from shrapnel still in his body, only a few weeks after his discharge did not receive a headstone. Therefore it is possible to find a man on a memorial who is impossible to trace from official casualty resources.

Even memorials dedicated shortly after the war can still be full of mistakes. Again Swansea's memorial lists George Prowse VC in the misc column and it was dedicated 2 years after the war. In such a short time they had forgotten which unit this local celebrity had served in!! Do not think that fairly new memorials are accurate either. One memorial a Cymmer went ahead a few years ago even though I pointed out that there were a large number of omissions. It lists about a dozen men for WW1, when I found almost 100 men killed from the disrict in one Welsh regiment alone!

Memorials can also list men from outside the area which is very confusing to the researcher. A good example is that of two brothers on the memorial in Mumbles. They were originally from Hertfordshire but by the time they were killed their mother had moved to Mumbles. They were included there because she was resident there and possibly because she made a considerable donation to the construction fund!

Finally, I have done much research on Swansea and district memorials and have potted biographies of many of the men commemorated. If I can be of assistance please contact me via the Glamorgan Mailing List)

[Andrew Vollans  G  11 Oct 2001]


Census of the Population - 1851 - Instructions to the Householder

You are requested to insert the particulars specified on the other page, respecting all the persons who slept in your house on the night of March 30th, in compliance with an Act which was passed the House of Commons, and the House of Lords in the last session of Parliament, and received the assent of Her Majesty, the Queen, on 5th August, 1850.

This paper will be called for on Monday, March 31st, by the appointed Officer; and it will save trouble if, as the Act requires, you have the answers written in the proper columns by that time. It is his duty to verify the facts, and if you have omitted to comply with the above instruction, to record them at your residence on that day.

Persons who refuse to give correct information, incur a Penalty of Five Pounds; besides the inconvenience and annoyance of appearing before the Justice of the Peace, and being convicted of having made a wilful mis-statement of age, or of any of the other particulars.

The Return is required to enable the Secretary of State to complete the Census; which is to show the number of the population - their arrangement by ages and families in different ranks, professions, employments, and trades - their distribution over the country in villages, towns, and cities - their increase and progress in the last ten years.

General Instructions

This Schedule is to be filled up by the OCCUPIER or Person in charge of the house; if the house is let or sub-let to different persons or families, in separate stories or apartments, the OCCUPIER or Person in charge of each such story or apartment must make a separate return for its portion of the house upon a separate Householder's Schedule.

INSTRUCTIONS for filling up the Column headed "RANK, PROFESSION, or OCCUPATION."

The Superior Titles of PEERS and other PERSONS OF RANK to be inserted, as well as any high office which they may hold. Magistrates, Aldermen, and other important public officers to state their profession after their official title.

ARMY, NAVY, AND CIVIL SERVICE. - Add after the rank, "Army," "Artillery," "Royal Navy," "Marines," "East India Company's Service," as the case may be - distinguishing those on half-pay. Persons in the CIVIL SERVICE to state the Department to which they are attached, after their title or rank; those on the Superannuation to be so distinguished, and other Pensioners, to be clearly designated.

CLERGYMEN of the Church of England to return themselves as "Rector of ------," "Vicar of ------," "Curate of ------," &c., or as not having cure of souls. They are requested not to employ the indefinite term "Clerk." Presbyterian Ministers and Roman Catholic Priests, to return themselves as such, and to state the name of the church or chapel in which they officiate. Dissenting Ministers to return themselves as "Independent Minister of ------------ Chapel," &c. Local or occasional preachers must return their ordinary occupations.

LEGAL PROFESSION, - Barristers, to state whether or not in actual practice; Officers of any Court, &c. to state the description of office and name of Court. The designation "Attorney" or "Solicitor" to be confined to those whose names are actually upon the Roll. Persons in Solicitors' offices should distinguish whether "Solicitor's Managing, Articled, Writing, or General Clerk."

Members of the MEDICAL PROFESSION to state the University , College, or Hall, of which they are Graduates, Fellows or Licentiates - also whether they practice as Physician, Surgeon, or General Practitioner, or are "not practising."

PROFESSORS, TEACHERS, PUBLIC WRITERS, Authors, and Scientific men - to state the particular branch of Science or Literature which they teach or pursue; Artists, the art which they cultivate. Graduates should enter their degrees in this column.

PERSONS ENGAGED IN COMMERCE,  as Merchants, Brokers, Agents, Clerks, Commercial Travellers, to state the particular kind of business in which they are engaged, or the staple in which they deal.

The term FARMER is to be applied only to the occupier of land, who is to be returned - "Farmer of [317] acres employing {12} labourers;" the number of acres, and of in and out-door labourers, on March 31st, being in all cases inserted. Sons or daughters employed at home or on the farm, may be returned --- "Farmers' Son," "Farmer's Daughter."

In TRADES the Master is to be distinguished from the Journeyman and Apprentice, thus --- "(Carpenter -- Master employing {6} men);" inserting always the number of persons of the trade in his employment on March 31st.

In the case of WORKERS IN MINES OR MANUFACTURES, and generally in the constructive ARTS the particular branch of work. and the material, are always to be distinctly expressed if they are not implied in the names, as in Coal Miner, Brass-founder, Wool-carder, Silk-throwster. Where the trade is much sub-divided, both trade and branch are to be returned this --- "Watchmaker --- Finisher," "Printer --- Compositor,"

A person following more than one distinct trade may insert his occupation in the order of their importance.

MESSENGERS, PORTERS, LABOURERS and SERVANTS, to be described according to the place and nature of their employment.

Persons following no Profession, Trade or calling and holding no public office, but deriving the incomes chiefly from land, houses, mines, or other real property, from dividends, interest or money annuities, &c. may designate themselves "Landed Proprietor," "Proprietor of Iron Mines," "Proprietor of Houses," "Fund-holder," "Annuitant," &c., as the case may be. Persons of advanced age who have retired from business to be entered thus --- "Retired Silk Merchant," "Retired Watchmaker," &c.

ALMSPEOPLE, and persons in the receipt of parish relief should, after being described as such, have their previous occupations inserted.

WOMEN AND CHILDREN. --- The titles, occupations of ladies who are householders to be entered according to the above Instructions. The occupations of women who are regularly employed from home, or at home, in any but domestic duties to be distinctly recorded. So also of children and young persons. Against the names of children above five years of age, if daily attending school or receiving regular tuition under a master or governess at home, write "Scholar," and in the last case add "at home."


LIST of the MEMBERS of this FAMILY, of VISITORS, and of SERVANTS, who SLEPT or ABODE in this House on the NIGHT of SUNDAY, MARCH 30th



No Person absent on the Night of March 30th to be entered.

Write after the Name of the Head of the Family, the Names of his Wife, Children, and others of the same Surname; then Visitors, Servants, &c.

RELATION to Head of Family

State whether Wife, Son, Daughter or other Relative, Visitor or Servant


Write "Married", "Widower," "Widow," or "Unmarried," against the Names of all Persons except Young Children


Write "M" against Males and "F" against Females

AGE [Last Birthday]

For Infants under One Year, state the Age in Months, writing "Under 1 Month," "1 Month," "2 Months," &c.


(Before filling in this Column, you are requested to read the Instructions on the other side.)


Opposite the Names of those born in England write the County, and Town or Parish.

If born in Scotland, Ireland, the British Colonies, the East Indies, or in Foreign Parts, state the Country: in the last case, if a British Subject, add, "British Subject."

If Deaf-and-Dumb or Blind

Write "Deaf-and-Dumb," or "Blind," opposite the Name of the Person.

(Brian Comley 2 Nov 2002)