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Help and advice for Wales - Genealogy Help Pages - Not everyone knows this .... (6)

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Wales - Genealogy Help Pages - Not everyone knows this .... (6)

Cardiganshire
County and parishes

Back to Not everyone knows this ....(1)

Ceredigion generally

Corn Riots in Wales, 1793-1801    see Glamorgan

CGN Mariners on Cardiff 1871 census

Tivyside ploughing match in 1906

Aber-porth

Aberystwyth

Brongwyn

Cardigan

Cellan

Dihewyd

Gwnnws

Lampeter

Llanbadarn fawr

Llanddewi Aber-Arth

Llanddewibrefi

Llandyfriog

Llandysul

Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn

Llanfihangel Genau'r-Glyn

Llangwyryfon

Llanilar

Llanllwchaearn

Llannarth

Llanrhystud

Llanwenog

Lledrod

Nantcwnlle/Llangeitho

Tregaron

Troed-yr-Aur

Ysbyty Ystwyth

 

 

 

Nantcwnlle/Llangeitho

For more online information about the parish of Nantcwnlle  see Genuki and Llangeitho see Genuki


Daniel Rowland [1713-1790]

Daniel Rowland was born in Nantcwnlle parish, the son of the Rector of that parish and of Llangeitho. He is believed to have been educated at Hereford Grammar School. He was ordained in 1735 and had the curacies of Llangeitho and Nantcwnlle where his brother was now rector. Later he held curacies at Ystrad Ffin and Llanddewibrefi.

Daniel Rowland was deeply influenced by two men in particular, Phylip Pugh of Llwynpiod , a Nonconformist minister , and Gruffydd Jones of Llanddowror. Rowland's sermons had tremendous power, people were terrified out of their careless way of living. He did moderate his style to great effect, but his preaching out of his parish and in unconsecrated places was strongly disapproved of by the Church establishment  and Rowland remained a curate all his life, first under his brother and then his own son.

He met up with Hywel Harris in 1737 and the two decided to join forces and broaden their sphere of activity, becoming the main leaders of the Methodist Revival in its early years. Rowland became in charge of the "Societies" in Carmarthenshire and part of Cardiganshire with Williams Pantycelyn to assist him. Rowland was made Vice-Moderator of the Association in 1743 under Whitefield and subsequently Chairman.

During the unfortunate rift in Welsh Methodism Rowland tried to fill Harris's place as leader of the movement but lacked the latter's gift for organising. Excluded from the Established Church because of his enthusiasm , he built a chapel near his old Church and carried on his work there until his death in 1790. A statue has been erected in his memory in the cemetery of the New Church, Llangeitho, where he was buried.

Llangeitho became a sort of Mecca for the whole of Wales on Communion Sunday which shows what tremendous influence Daniel Rowland  had exercised through his preaching.   

Based on Famous Welshmen Welsh Dept of Board of Education, 1944. Gareth Hicks  2 May 2000 D/G]                                                                                                                                                                                 

Tregaron

For more online information about the parish of Tregaron   see Genuki


Henry Richard [1812-1888]

Born in Tregaron, the son of the Rev Ebeneser Richard. He was educated at Llangeitho and at the Highbury Independent College  in London.  He was minister at Marlborough Congregational Church, London from 1835 to 1850 and for the rest of his life was prominent in his activities as "Apostle of Peace" and "Member for Wales". There is a monument to him at Tregaron.

He was appointed secretary of the Peace Society in 1848 an exciting year in the history of Europe. He took a prominent part in the Peace Conferences  which were held in Brussels, Paris, Frankfort and other places in 1848-50. He was a close friend of Cobden and Bright and it was he who edited the Peace Society's magazine, Herald of Peace.

Neither did he lose interest in Welsh matters, he protested against the Blue Books in 1847 and in his letters to the English press [ which were published in 1866 under the title "Letters on.....the condition of Wales"] he had been the means of interpreting Welsh life to the English people. He was elected Member of Parliament for Merthyr Tydfil in 1868 and remained  so until his death. His main interests were the Land Question, Religion and the State, Education and Peace. He protested to Parliament against the oppression of Cardiganshire landowners who evicted their tenants from their farms because of their political and religious beliefs. He is remembered today as the "Apostle of Peace" but also as one of represented to Parliament the new spirit which arose in Wales towards the middle of the C19.

Based on Famous Welshmen Welsh Dept of Board of Education, 1944. Gareth Hicks  16.6.2000 D/G]                                                                                                                                                                                   


Justices of the peace and Vestry accounts

The examination of parish accounts was another duty undertaken by justices of the peace.

A  report of the inspection of vestry acounts in Tregaron in 1816 mentions  'Evan Jones overseer of the poor for the

several Townships Argod and Ystrad, Croes Berwin and Blaen Caron........by one Maurice Evans Clerk to one of his

Majesty's Justices of the peace for the county of Cardigan ...."

[MS Tregaron Vestry Minutes 3 June 1816]

[Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968 .Gareth ]


Medical relief for  paupers

In rural districts the medical man was generally paid by the case , an example from the Tregaron vestry minutes;

"........the overseer should go to Mr David Rowlands Surgeon and to have his terms or to what sums he will require for using his means to cure Wm Roberts."

[MS Tregaron Vestry Minutes 13 Sept 1833]

And sometimes the doctor's salary depended on whether he was successful in curing the patient, as in this example ;

"....to give the sum of three Guineas to Mr Jones , Doctor for the Curing of Mary Davies pauper, if the sd Mr Jones will Cure the sd Mary Davies for so much Money, if not, there will be nothing due to him."

[MS Tregaron Vestry Minutes 7 June 1791]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth  Hicks 1 Aug 2000 D] 

Lledrod

For more online information about the parish of Lledrod see Genuki


Evan Evans

Evan Evans was the foremost Welsh classical scholar of the C18, he was brought up  in Lledrod and educated locally progressing to Oxford University. He took Holy Orders but remained a curate all his life mainly because of his intense interest in early Welsh poetry, a pastime frowned upon by the Anglican Church in Wales. He was among the first to draw attention to the richness of this early poetry, he was also a poet himself and was known as Iean Brydydd Hir [ Ieuan the Long Poet].

[Based on "A Helping Hand "by W J Jones 1996. Gareth Hicks]                                                                                                                                                                                        

Llandyfriog

For more online information about the parish of Llandyfriog see Genuki


First printing press

The first lawful printing press in Wales was set up in Atpar in CGN, near Newcastle Emlyn in 1718 by Isaac Carter. His first publication was a pamphlet on the evils of tobacco. Its message fell on deaf ears and many people thought that inhaling tobacco fumes was an excellent cure for chest complaints like bronchitis. Tobacco was also smoked in clay pipes during the C19 cholera  epidemic in the belief that it offered protection against the disease.

[ Based on "A Helping Hand "by W J Jones 1996. Gareth Hicks 3 May 2000 D]     

                                                         

Ceredigion generally

For more online information about the county of Ceredigion [Cardiganshire] see Genuki


Barker, a craftsman

Many years ago the barker was an important craftsman in Wales with about 2 dozen working in Ceredigion alone c 1890. The barker maintained a close contact with the tanneries of which there were nine in the county at this time.  The barkers stripped the oaks of their bark so that they could obtain the tannin [or barking fluid] from them, a long complicated process. Animal hide would be soaked in tannin for up to 3 years and passers-by would be very aware of this process as they could smell a tannery from a distance. Because of this tanneries were not popular too near to villages.

[Based on "A Helping Hand "by W J Jones 1996. Gareth Hicks  15.5.2000 D] 


Absentee landlords

The traveller, B H Malkin, was as much impressed by the number of country mansions he saw in north Cardiganshire as he was by those in the Llandeilo area. But with this difference, that many who owned the former did not live in them. He added that there were landlords in the districts referred to who, between them received £25,000 every year from rentals " without ever seeing the spot from whence they derived their wealth". This, he maintained, drained the resources of the countryside and thus impoverished the community.

[Based on the Story of Carmarthenshire by A.G Pryse Jones 1972. Gareth Hicks 25.5.2000 D] 


Seasonal movement  from Cardiganshire to Glamorgan

A large number of  seasonal and 'casual workers' worked along side skilled miners and ironworkers in Glamorgan.

One example ;

"There are many" said a south Wales ironmaster in 1837, " who come from Cardiganshire to the ironworks for five or seven months in the winter season, live economically here and take home £15 or £20 to their families which pays the rent of their farm, and purchases for them clothing and a few luxuries. "

[Quoted from an article by G S Kenrick cited by A H John in The Industrial Development of South Wales, 1750-1850.UWP, 1950 Gareth 4 Feb 2001 G/D]       


Black beasts of banking

Apart from the Black Ox Bank in Carmarthenshire there was also a Black Sheep  Bank in Cardiganshire. It's official name was the Aberystwyth and Tregaron Bank. Established in 1810 by John Evans of Llanbadarn Fawr it collapsed in  1814. It was known as the Black Sheep Bank because its £1 note had one black sheep on it, its £2 note two black sheep and its 10 shillings note a black Iamb.

If you go to this URL   http://www.bangor.ac.uk/~afs047/tirwe/hanes/porpapur.htm  You can see a picture of one of its notes which is preserved in the archives  of Bangor University.

[Alwyn 10 Sept 2001 G]

Responding to a reply dated 10/09/2001 that Gareth mistakenly wrote:

<But perhaps you mean the Black Ox Bank of Llandovery ? [Or Banc yr Eidon Du ]. It was set up in the King's Head, Llandovery in 1799 by one David Jones. His idea was to avoid the risky carrying of gold by Welsh drovers to and fro to London by using his notes instead. The Black Ox featured on its bank notes and was considered to be a symbol of wealth and prosperity by Cardigan and Carmarthenshire farmers in the C17 & C18. In the banking crisis of 1825 its notes were preferred locally over those of the Bank of England.                                                                                                   

Llangwyryfon

For more online information about Llangwyryfon   parish see Genuki


Drovers

As the demand for "long distance" drovers began to decrease, they were often required to assist with moving livestock from farms and collecting centres to local fairs and markets, but sometimes to and from places  many miles from their home parishes.

In the early C20, one such was Dafydd Isaac of Trefenter [ Llangwyryfon ] in Cardiganshire who often did the 90 mile journey from Machynlleth to Brecon fair with 300-400 sheep. As a youth he had been employed as a farm servant to supplement the income from his parents' small farm and was eventually , through his droving, able to become the successful occupier of a lowland farm.

 [Based on The Welsh Cattle Drovers by Richard Colyer . Gareth Hicks]   

Gwnnws

For more online information about Gwnnws  parish see Genuki


Esgair Mwyn lead mine 

An " Estemat for smelten of Lead Haer in angelise"  c 1770 [written in a scrawled hand and endorsed "found" by the archivist] contains an "account" relating to ore from the Esgir Mwyn mine in Cardiganshire[which is in Gwnnws parish].[Plasnewydd MSS]. Transcribing the document had its difficulties !

Whilst the spelling of place names  is  quite confusing it is clear that a comparison of costs is being made between sending lead ore from Esgair Mwyn , via Aberystwyth to Bagillt on the Dee Estuary and smelting at Gadlys ; and sending ore for smelting at Moel-y-don on the Menai Strait. There is also mention of "freight to Dowpool "which was probably a creek on the river Dee near Chester.

The calculation favoured the Moel-y-don option as the cost of transportation was lower.Why the this was being evaluated is not known for certainty but it is of interest [ and not unconnected with the North Wales places mentioned] that concern was being expressed about the viability and cost of shipping in the estuary of the river Dee near the Bagillt and Gadlys sites [ protests had been registered by the London Lead Co since 1734], and perhaps an alternative site for smelting was being considered.

The mines of Esgair Mwyn belonged to Lord Powys and were discovered in 1751. Esgair Mwyn itself was a rich mine , the ore commanding a price as high as £12 a ton. In the early days of its existence the ores were taken to Aberystwyth for smelting. It seems to have seen its best days by the year 1815.

[Based on  "Accounting, Costing and Cost Estimation[Welsh Industry 1700-1830]" by Haydn Jones 1985, Gareth Hicks 13 July 2000 D ] 


Woollen/textile industry

Textile factories were established in north Cardiganshire to meet the needs of the lead miners, there was one such factory at Pontrhydfendigaid [ enumerated 1875,1895]

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth Hicks 31 July 2000 D]                                                                                                                                                             

Brongwyn

For more online information about Brongwyn parish see Genuki


Vestry meetings 1750-1834

"the Princypal inhabitants....in a vestry" and " the  Inhabitants of the Parish...........occupiers of land............" constituted two vestries in the parish of Brongwyn in 1811 and 1828 respectively.

[NLW MS. Brongwyn Vestry Minutes, 20 March 1811 and 29 October 1828]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]

Llannarth

For more online information about Llannarth parish see Genuki 


Vestry meetings 1750-1834

Towards the end of the C18 some parish vestries would try to limit the number of persons attending each meeting.

At Llannarth in 1791 it was decided by the inhabitants present at the meeting " that all concerns and Matter belonging the Parish of Llannarth " were " to be managed and governed entirely by five Substantial persons herein named...". About 3 months later the order was reversed and it was decided that the affairs of the Parish were " to be managed by the whole Body of the Parishioners assembled at vestries regularly called according to ancient custom."

[NLW MS.Llannarth Vestry Minutes 20 Jan 1791 and 12 April 1791]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Poorhouses

These poorhouses were not workhouses as such, although there is some evidence to suggest that vestries expected work from the occupiers. Llannarth vestry in 1790 agreed to build a poorhouse for the parish near Mydroilyn, where the poor were to be 'admitted and maintained, and properly employed.'

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Medical relief for paupers

Sometimes the doctor's salary depended on whether he was successful in curing the patient, as in this example ;

"....agreed upon by the Inhabitants then present to pay a sum not exceeding four Guineas to John Griffith Dr, for the cure of Elinor Thomas, and if she will not be cured he is not to be paid excepting two Guineas for his trouble"

[NLW, MS, Llanarth Vestry Minutes, Sept 1790]

Parish vestries were often enlightened in their attitude towards the sick and would often provide money for recuperation purposes;

"......to Daniel Williams to assist him to take his wife to the Wells in hope tp recover her health the sum of £1-1s.

[NLW, MS, Llanarth Vestry Minutes, 5 July 1779]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Pauper apprentices

Older children were placed with farmers , tradesmen, craftsmen, or artisans as apprentices, for example;

"....agreed upon by and between the Inhabitants of Llanarth, and William David Shoemaker now living at Nantygollen in this Parish That the Parishioners do hereby settle David Thomas as an Apprentice to the sd William David to be instructed in the art and mystery of making and mending Shoes and wooden shoes for the space of two years beginning at or upon the 24th of June 1768. The Parishioners are to pay the Sum of Two Pounds and Six Shillings to the sd William David to be paid Quarterly the first of year. The sd William David to give and allow the sd David Thomas proper and sufficient meat, Drink, and washing during the sd Term."

[NLW, MS, Llanarth Vestry Minutes, 24 June 1768]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]

Cardigan

For more online information about Cardigan parish see Genuki


Cardigan tradesmen c 1830

An indication of the importance of industry in Cardiganshire life can be gained from a reading of Trade Directories e.g Pigot's Directory. The 1830 edition notes the existence of the following craftsmen in Cardigan itself;

3 Bakers ; 13 Boot Makers ; 2 Coopers ; 2 Hat makers ; 3 Rope makers ; 5 Dressmakers and Milliners ; 2 Straw Hat Makers ; 1 Anchor Smith ; 2 Weavers ; 4 Blacksmiths ; 2 Cabinet Makers ; 3 Curriers ; 3 Lime Burners ; 3 Saddlers ; 2 Shipbuilders ; 6 Tailors ; 1 Whitesmith ; 1 Corn Miller ; 2 Black Makers ; 7 Carpenters ; 4 Glaziers ; 5 Maltsters ; 2 Printers ; 3 Sail Makers ; 2 Tanners ; 1 Tin Smith ; 1 Stone Mason.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth]


A national newspaper arrives in Cardigan

In June 1883, the great London newspaper called "Daily Chronicle" [64 columns for one penny] made its first appearance in the town. It was considered a wonderful penny-worth.

[From 'A History of Cardigan , the Locality and its People '[Those were the Days]. Edited and published by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies. Vol 1, Ist edition 1991.Gareth 12 Nov 2000]


Population of Cardigan town

The population of the town in 1861 was 2706 inhabitants and by the turn of the century had exceeded the 3000 mark.

The influx came from the surrounding countryside- mainly apprentices coming into Cardigan to learn a trade and many of them settling down in the borough afterwards.

[From 'A History of Cardigan , the Locality and its People '[Those were the Days]. Edited and published by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies. Vol 1, Ist edition 1991.Gareth ]


Pigs and dairy  exports

According to Slater's Directory of 1852, William Thomas, the Carrier, left the Kings arms in High Street every Saturday, fully loaded with pigs and dairy produce for Merthyr Tydfil, to help feed the great iron town.

There were also pig sales at Nant-y-moch weekly, and the animals were shipped to industrial ports such as Swansea, Cardiff, Newport and Llanelli.All the best dairy produce was mostly exported by dealers, to markets where they obtained good prices for the commodities.

The butter and cheese purchased by the locals was of a very poor standard..............this cheese was named by the locals as 'Caws India Rubber' [India Rubber Cheese].

[From 'A History of Cardigan , the Locality and its People '[Those were the Days]. Edited and published by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies. Vol 1, Ist edition 1991.Gareth ]


Culm

A tremendous amount of culm was produced in Cardigan from the middle of the C18 until the middle part of the C20.

Culm, or cwlwm as it is known locally, is hardly ever heard of today, but in that period its was the main fuel of 90% of the properties of the town.

What is culm ? you may ask ! Culm is coal dust [ preferably anthracite dust] mixed with clay and water. The result was a black sticky fuel which burnt with a blue flame and generated considerable heat.

For years sailing ships from Cardigan, Aberporth, St Dogmaels and Llangrannog sailed regularly to Hook, Saundersfoot, Nolton Llanelli and Swansea to collect the anthracite dust. The customers could either buy the dust from the coal and culm merchants, and make their own culm, or purchase it ready mixed from the merchant. The trade was so good that Cardigan alone could boast 28 Coal and Culm merchants, who lived in the Quay St area of the town.

These culm mixers were known in Cardigan by using their christian names and adding the word "cwlwm" [culm] after it, e.g Wil Cwlwm, Marged Ann Cwlwm, Elen Cwlwm etc.

Swansea culm was regarded as the best , and it was also the dearest to purchase. The cheapest was Hook culm, which had a tendency to burn more quickly.

For a description of how the culm was actually made, see the book.

[From 'A History of Cardigan , the Locality and its People '[Those were the Days]. Edited and published by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies. Vol 1, Ist edition 1991.Gareth 12 Nov D/G]


Emigration-- a brief summary of the West Wales background reasons 

The late C18 and early C19 saw an exodus of Welsh landworkers to the Americas.

What drove these settlers to leave their homeland?

The two main reasons were persecution and poverty. Persecution for religious beliefs or by tyrannical landlords. Poverty was to a degree always with them as harvests were unpredictable and prices unstable.

By 1815 trouble had arisen in the farming communities of West Wales as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, inflation was rife and farmers who had borrowed were in dire straits.Added to this misery,  the land was overfarmed and the soil exhausted by poor crop management. Many tenant farmers were forced to quit their holdings, it was said that in 1816 there were 60 farms unoccupied in the parish of St Mary's, Cardigan. Added to poor harvests there was  unemployment caused by returning soldiers and laid off farm workers.

The poor were surviving on barley meal and water, and nettles, and begging was rampant.The County Gaol at Cardigan was full of debtors, the magistrates were expecting trouble. There was sporadic rioting when the militia was called , and the local gentry feared revolution was in the air.

The population of the country had increased dramatically between 1800 and 1821 and at the same time more land had been enclosed. In Cardiganshire alone 10,000 acres of common land was taken and it caused great bitterness as well as hardship as many lost traditional grazing rights.

That then was the picture in West Wales in the early part of the C19.

[Based on 'A History of Cardigan , the Locality and its People '[Those were the Days]. Edited and published by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies. Vol 1, Ist edition 1991.Gareth 14 Nov 2000 D]

Aberystwyth

For more online information about Aberystwyth see Genuki


House of correction.

About the middle of the C18 there was an attempt to establish a house of correction at Aberystwyth in order to serve the upper part of the county. ' Lord Viscount Lisburne, Thomas Powell, Richard Lloyds, Thomas Lloyd and Erasmus Saunders Esquires or any Two of them' were ordered by the Quarter Sessions in 1751 ' to Look out for a Convenient Place near the Town of Aberystwyth'.

In 1759, two justices, the Reverend Mr Powell and Thomas Lloyd were set the task of finding a suitable house inside the town. A temporary building situated in Darkgate Street was obtained and Richard Morgan John was appointed Master at a salary of 30s. a year.

In 1784 the 'Keeper of the Shire Goal at the Town of Aberystwyth' was a woman, but she was soon replaced by Edward Nightingale, 'yeoman ' of Aberystwyth. The justices in Quarter Session were not satisfied with the existing house and they constantly urged the Town Court Leet to find a more suitable site. In 1789 a piece of ground on the common ' extending in breadth from south to west along part of the Town wall, 51 yards and from thence, extending in length to the north east 60 yards...was appropriated.' The objects of the new house were clearly defined by the justices in Quarter Sessions the following year;

"Whereas it is represented to this Court That it is highly necessary to build a House of Correction in the Town of Aberystwyth in this County for the purpose of punishing keeping, Correcting , and setting to work, Rogues, Vagabonds, or stirdy beggars, and other Idle and disorderly persons travelling along, residing in, or resorting to this County..."

But by the year 1824, the justices expressed the opinion that there would be no further use for the house in the town owing to the proposed extension of the county gaol and house of correction at Cardigan. They suggested the house at Aberystwyth should be converted into a 'lock-up house only'.

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  . Gareth ]


Treatment of inmates/prisoners

Little evidence survives to indicate how poor prisoners were treated in these houses of correction. That they were forced to work is evident from the following extract;

".....the Treasurer of this County pay..........unto Pierce Evans Esquire one of His Majesty's Justices of the peace...the sum of five pounds to buy hemp to be manufactured by the prisoners confined in the House of Correction at Aberystwith ....and that the same be returned by the Keeper of the said House of Correction in a Manufactured State to be disposed of for the benefit and in aid of the fund for the Support and Maintenance of the Prisoners Confined in the said House of Correction."

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ] 


Medical relief for paupers

The sick paupers of Aberystwyth and neighbourhood were slightly more fortunate for they had the benefit  of the services provided by a local dispensary . It was founded in 1821 by rich benefactors including Dame Winifred Bonsall. Subscriptions were sought from local gentry and Colonel Powell MP of Nanteos, and Pryse Pryse Esquire MP., of Gogerddan  were prominent subscribers. Overseers of the poor of Aberystwyth and neighbouring parishes were invited to become subscribers on payment of two guineas.

The aim of the Institution was to relieve the sick poor. In 1838 it became the Aberystwyth Infirmary and Cardiganshire General Hospital.

[George Eyre Evans "Aberystwyth and its Court Leet" 1902, and D I Evans "Hospital Services in Aberystwyth before 1948"

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ] 


Aberystwyth Workhouse c 1884

Also see the suberb Llangynfelyn site for details under the following headings relating to the Aberystwyth Workhouse in 1884 ;

  • Dietary allowance, Aberystwyth Workhouse, 1884
  • Recipes, Aberystwyth Workhouse, 1884

Apprenticeship

The book contains a copy of an Apprenticeship Indenture dated 30 Sept 1793 and parts of this are shown below ;

 " An Indenture Apprenticing Richard Rees, A Poor Boy Chargeable To The Town Of Aberystwyth, To John Roberts Of Clarach."

"This Indenture made  the Thirtieth Day of  September the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety three Between Pierce Evans Gentleman, John Edward Jones Gentleman, Chapel Wardens ; and Thomas Collins and John Watkins Overseers of the Poor of the Town and Libertiy of Aberystwith on the one part : and John Robert of the Township of Clarach in the Parish of Llanbadarnfawr ...for the other part .......................................................witnesseth that..................Do put place and Bind Richard Rees a poor Boy chargeable to the said Town and Liberties of Aberystwith to be an Apprentice with him the said John Robert for the space of seven  years .................By and during all which Time and Term he the said Richard Rees .....shall his said master well and faithfully serve in all such lawful business.........according to his power wit and ability and Honestly and obediently in all things behave himself toward his Master........and....  towards the rest of the Family of ...John Roberts.

............that  the said John Roberts shall the said Richard Rees teach and instruct in the best manner he can or may teach instruct and inform or Cause to be instructed or informed in the occupation of a Farmer.

........and that the said John Roberts shall Also allow and find unto the said Apprentice sufficient meet and Drink apparel washing and Lodging and all other things needfull  or meet for an Apprentice during the Term aforesaid.

The said Chapel Wardens and Overseers of the Poor paying the said John Robert the sum of One pound and Ten shillings  for and towards the first years Cloathing ..........................."

[The Indenture is signed and witnessed by and for the parties mentioned apart from Richard Rees. And two Justices of the Peace "assent to the Binding of the above namd Richard Rees to the above mentioned John Roberts".]

[NLW MS Manuscripts and Documents relating to the Parish Church of St Michael and All Angels, Aberystwyth.]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ] 


Aberystwyth tradesmen c 1830

An indication of the importance of industry in Cardiganshire life can be gained from a reading of Trade Directories e.g Pigot's Directory. The 1830 edition notes the existence of the following craftsmen in Aberystwyth itself;

8 Bakers ; 2 Tin Smiths ; 11 Carpenters and Joiners ; 2 Hat Makers ; 4 Lime Burners ; 8 Dress Makers and Milliners ; 1 Rope Maker ; 3 Shipwrights ; 4 Tanners ; 7 Tailors ; 1 Sail Maker ; 1 Cooper ; 20 Boot makers ; 5 Cabinet Makers ; 3 Curriers ; 8 Stone Masons ; 6 Maltsters ; 2 Corn Millers ; 4 Saddlers ; 2 Skinners ; 2 Straw Hat Makers ; 3 Wheelwrights ; 1 Brewer ; 1 Nail Maker.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth]


Fishing industry

Salted herrings were an important item of  export in the Middle Ages and Aberystwyth in particular was an important fishing port. In 1206 it was said in Brut y Tywysogion that there were great quantities of fish at Aberystwyth ; " y roddes Duw amylder o bryscawt yn Aber Ystwyth yn gymeint ac nabu y Kyfryw Kynno hynny."  

The fishermen of Aberystwyth were expected to hand over a proportion of their catch of herrings to the lord of the manor and ' an extant Court Roll of the Borough of Aberystwyth in 1302 gives an interesting glimpse of local fishery conditions." It seems that in that year ' there were between twenty and thirty cases connected with the fishery. Some of the delinquents persisted in selling their herring on the sands below high water mark in order to escape paying market tolls; others would seem to have taken part in the herring industry without obtaining properly accredited licences for their fishing boats. Heavy fines were sometimes imposed, and led to heated altercations between the mayor and the fishermen.' [C Matheson, "Wales and the Sea Fisheries", 1929].

Until the end of the C18 Aberystwyth reigned supreme as a centre of the fishing industry.  

" What it is chiefly resorted for, and contributes to its Wealth " said one C18 writer, " is its Fishing Trade for Cod, Whitings, but principally Herrings....The Herring Fishery here is in most so exceedingly abundant that a thousand barrels have been taken in one night.....In addition to herrings, they have such an abundance of Cod, Pollack Whiting, Common Whiting, Ray and other fish that they set but little value upon them.  Bottlenoses and porpoises sometimes run on shore in shoals and blue sharks are frequently caught upon the coast, from all which they make considerable quantities of Oil." [Herman Moll, "A New Description of England and Wales", 1724].

The Aberystwyth herring industry declined in the late C18 , "for the herring industry flourished here about thirty years since", said Wyndham,"but that fish is now a stranger to the coast ". [H P Wyndham " Tour through Monmouthshire and Wales in 1774 and 1777", 1781].

In 1884, a contemporary writer gives some detail of the fishing industry in Cardiganshire.[D C Davies, "The Fisheries of Wales" , Liverpool National Eisteddfod Transactions, 1884] ;
The Aberystwyth Fishery too had revived in the mid C19, and the town was "the most considerable fishing station in Cardigan Bay. Many trawlers came here from a distance, chiefly from Fleetwood, Liverpool and Hoylake; and from fifteen to twenty of their boats may often be seen at one time anchored opposite the Marine Terrace."
The boats were from 30 to 40 tons each, with " the beams of the tracks from 25 feet to 45 feet long, and the usual mesh from 2 to 3 1/2 inches." In 1884 about 300 persons were engaged in fishing in Aberystwyth. They were mainly concerned with catching turbot, brill, mackerel, soles, herring, cod, ray, mullet, with salmon off the mouths of the rivers.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth]


Aberystwyth Military

Someone  asked for information and guidance on tracing the history of Army Regiments based in Aberystwyth from 1890 to 1900. He was interested in confirming that the Royal Artillery were stationed in Aberystwyth in this period, where would they have been barracked and whether this still exists today.

I note from W J Lewis, 'Born on a Perilous Rock: Aberystwyth Past and Present', Cambrian News (Aberystwyth) Ltd, third edition, 1980, p. 213-7, that there were two military bodies in Aberystwyth history.

First, the Cardiganshire Militia (which seems to go back to the Middle Ages) and second, the Volunteers. The latter were first formed in 1860 as 'Cardiganshire Volunteer Rifle Corps'. In 1901 they were reformed as the Cardiganshire Artillery Volunteers and redesignated the Cardiganshire Royal Garrison Artillery Volunteers the following year. In 1908 they were transferred into the new Territorial Force and known as the Cardiganshire Battery, 2nd Welsh Brigade, Royal Field Artillery.

As the Volunteers there were two companies, one in Tal-y-bont and the other in Aberystwyth. The Aberystwyth company drilled on the Sand Marsh and moved north as that was built over. The Town Hall served as their armoury. Their shooting range was at Craiglais (bottom of Constitution Hill) and maneouvres were held on the beach.

In 1904 the new Drill Hall in Glyndwr Road, off Park Avenue was opened. That remained their HQ at the outbreak of the Great War.

Some possibly relevant photos?

There is a photo in Aberystwyth and North Ceredigion in Old Photographs' (Dyfed Cultural Services Dept. 1992, p. 119) of Bow Street Camp, 1910, and the caption notes that hundreds of soldiers from Cheshire and Yorkshire came to the area in 1910-13 for training purposes. There is a similar photo on page 8 of '251 Views of Aberystwyth', (Jenkins of 23 Great Darkgate Street, circa 1912) simply captioned 'Territorial Camp, Bow Street, near Aberystwyth'. One presumes that the Volunteers may or may not have been part of the camp! The only other possibly relevant photo of the Territorials I know of is in Hefin Llwyd's 'Un Ennyd Fer: Bywyd a Gwaith E O Jones 1873-1915, ffotograffydd cynnar' (Cymdeithas Papur Pawb, Tal-y-Bont, 1980). Jones, an early photographer, took a nice photo with many soldiers in sufficient proximity to be recognisable, which is on page 40 of that volume, captioned 'Y Fyddin Diriogaethol yng Nghae'r ddol, Tre'r ddol yn Awst 1910.' No names provided. The shot appears to be just north of the village.

[David Rowlands 2 Jan 2002 CGN]

Dihewyd

For more online information about Dihewyd see Genuki


Poorhouses

Relief by means of the poorhouse was practiced in several Cardiganshire parishes.

Dihewyd vestry in 1784 decided ' to build a house in the church yard wall, for the poor; of 8 yds in length, and twelve feet wide' with the proviso that 'whoseoever that will not carry stones  must, in lieu of it, pay 8d each.'

Presumably the same house was later to be lengthened..........'same should be contracted by John Evans of Bruinbach'.

[Quoted by George Eyre Evans in Cardiganshire;Aberystwyth, 1903]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]    

Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn

For more online information about Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn see Genuki


Unemployed paupers "on the parish"

Paupers were often sent round the parish to work for their board and lodging in return for clothing provided by the vestry, but they did not earn money. These two examples from the Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn vestry minutes are quoted by George Eyre Evans in Cardiganshire,1903.

".. Ann Clayton is bound to go from house to house , according to their regular rent rolls, first she is bound to begin with Edwd. Evans , at Gollnewydd, and the Parish and Overseer is to find her now, one pair of wooden shoes, and 2 flanen shirts for her now at her beginnings for the future, and she is bound make the shirts  for herself without costs."

"Agreed on behalf of John and Thomas Gwilym, paupers : in the first place the Overseer of the poor is to provide them with a new flannen shirt apiece. Also it was settled that every inhabitant assessed from two to three pounds is to keep and maintain John or Thomas Gwilym separately in meat, drink and lodging for the space of one whole day and night; and that all assessed six pounds are to maintain one of them two days and two nights; such as are assessed nine pounds, three days and three nights,  and so on in proportion. Wherever the sd paupers happen to be on Tuesday in any week , they are to have their shirts washed, Heads Combed, etc."

[Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn Vestry Minutes]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Woollen/textile industry

Textile factories were established in north Cardiganshire to meet the needs of the lead miners, there was one such factory at Devil's Bridge [ c 1840-1934].

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth] 

Llanwenog

For more online information about Llanwenog  see Genuki


Pauper apprentices

While the master received a premium at regular intervals and gave the apprentice sufficient meat, drink and washing, the parish normally provided money for clothing. In the book is an extract from the Llanwenog Vestry and Overseers Accounts which relates to an apprentice called David Thomas Edward . Apart from regular cash payments to him of amounts such as 1s.6d to 3s.0d there are entries which relate to items such as ;

'warden's journey to Llandyssyl to enquire the Taylor for to take the apprentice of the Parish; and , Warden's journey to Tygwyn in Llanllwni Parish seeking for Taylor to make Cloathes for the Parish apprentice ; and, also Journey for warden to send the said apprentice down to Llandyssyl to his present master to Teach the Trade.'

[NLW. MS. Llanwenog Vestry Minutes and Overseers accounts 1807-1808]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]    

Llanfihangel Genau'r-Glyn

For more online information about Llanfihangel Genau'r-Glyn  see Genuki


Local craftsmen

Every rural community had its compliment of craftsmen, Bow Street in 1851 for example had;

4 Tailors ; 1 Cord Winder ; 5 Blacksmiths ; 5 Masons ; 5 Shoemakers ; 2 Weavers ; 1 Cooper ; 2 Carpenters; and 1 Joiner. In addition there were 7 craft apprentices and 39 concerned with lead-mining. There were also 3 female dress-makers and one quilt maker

[G J Lewis " The Demographic Structure of a Welsh Rural Village"; Ceredigion V.]

Another example, among the members of the Ivorites Lodge of Castell Gwallter, Llanfihangel Genau'r Glyn, between 1841 and 1872 the following occupations were represented;

Boot Makers ; Lead Miners ; Weavers ; Saddlers ; Carpenters ; Masons ; Blacksmiths ; Sawyers ; Tanners ; Tailors ; Millers ; Quarrymen ; Coopers ; Hatters ; Curriers ; and Spinners .

[Owens,B G. " Gwir Iforiaid Castell Gwallter" . Ceredigion, III]

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth 23 Aug 2000 D]

Troed-yr-Aur

For more online information about Troed-yr-Aur  see Genuki


Local craftsmen

In the south of the county in 1890, the village of Rhydlewis had the following craftsmen;

9 Carpenters ; 1 Tanner ; 6 Boot Makers ; 1 Stone Mason ; 2 Millers ; 1 Blacksmith ; 1 Currier ; 3 Clog makers ; 8 Weavers ; 1 Baker ; 1 Basket Maker ; 2 Saddlers ; 5 Tailors ; 1 Pin Maker.

[Based on oral evidence]

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth]

Llanllwchaearn

For more online information about Llanllwchaearn see Genuki


Corn milling

Corn milling, concerned with processing grain for making bread etc. This was one of the most widespread of all the rural industries of Cardiganshire and a water driven mill was to be found on the banks of most streams.

Felin Bontbren on the banks of the River Soden in the parish of Llanllwchaearn is typical of the small corn mills that once dotted the Cardiganshire landscape. Like most other Cardiganshire mills, it is a stone built, hip-roofed building on three floors  with a lower building containing a kiln for corn drying attached. The all-iron over shot water wheel was made by S F Kelly of Cardigan. It has  now been moved and re-erected at the Museum of Welsh Life at St Fagans, Cardiff.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth 2 Aug 2000 D]

Cellan

For more online information about Cellan see Genuki


Blacksmiths

For as long as the horse remained the main motive power on farms and the equipment of the farmer remained simple the blacksmith was essential to every locality. Not only was he concerned with shoeing horses but he was also responsible for making and repairing a wide range of agricultural and domestic equipment.

For example the account book of John Williams, Cellan, between 1856 and 1869 has the following items;

  • 'Make a shoe--0s.8d.
  • Mend handle Byddegorddi--0s.3.d
  • Make new pitchfork--1s.4d
  • Dressing plough--4s.0d
  • Binding 4 wheels--4s.6d
  • Make new atchet--3s.6d

An indication of his working week may be obtained from the following extracts for a period in April/May 1883 from John Williams's day books [Museum of Welsh Life-accessions]. only a few of the costs have been included for illustration, the other entries do have them in the article;

  • David Davies, Blaencwm--making shaft irons and tailboard irons,  [ cost 3s.8d] , 5 1/2 of iron
  • William Davies, Llwyngwyn--4 new horse shoe, 8 of hog rings
  • David Davies--dressing whipple tree
  • David James--iron 2 shoe
  • John Evans, Glanbran--child 1 shoe and nails [ cost 2d]
  • David Davies, Pistillinon--binding wheelbarrow wheel and make 2 rods
  • W Davies, Ty'nycae--4 new horse shoes
  • David Morgan, Tymawr--Wife new shoes [cost 8d]
  • W Davies , Pontfaen--nailing 4 shoes
  • Mrs Davies, Beiliau--mend tea kettle hook [ cost 1s]
  • John Evans, Contractor--21 lb stapples at 2d per lb
  • Daniel Williams Mill--iron 2 shoes
  • Thomas Davies, Lodge--self and 2 children's shoes
  • David Davies, Rhiweisaf--self new shoes
  • John Davies, Llwynowen--1 pair horn shoes [cost 2s.3d]
  • Morgan Jones, Lanlas--nailing one shoe
  • William Davies, Llwyn Evan--nailing one shoe
  • Jacob Jones--self new shoes [ cost 1s.4d]
  • Mary Hughes, Glanteify--1 shoe and nails
  • Mrs Davies, Beiliau--shoe
  • Mary Jones, Pantypistyll--new grate fender [cost 1s.]
  • Evan Davies, Blaenwaun--2 new horse shoe and nailing
  • Mrs Jones Tanygroes--nailing 2 shoes
  • John Owen, Sychant--hind craddle chain
  • Thomas Jones, Llanfair Mill--3 gate hinges[ cost 1s.4d.]
  • John Davies, Penlan--mend pickas
  • Wm Davies, Llwyn Evan--mend horn back strap links[ cost 3d.]
  • Mrs Davies, Beiliau--mend share and coulter
  • Joseph Jones, Llwynfedw--making new slate hammer
  • Isaac Jones,Penllain--make new grindstone handle [cost 1d.]
  • David Davies, Penpompren--1 shoe
  • Mr Davies, Pistillinon--stalion nailing 2 shoe.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth Hicks 31 July 2000 D]

Llanddewi Aber-Arth

For more online information about Llanddewi Aber-Arth see Genuki


See also an index of personal and ships' names appearing in the the article; Aberaeron : The Community and Seafaring 1800-1900 By David Lewis Jones .Published in the Ceredigion, Journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society Vol VI/2 1969


Blacksmiths in Aberaeron

Blacksmiths like other craftsmen were concerned with supplying a distinctly local market and the tools and implements that they manufactured were well suited to the local needs of soil, vegetation, and topography.

The well known Aberaeron billhook was originally designed and manufactured at the Aberaeron forge. It was well suited to the heavy thorn growth of Cardiganshire hedges.Still being made in the Midlands edge tool manufacturer in the mid C20.

The Aberaeron shovel too, with its long, curved handle and triangular blade  was well suited to the needs of a hilly country. It is still made [ C20] in Cardiganshire at Cwrtnewydd.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth Hicks  5 August 2000 D]  


Fishing

The Aberystwyth herring industry declined in the late C18 but off-shore herring fishing flourished in the other coastal settlements of Cardiganshire throughout the C19.

Aberaeron, for example, had a " lucrative herring fishery in which about thirty boats, with seven men to each, are engaged."

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth Hicks ]


New church roof ?

The vestry book of Llanddewi Aberarth records that in 1776 the vestrymen imported 2000 slates through the port of Aberaeron.

[Based on Aberaeron : the Community and Seafaring, 1800-1900. By David Lewis Jones. Ceredigion, Journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society Vol VI/2 1969. Gareth]


Mariners born in Aberaeron

Mariners born in Aberayron and serving on the ship " Ulster" between July 1877 and September 1879.

  • WILLIAMS Evan Age 42, Mate
  • DAVIES David Age 21, 2nd Mate
  • JONES Daniel Age 40, Steward ( died at sea April 7th 1877 )
  • LEWIS Owen Age 19, A.B.
  • DAVIES Jenkin Age 19, A.B.
  • JONES John Age 19, A.B.
  • JONES Thomas Age 19, A.B.
  • RICHARDS David Age 23, A.B.
  • JONES John Peter Age 17, O.S.
  • WILLIAMS John Age 18, O.S.
  • EVANS William Age 38, Master ( Birthplace given as Aberayron/ Newquay )

[Brian Forder  CGN 22 Oct 2001]

Ysbyty Ystwyth

For more online information about Ysbyty Ystwyth see Genuki


Woollen/textile industry

Textile factories were established in north Cardiganshire to meet the needs of the lead miners, as at Pontrhydygroes, Gwarfelin [c 1860-1923]

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth Hicks ]

Aber-porth

For more online information about Aber-porth see Genuki


Fishing

The Aberystwyth herring industry declined in the late C18 but off-shore herring fishing flourished in the other coastal settlements of Cardiganshire throughout the C19.

At Aberporth " the herring fishery on the bay gives occupation to a great number of hands and imparts during the season an appearance of activity and bustle to Aberporth and its vicinity, but the fishing for turbot , cod and mackerel is scarcely worth pursuing." Aberporth in the C19 was famous for its 'sgadan'.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth ]

A Tivyside ploughing match in 1906

The following appeared in the Tivyside Advertiser in February 1906, referring to one of my families in the area: THOMAS, Pantyrodyn. I have only just read the text which appeared beneath an obituary for my great grandfather David MORRIS, Cadwgan - which I had originally ordered from Cardigan Record Office! It beautifully captures something of the local atmosphere of the time. I hope some listers will find family members or farms mentioned!

Here's the text:

Ploughing Match - A ploughing match, one of the most successful held in this part of South Cardiganshire during recent years, took place on Tuesday February 20th, on a field belonging to and kindly lent by Mrs. Thomas, Pantyrodyn, Beulah. Counting the double furrows, no less than 29 ploughs entered the field, and in some of the classes (the champion class especially) the competition was very keen. In this class the judges had some difficulty in coming to a decision as to who were the winners. The judges spoke in high praise of the ploughing in the champion class that day, and it was an honour to Wales that the competitors had performed their work so well. The weather turned out to be everything that could be wished for. The field was an excellent one for the purpose. By noon hundreds of spectators visited the match, and more interest than usual was taken in the champion class, as may former prize-winners had entered.

The following were awarded the prizes:-

  • Double furrow plough - 1 & 2, divided between Jones, Llain, Newcastle Emlyn, and Sam Davies, Bronwion.
  • Junior class, under 18 - 1. E. Jones, Fynnonfair, Troedyraur; 2, Fred Leech, Penbwliaid; 3, T. Bowen, Aberarthen-fach; 4, D. Williams, Trefaesfawr; 5, D. Adams, Blaenant.
  • Second general class - 1, J. Jones, Penfedw; 2 & 3, divided between J. Davies, Aberdulais, and J. Jones, Werngadno.
  • First general class - 1, Ben O. Davies, Alltycorde; 2, J. James Pengelliisaf; 3, J. Williams Blaenpistyll; 4, T. Davies, Blaensylltyn; 5, D. Crompton, Cilfallen.
  • Champion class 1 & 2, divided between David Owen, Penlan, Tyllwyd, and J. Evans Pwllfine, Talgarreg; 3, S. O. James Tyhen, Beulah; 4, J. Rees, Penbeilibach; 5 & 6, divided between Ben Evans Lletty'rgaib, Cilrhedyn, and Sam Jones Tyrhos, Rhydlewis.
  • Special prizes - Lamp given by Messrs. Thomas & Evans Newcastle Emlyn for the best back in the field - J. Evans, Pwllfine; silver medal given by Mr. A. P. Davies, watchmaker, Newcastle Emlyn, for the best back in the first general class - B. O. Davies Alltycorde; razor given by Mr. J. E. James Newcastle Emlyn, for the best ridge in the junior class - E. Jones, Fynnon fair; best opener in the junior class, prize a pair of riding girths, given by Mr. J. Jones sadler, Newcastle Emlyn - E. Jones Fynnonfair..... (the text I have ends here, though the article continued)

[David Pike   D 13 Dec 2001]

Mariners from Cardiganshire found on the 1871 Cardiff census

This list is not complete in any sense . It is a list of mariners or those in maritime trades showing Cardiganshire roots  that has been extracted from an index being compiled by Phil Roderick for the Cardiff 1871 census which is being transcribed by Jennie Newman and Lynn John. At this date [Oct 2001] only some 5000 of the c 50,000 entries for Cardiff have been  so transcribed.

  • EVANS THOMAS SO 13 APPRENTICE SHIP CARPENTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • LEWIS DAVID HD M 52 DOCK GATE MAN ST. DOGMAELS CARDIGANSHIRE
  • WILLIAMS OWEN HD M 60 DOCK GATE MAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • HOWELLS WILLIAM HD M 34 DOCK GATE MAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS THOMAS HD M 46 DOCK MAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • REES THOMAS HD M 39 DOCK MAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • WILLIAMS THOMAS HD M 55 HOBBLING PILOT CARDIGANSHIRE
  • WILLIAMS DAVID HD M 28 LICENSED PILOT CARDIGANSHIRE
  • HIGGINS JOHN LG M 47 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS WILLIAM HD M 46 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JAMES DAVID SO U 23 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JONES JOHN HD M 38 MARINER ABERAYRON CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS DAVID HD M 54 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • DAVIS MORGAN HD M 32 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • LLOYD JOHN HD M 55 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • HOWELLS BREY(?) VR M 25 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS THOMAS HD M 43 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • ROBERTS DAVID LG U 22 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS EVAN BO U 17 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS THOMAS BO M 42 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • HARPER JOHN HD M 42 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JAMES (?) JOHN LG M 45 MAS. MARINER OUT OF WORK CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS THOMAS O. LG U 22 MATE LLANGRANOG CARDIGANSHIRE
  • WILLIAMS WILLIAM LG M 35 MATE CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JULIAN DAVID HD M 51 PILOT CARDIGANSHIRE
  • BOWEN JOHN HD M 57 PILOT CARDIGANSHIRE
  • NICHOLAS EVAN HD M 60 RETIRED SHIP'S MASTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS WILLIAM M 31 RIGGER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS THOMAS HD M 60 RUNNER (CAPTAIN SHIP) CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS WILLIAM LG U 21 SAIL MAKER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS THOMAS SO U 21 SAIL MAKER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS JOHN LG U 22 SAIL MAKER ABERAYRON CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JAMES JAMES HD M 30 SAIL MAKER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EDWARDS THOMAS BO U 24 SAIL MAKER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS JOHN LG U 22 SAILMAKER ABERAYRON CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EDWARDS JAMES HD M 30 SAILMAKER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS DAVID HD M 30 SAILOR CARDIGANSHIRE
  • DAVIS JOHN LG U 19 SEAMAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • BOWEN DAVID BO U 30 SEAMAN CDGN. CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JONES JAMES F. LG U 26 SEAMAN LLANGRANOG CARDIGANSHIRE
  • HUGHES JAMES BO U 38 SEAMAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JAMES SAMUEL HD M 55 SHIP BROKER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS JOHN HD M 54 SHIP BROKER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS THOMAS FA M 49 SHIP CARPENTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS GRIFFITH LG U 46 SHIP CARPENTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS WATKIN LG M 35 SHIP CARPENTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS DAVID BO M 50 SHIP CARPENTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JONES JOHN D. HD M 34 SHIP CHANDLERS SHOP CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JONES JOHN LG M 29 SHIP MASTER PORTHMADOC CARDIGANSHIRE
  • DAVIES THOMAS LG M 29 SHIP MASTER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS THOMAS LG M 32 SHIP MASTER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • LEWIS LEWIS HD M 43 SHIPWRIGHT CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JAMES DAVID HD M 38 STEAM BOAT MASTER CARDIGANSHIRE

[Phil Roderick   24 Oct 2001]

Llandysul

For more online information , including many more snippets, about the parish of Llandysul see Genuki


Christmas Evans [1766-1838]

Born in a cottage called Esgair Wen in the parish of Llandysul, at a very young age he went to work as a parish apprentice on various farms , until finally , he went to the farm of the Rev Dafydd Dafis, Castell Hywel, the author of Telyn Dewi. Dafydd Dafis was minister at the Presbyterian Arminian Church at Llwynrhydowen and Christmas Evans became a member at that church . Although 17 years of age  before he could read at all it is related that within a month at Castell Hywel he learnt to read the Welsh Bible and began to preach at the same time.  Because of his warm , enthusiastic nature, and the tendency of Arminianism towards cold intellectualism, he joined the Baptist Church at Aberduar , Llanybydder in Carmarthenshire. 

In 1789 he went to Llyn, Caernarvonshire  , and was a successful itinerant preacher there for 2 years, followed by a period between 1791 and 1826 when he was in charge of the Baptist congregations in Angelsey. He was afterwards minister at Caerphilly [1826-28], Cardiff [1828-32], and Caernarvon [1832-38]. While on a tour through South Wales he died at Swansea and was buried next to the Bethesda Chapel there.

It was as a preacher that Christmas most profoundly influenced Welsh life, he belonged to the "Golden Age" of Welsh preaching being considered unequalled in the splendour of his imagination.

Based on Famous Welshmen Welsh Dept of Board of Education, 1944. Gareth Hicks 12.5.2000 D]       


Christmas Evans --a follow on

H.R. Evans, speaking of the treatment of the poor in Llandysul 1756 -1789 in his article: ' Llandysul Church: Minute Book of the Vestry & Parish Meetings' speaks thus:-

'....a great deal of interest was taken in the four young children of Samuel Esgerwen. They were ordered a shirt apiece and the wardens were instructed to find a tailor to 'make new cloaths to them of the old cloaths of their mother's and to find thread and buttons for them' .........Christmas EVANS was the son of Samuel EVANS of Esgerwen'.

Published in CEREDIGION Vol.1 No.2 1951 (Journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society).

[Mike Thomas 13.5.2000 D]


Christmas Evans, another follow on;

From "Welsh Chapels" by Anthony Jones, published by the National Museums & Galleries of Wales, 1996, page 18, caption under two engravings:

...."to the first modest chapel which was eventually extended to create a two-story chapel with a large gallery to accommodate the capacity congregations who came to hear Rev. Christmas Evans preach. He lived in the small minister's house attached to the chapel, complaining about the low  ceilings - understandable for a preacher who was nearly 7 feet tall."

On page 16 of the same book is a portrait of him with two other ministers.

He was called the legendary one-eyed giant, minister of Capel Cildwrn, located in Llangefni, Anglesey, the first Baptist Chapel there.

For anyone who wants to read about the chapels in Wales, they should get a copy of this book. It's very good.

[Annie Lloyd 13 March 2001 D]


Liquid refreshment allowances at Vestry and Parish meetings

In1771 the members of the Llandysul Vestry turned over a new leaf and decided to oil the wheels of government a little. After a period of haphazard meetings the minutes of 7 Nov 1771 read as follows:-

'from henceforth a Vestry and Parish Meeting shall be held every first Monday in the month to consider and transact the affairs of the parish and have a quart of ale allowed...at the parish expense to the number of eight persons.'

But others were not to be so lucky as these same members decided to abolish the practice of allowing 5/- for ale at the General Vestry of Accounts -

' as some have drank most for self and then denied to have drank at all'.

Whatever the interpretation of the following entry in the minutes of the next meeting it appears to signify that serious arguments were afoot -

'Agreeable to a former Vestry for 8 quarts to Vestrymen at the expense of the parish and churchwardens and overseers of the poor are ordered to pay 2/- at the meeting'.

In spite of the ale, the strain of these regular monthly meetings proved too great and in September 1772 it was decided that the arrangement was -

'inconvenient for several reasons and it is now ordered that the same be discontinued for the future and that the wardens and overseers do for the future call their Vestrys and meetings as often as their respective offices shall require'.

The place of meetings varied. Sometimes it was in the church. Occasionally it took place at - or was adjourned to - 'the house of Jenkyn Evan, victualler, Ty-yn-y-porth'. Once or twice it was held in Mr John Rees's New Inn (Alltyrodin Arms), or at Evan Rees's house in the village.

From:'Llandysul Church: Minute Book of the Vestry & Parish Meetings' by H.R.EVANS Published in CEREDIGION Vol.1 No.2 1951 (Journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society).

[Mike Thomas 16.52000 D]   


The Bells of Llandysul

[From the Llandysul Vestry and Parish Minutes]

Excited discussion about The Great Project - acquisition of four new bells for the church - began in 1776 and went on a long time.

On 5 May 1777 it was agreed that James John should take the three old bells to Carmarthen and bring back the four new bells for the use of Llandyssul church 'with the consent of the parishioners'

At a meeting held six months later on 7 November it was decided to call another meeting on the 13th instant 'to set and agree for the rehanging up the bells in a proper manner and an experienced carpenter and blacksmith capable of such work and if the old bell shall agreed (sic) in sound with the other bells it is agreed the said old bell shall be used and kept otherwise not ....'

On December 11th it was decided by the members then present ' that the Great Bell be taken down and to be disposed of as hereafter agreed by the parishioners and that the new Tenor Bell be hung up instead of it'.

The next meeting was held on 20th April 1778 when the following entry was crossed out without comment -

'2/6 bye the pound rate for Bells'

The meeting was adjourned until the 23rd when it was agreed that a 3/6 rate be collected immediately towards paying for new bells and that the old bells be kept.

On May 29th it was agreed that 'a rate of 1/6 bye the pound be collected immediately to pay for the four new bells brought here for the use of the parish and that the old big Bell be sent to Carmarthen immediately'.

June 9th it was'allowed ten shillings to James John for carrying the great Bell to Carmarthen'.

In October 1778 it was 'ordered that £45/7/6 be paid immediately unto Mr John Rees of New Inn by David John and Samuel Evan ,wardens, for the new Bells bought here for the use of the Parish the said sum to be paid out of the Rate at 5/6 in the pound survey assessed on the Parish for the present year and that the said Parish Officers is (sic) to give a security to Mr John Rees for the Remainder if insisted upon'

The following year ,1779, on the 5th August it is 'ordered that Evan John warden do forthwith pay unto Mr Rees of New Inn the sum of £15/13/0 for which he is to have a receipt in full of all Demands on the Parish from Mr Rees'.

It is a significant fact that not a word is said about the bells for ten years, with one ominous exception in 1788 when a rope was bought 'for the little bell'

Is it possible that the grand new bells, purchased at such a price, manoeuvred into the centre of the parish .....should have been dumped somewhere with clappers supine and dumb?

Yes, dear kind good ringers all, that is what happened. For ten years only one bell rang and that only a 'little one'.

Then Mr Bowen took a hand and quickly put things right. On the 19th June 1788 'it was agreed to give Mr Bowen the sum of £60 he pinning the .....of the steeple, pointing and whitewashing it where wanted both within and without and to shut the black hole and put Blinds to the windows at the Belfry and put wires on these of the holes in the steeple and have it prepared within in a proper manner that the Bells may be hanged up. To be hung up by him and be finished at or before Michaelmas in the year 1789, he the said Mr Bowen finding every material necessary for the Belfry and the other called the lead loft and have all these things properly done with good and substantial timber'.

From:'Llandysul Church: Minute Book of the Vestry & Parish Meetings' by H.R.EVANS Published in CEREDIGION Vol.1 No.2 1951 (Journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society).

[Mike Thomas 17.5.2000 D]   


The fox problem

Would the problems experienced by Llandysul in the 1770's & 1780's be relevant to today's Foxhunting debate I wonder ?

In 1771 6/- was paid by the parish for killing 2 foxes

There were two payments in 1781

'killing foxes 4/6'

'killing 3 foxes 4/-'

In 1783,1784, & 1785 about 11/- each year was spent on the killing of foxes. For one bitch fox 3/6 was paid.

A huntsman was employed in 1787 and ' John Davies the glover's bill, for keeping the huntsman that killed a fox in the parish, was allowed'. The sum is not stated.

A still more determined effort to deal with the fox menace was made in 1788: 'Whereas foxes and other devouring creatures have destroyed and do kill lambs and other things the property of Inhabitants of the parish therefore it is here agreed upon to find huntsmen and Dogs to kill these foxes if possible - and to pay Evan Rees for the Keeping of the Dogs and maintenance of the huntsmen for four or five days he making reasonable and moderate bill"

From:'Llandysul Church: Minute Book of the Vestry & Parish Meetings'by H.R.EVANS Published in CEREDIGION Vol.1 No.2 1951 (Journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society).

...and so the world goes round.

[Mike Thomas 19.5.2000 D] 


Keeping the river at bay

The church at Llandysul is close to the river in both distance and altitude.
The Vestry's attempts to hold back the river Teifi are of note for those listers with rising damp problems -

'...The river at Llandysul, until fairly recently , might almost be regarded as semi-ecclesiastical. At times it entered the churchyard and threatened to, if it did not actually, enter the church itself. And on the other hand people could claim to be, and sometimes were, baptised in the river. In modern times a wall has kept the river in it's place.
During the year (1766) the wardens, Edward John and Evan John, spent £1/16/0 on a furze fence which it was hoped would protect the church 'against the river Tivy'. The attempt proved abortive. So next year the Vestry ordered the wardens to buy, as cheaply as they could, as much timber as was necessary to make a 'wear' along the churchyard and 'to agree with proper persons for the work'. As a result an agreement was drawn up in 1768 with Rees Morris and David Rees 'for double-railing the River Tivy against the churchyard'. The instructions were explicit: 'the double rails must be distant from each other 3 foot clear, 7 foot high, spar-pieces at 1-1/2 yards distant from each other, the side next to river and side next to land as thick and close as requisite'. The wattling rods (200) were to be provided by Mr.David Jones, Cwmoidwfach. It was also arranged that sufficient stones and gravel should be supplied by Thomas Jones, Gilfachwen, Nathaniel Griffith, Cwmoidw, Jenkin Griffith, Pantowen, at 3d per load, as would fill the two 'Baskets of the Wear'. These were to be delivered as near the baskets 'as the carts can come'.

From:'Llandysul Church: Minute Book of the Vestry & Parish Meetings' by H.R.EVANS Published in CEREDIGION Vol.1 No.2 1951 (Journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society).

[Mike Thomas 21.5.2000 D]     


Drovers' shoeing centre

It is understood that cattle were shod at Pontweli, close to Pantyporthman Farm outside Llandysul, and there is a strong local tradition that cattle were enclosed, prior to shoeing, on a glen at Pantyporthman Farm

[Based on The Welsh Cattle Drovers by Richard Colyer, 1976. Gareth Hicks] 


Llanilar

For more online information about Llanilar   parish see Genuki


Vestry meetings 1750-1834

"The churchwardens , Overseers of the Poor, and the inhabitants of the Parish " formed a vestry in Llanilar in 1788.

[MS Llanilar Vestry Meetings 23 Sept 1788]

............................................................

The Llanilar Vestry adopted the Select Vestry Act on 16 August 1822 .....the following are the people who are mentioned in the Minutes as comprising the vestry then instituted;

Township of Llanilar uchaf

  • Mr Geo Robinson of Birchgrove
  • Revd. Willm Hughes of Brynarth
  • Mr Thomas Williams, Cefncoch
  • Mr John Jones, PenyGraigfawr
  • Mr Evan Hughes, Brynarth

Township of Llanilar isaf

  • John Nath. Williams Esq.
  • Revd Owen Owen, Llanilar
  • Mr Lewis Lewis, Trefaes Issa
  • Mr Richard Phillips, Trefaes ucha
  • Mr Richard Rowland, Tanyrallt
  • Mr John Davies, Bryngwyn
  • Mr John James, Caedllys
  • Mr Jno Griffith, Glanyrafon

The Minutes were signed by the overseers and Inhabitants then present being; Evan Hughes, John James, David Davies, the mark of Thomas Williams and David Parry.

[MS Llanilar Vestry Meetings 16 Aug 1822]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth  Hicks 19 July 2000 D]


Assistant overseers

The Select Vestry Act of 1819 allowed open vestries " to elect any discreet person or persons to be assistant overseer or overseers of the poor".

In 1831 Llanilar vestry " agreed to have two Assistant Overseers, one for the Township of Llanilar ucha and one for Llanilar Issa......."

At the same vestry Jenkin Jones of Pen-y-lan was appointed assistant overseer for the township of Llanilar Uchaf at a salary of six guineas " including all Journeys and Expences within 15 miles from Llanilar".

[MS Llanilar Vestry Meetings 13 April 1831]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth 25 July 2000 D ]


Vestry clerks

At a vestry meeting in Llanilar in 1823 the schoolmaster John Davies was made church clerk and was paid " at the Rate of Two Pounds and fifteen shillings a year."

[MS Llanilar Vestry Meetings 17 April 1823]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]  


Types of relief

Occasional, or casual, relief was given to paupers in money or in kind ---probably the greater part of this type of relief was given in money but fuel, clothing, barley, potatoes, medicines and medical attendance were also provided.

Examples of such relief include the following;

".........ordered that Margaret Jones of Aberystwith is to have relief of One Measure of Barley."

[MS Llanilar Vestry Meetings 23 Jan 1831]

  [ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ] 


Medical relief for paupers

Parish vestries were often enlightened in their attitude towards the sick and would often provide money for recuperation purposes;

" Margaret Dudlike is to have the Sum of £1.10s. to go to Llanwrtid Wells and back for the said Sum."

[MS Llanilar Vestry Minutes , 8 August 1833]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ] 


Pauper lunatics

On the eve of the Poor Law Amendment Act there was no lunatic asylum in Cardiganshire and little provision if any was made for pauper lunatics or idiots. In the main such cases were boarded with parishioners [see Lampter]. Other pauper lunatics were left with friends or relations as in this case in Llanilar parish;

' David Evans now kept at Rhosgoch', who was ordered by the vestry ' to be taken to John Evans [ his brother] at Craig y bwch for a fortnight upon trial'.

[MS Llanilar Vestry Minutes , 30 Dec 1836]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ] 


Unemployed paupers "on the parish"

Paupers were often sent round the parish to work for their board and lodging in return for clothing provided by the vestry, but they did not earn money.An example from the Llanilar Vestry Minutes;

".....Agreed with Thomas Loyd to go from house to House to work for his Victuals as the Ratefollow."

[MS Llanilar Vestry Minutes , 17 Apr 1818]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Orphans and deserted young children

Orphans and deserted young children were normally left with their relatives or friends. One parish supported the children when the parents were not in a position to care for them as in this example from the Llanilar Vestry Minutes;

"...that........the Overseers should fetch away the Children of Jeremiah Jones and James Davies now supported by the Parish and kept at Isaac Davies of Maeselwad and John Davies Pentredu and deliver the said Jeremiah Jones and James Davies as we consider them sufficiently able to support their own Children in future."

[MS Llanilar Vestry Minutes , 22 May 1827]

Infant paupers were sometimes contracted out to parishioners who in return received a premium  from the parish. For caring for a helpless child as much as £5 would be given. Thus;

" Thomas Williams of Cefncoch contracted and agreed with the Inhabitants of the parish of Llanilar for the maintenance of David Morris an infant pauper of this parish for the term of Five Years commencing from the twelfth Day of May 1792 they the said Parishioners on their part sufficiently cloathing the said David and pay the said Thomas five pounds."

[MS Llanilar Vestry Minutes , 21 Dec 1792]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


The old paupers

The very aged were often placed with their relatives, many informed the vestries that they were too poor to maintain their relatives as presumably in this example ;

"Agreed with Evan Morgan for the maintenance of Catherine Clement his Mother in Law for one year for four guineas and as much flannel as will make her a shift he the said Evan to procure her a shroud if she dies in the year."

[MS Llanilar Vestry Minutes , 23 May 1794]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth  Hicks 28 July 2000 D]


Llanddewibrefi

For more online information about Llanddewibrefi   parish see Genuki


Drovers and the law       

A case at  the Cardiganshire Great Sessions of' 1793, shows the financial  risks  people took in advancing capital to drovers who were either unable or unwilling to use the banks.

In a nut shell, Charles Jones of Llanddewibrefi was trying to recover £1300 from his stepfather, David Rowlands, drover of the same parish. It had been necessary for Jones to provide his stepfather with this money for the purchase of' cattle otherwise he could not have gone on with the purchase, for the bankers would never enable him to buy cattle. In  his evidence, Jones stated that he had been forced to provide continual financial support for Rowlands in the forlorn hope that he might eventually recover the earlier loans. It also transpired that Rowlands, in addition to not repaying his debts, had also sold some of his stepson's cattle and taken  the proceeds. This became clear following the evidence of Edward Abel, drover, who appeared as a witness on behalf of Jones. It appears that Abel had been commissioned by Jones to conduct a drove of the latter's cattle to Steyning Fair in Sussex. Abel maintained that Rowlands, who was also present at Steyning , had been heard to offer one guinea to any person who might be prepared to assist him in removing a number of' Jones's cattle from the drove. Assistance was apparently forthcoming, for the case records that Rowlands removed and sold, twenty-seven of Jones's cattle on the evening before the fair.

[Based on The Welsh Cattle Drovers by Richard Colyer  . Gareth Hicks. 30 May 2000 D]  


Droving in decline

As the demand for "long distance" drovers began to decrease, they were often required to assist with moving livestock from farms and collecting centres to local fairs and markets, but sometimes to and from places  many miles from their home parishes.

Drovers from the Llanddewibrefi area regularly drove both cattle and sheep to Brecon Fair during the years before WW2.[G Davies, Llanddewibrefi]

[Based on The Welsh Cattle Drovers by Richard Colyer . Gareth Hicks] 


The Drovers' route

The drovers' routes from Tregaron, Ffair Rhos, Cwmyswtwyth, Landdewibrefi and Pontrhydfendigaid[Bont] had perhaps the most taxing and difficult sectionsof the long trail to England. Apart from the ruggedness of the terrain, theses routes, in the main, traversed unfenced open hill country which no doubt increased the problems of controlling large droves of cattle.

The direct route from Llanddewibrefi to Abergwesyn was via Soar-y-Mynydd and passed by  Cwmdulas, Bryn Caregog, Bronbyrfe and Blaendoethie.  That way forded the Towi at Pantllwydiau and on via Rhydgoch to Abergwesyn.

An entry in the David Jonathan accounts of 1839 , which mentions the expenditure of five shillings at "Cwmdulas House" , lends support to the strong local tradition that there existed an old tavern on the mountains above the present Cwm Dulas. Although its  remains have been located it is not recorded on the Llanddewibrefi Tithe apportionment.

At Bronbyrfe, the drovers' road branched, the main part to Soar-y-Mynydd as above, and the second went southwards past Pysgotwr where it left the existing road and continued beyond Bryn Glas to the foot of Hafod Las on the Pysgotwr Fach where it joined up with a trail crossing Esgair Maen from Cwm Dulas. This route can be detected at its junction with the main route at Hafod Las and local tradition has it that there was a tavern here too.The trail from Hafod Las continues past Penyraglangwynt along the outskirts of what is now Coed Penrhiwar eventually linking with the Cwrt-y-Cadno to Rhandir-mwyn road at Troedrhiwbeynon.

[Based on The Welsh Cattle Drovers by Richard Colyer . Gareth Hicks]


Vestry meetings1750-1834

Llanddewibrefi was one of few parishes in Cardiganshire which adopted the provisions of the 1819 Sturges Bourne Act designed to amend the Laws for the Relief of the Poor in respect of Select vestries consisting of an an annually elected committee or vestry.

"At a public Vestry held this 3rd day of march 1820 in the parish Church of Llanddewibrefi and from thence adjourned to the dwelling house of John Evans in the said village it was then and there unamimously agreed ..........to appoint the following persons being overseers & Churchwardens and inhabitants of the said Parish be elected to keep Select Vestries for the purpose of relieving the Poor of the said Parish once in every Month........................and no less than Five of the undersigned persons to attend at each Vestry and no more than Twenty."

Three persons were chosen from Gorwedd, three from Garth and Ystrad, three from Gogoyan, three from Llanio, two from Doethie Camddwr, and three from Doethie Pysgotwr.

[MS Llanddewibrefi Vestry Minutes 3 March 1820]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]     


Overseer's appointment

Often the appointment of an overseer would be quashed by the justices of the peace in Quarter Sessions after an appeal by the person chosen to serve as overseer.

This is what happened in Llanddewibrefi 1815 when one Richard Williams of the Parcel of Gorwidd  successfully appealed against his appointment as overseer by Edward Warren Jones Esqr and Alban Thomas Jones Gwynne [ both justices of the peace]  on the grounds of his poverty and inability .to serve the office of overseer.       

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]           


Medical relief for  paupers

In rural districts the medical man was generally paid by the case , an example from vestry minutes;

"...cash paid Doctor Lewis Glynussa for mending Sarah Oliver 13s.8d......"

[MS Llanddewibrefi Vestry Minutes 6 Feb 1818]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]     


Tai Unnos on Mynydd Llanddewibrefi

The book "An Illustrated History of Cardiganshire"   By W J Lewis, 1970  has a diagram showing some of the various Tai Unnos [One Night Houses] on Mynydd Llanddewibrefi, these place names have been extracted and are shown on  INDEX.

According to tradition the one-night house dates from the Middle Ages but in Cardiganshire the majority were erected between 1830 and 1870. They were built on common land and were illegal, but because of tradition and custom, if the builder followed a certain plan, he was left in peace.  At sunset the man, with his helpers, went to the chosen site taking with him the necessary materials. He then built the walls of the house, usually of prepared turf, erected the roof timbers, and covered them with twigs and thatch, leaving a hole in the roof for the smoke from the fire to escape. He had to ensure that at daybreak the following morning, there was smoke coming out of this hole and that there was someone living in the house.

The next step was to enclose some land around the building. The custom was for the cottager to stand by the house and to throw an axe as great a distance as possible. He was then allowed to enclose half of all the land within that distance of the cottage i.e roughly a semi circle. After living there a year and a day he could build a permanent dwelling round the turf house which was then dismantled bit by bit and carried out.

[Gareth 12  and 18 Aug 2000 D]       


Lampeter

For more online information about Lampeter  parish see Genuki


Vestry meetings 1750-1834

Very few parishioners actually attended vestry meetings. A vestry at Lampeter in 1792 was adjourned because so few attended the meeting even though the topic under discussion was considered to be important. Nine parishioners were present counting the total number of signatures and marks---many parishioners could not write their names during this period. During the late C18 there were never more than fifteen parishioners present at Lampeter vestry meetings and the Easter meeting naturally drew the greatest number.

[MS Lampeter Vestry Minutes, 18 July 1792]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


George Eyre Evans wrote of the Lampeter Vestry

" Out of the minutes of 108 vestries, of which extracts are before me, all save a dozen seem to have been adjourn'd to the house of Chelton Leigh or some other parishioner. That all the adjournments were to ale-houses, I hardly like to affirm, but in many of the records mention is distinctly made that they were adjourned to the George, the Black Lion, and other hostelries.  At least 34 vestries were , between the years 1777 and 1800, held at the house of Daniel Evans, the petty constable of Lampeter; Chelton Leigh kept the Swan, and here we know that 13 vestries adjourned. The Black Lion had Thomas Williams as host, and he managed to secure 15 vestries; David Jenkins, one of the churchwardens in 1792, owned the Three Horse Shoes, and got five vestries, though, to his credit it said, not one was adjourned to his house in his year of office.... Mr Charles Edmund, " Town" as he is designated, was warden in 1777 and 1795, and had eight vestries in his house. Nine vestries only seem to have had no adjournments from the parish church."

[George Eyre Evans, Lampeter, 1905]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth 22 July 2000 D]


Overseers

In the main overseers of the poor exercised very little influence, merely carrying out the orders of the vestry and between vestry meetings they provided occasional relief to paupers.

Alfred Ollivant, in his capacity as clerk to the Lampeter vestry, said that the overseers of the county were " generally persons of very little intelligence, and afraid to act in any matter of importance on their own responsibility..................

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Vestry Finances

If an occupier thought a rate levied on him by the Vestry was unfair he could appeal in the Cardiganshire Quarter Sessions. One such appeal in 1817 was by one David Joel Jenkins of 'Lampeterpontstephen' , and the court ordered the rate be  quashed and reassessed.

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Justices of the Peace and settlement

"...the Parishioners [ of Lampeter in 1778].........unanimously agreed to order Evan Jenkin the present Church-Warden and John Davies of Cappeli to wait upon Mr Lloyd of Mabus in order to have his opinion about the settlement of some Poor people etc..."

[MS Lampeter Vestry Minutes, 22 May 1778]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


House of correction for  Lampeter ?

It was the wish of the Lampeter justices to establish a house of correction  to serve the town in Lampeter and in 1806 the clerk of the Peace was ordered to apply to Lewis Bayly Wallis for some land to build the house.

[Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Cost and abuse of poor relief?

Lampeter parish spent £509-12s on the provision of relief for the poor in the year ended 25 March 1831 and £87.3s.8d in cottage rents. Several able-bodied labourers were said to be living in cottages whose rents were paid by Lampeter vestry.

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Medical relief for paupers

Sometimes the doctor's salary depended on whether he was successful in curing the patient, as in this example ;

"...Order'd that   Margt David should be endevoured to be cured of her disagreeable & strange malady in as moderate a manner as possible. Mr Thomas surgeon has undertaken her case for 2 guineas : no cure no pay."

[NLW, MS,  Lampeter Vestry Minutes, 6 March 1799]

Not every doctor's terms were acceptable to parish vestries and the following extracts seem to indicate some disagreement over the payment;

"It was agreed by the Parishioners then present to request Mr Evans the Doctor to produce his Bill, provided he can make a legal demand upon this Parish, for attending the late John Richd Pauper. After the Bill is produc'd the Parishioners are to consult what further proceedings are to be made."

[NLW, MS,  Lampeter Vestry Minutes, 14 July 1778]

"Order'd that the Church-Wardens are to employ an Attorney in order to defend the Parishioners in a case now depending at the General Sessions at Cardigan. If Mr Evans the Doctor will attend Sessions we think it a very prudent and eligible step to compromise Matters & settle amicably with Mr Evans."

[NLW, MS,  Lampeter Vestry Minutes, 15 August1778]

"...agreed to settle Matters with Mr Evans the Doctor, for his attendance to Jn Richard late Pauper."

[NLW, MS,  Lampeter Vestry Minutes, 13 Feb 1779]

Parish vestries were often enlightened in their attitude towards the sick and would often provide money for recuperation purposes;

"....to Thomas David William two shillings in order to go to the sea side for the sake of his bad state of Health."

[MS,  Lampeter Vestry Minutes, 18 July 1779]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Pauper lunatics

On the eve of the Poor Law Amendment Act[1834] there was no lunatic asylum in Cardiganshire and little provision if any was made for pauper lunatics or idiots. In the main such cases were boarded  with parishioners as in the case of Evan, the parish idiot, from Lampeter, and quoted by George Eyre Evans;

".........in February 1778.....the vestry ordered for him a suit of cloathes, as soon as conveniency will permit. Later on it is ordered to provide one shirt, breeches, and waistcoat for the Ideot. He was boarded out in the parish, and in 1787, James Thomas , of Llwyn Ieir, is given £4 for keeping, nursing, and maintaining Evan the Ideot for a whole year..................In 1792 adjourned from the parish church to the Black Lion , the wardens and overseers, David Jenkins, Three Horse Shoes, and Thomas Saunders, of Undergrove are ordered to settle Evan the Ideot as before, with Evan of Lett'rtwppa, for 2s per week; if Evan will refuse to keep him for so much, then he is to go about the parish as before." [ George Eyre Evans, "Lampeter", 1905]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth Hicks 28 July 2000 D ]


Early education in Llanbedr

Sir Erasmus Philipps, father of Sir John Philipps, of Picton, played an important part in the affairs of the principality under the Commonwealth. He was a Commissioner under "The Act for the Better Propagation and Preaching of the Gospel in Wales[1650-3]" and under the Ordnances of August 1654. Sir Erasmus had a prominent share...in the first organised movement for Elementary Education in Wales on a national scale. His name often appears on the Orders of the Commissioners, here is an interesting example [with original spelling ] ;

" By the Comrs for propagacon of the Gospell &c: Swansey 2 August 1652.

"Llanbedr: Itt is ordered that a free Schoole be created and settled in the towne of Llanbeder in the County of Cardigan for the Educacon of Youthes in Englishe and Latine Tongue. And that the yearely summe of twenty poundes bee allowed for the keeping of the said freeschoole. And Mr Thos Evans is hereby authorised to keep the said Schoole and to receive the said stipend till the Comrs shall take further order therein, and Mr John Price Esqr Trear for South Wales is hereby enabled to pay and allow the said summe of twenty poundes, att such time and Seasons as the same shall grow due and payable, the first Quarter to commence the five and twentyeth of March last past. "
"Rowland Dawkins, Erasmus Philipps, James Philipps, Sam. Lort, John Lewis, Jo. Browne, Jo. Daniell." [ Lambeth MS 1006, p.56]

[Sir John Phillips; The Society For Promoting Christian Knowledge; And The Charity School Movement In Wales, 1699-1737. By the Rev Thomas Shankland. Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. Session 1904/5. Gareth Hicks 1 June 2001 D/C/P]


Llanrhystud

For more online information about Llanrhystud   parish see Genuki


Overseers and Parish Clerks

Officials of Llanrhystud parish were asked by the Poor Law Commissioners to give the number and salaries of paid officers serving the vestry in 1834. The parish had the normal complement---an overseer of the poor, an assistant overseer, who received a salary of 35s., and a vestry clerk who received 20s. The overseer was also clerk in 1835. Thus " John Cole will be allowed 5s. more wages this year than last makeing 2 15 for serving the Parish and one Pound for being Parish Clerk making a total of 3 15 0 in the year ".

[MS Llanrhystud Vestry Minutes,  3 April 1835]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Finance

In the parish of Llanrhystud in 1750 the rate of fourpence in the pound was assessed on the parish by the vestry towards the relief of the poor. By 1800 it had risen to four shillings in the pound.

No doubt economic circumstances forced Llanrhystud vestry in 1817 to assess those occupiers of lands and houses who had not hitherto been assessed to the poor rate

[MS Llanrhystud Vestry Minutes,  8 August 1817]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]        


Poorhouses, or rented cottages ?

David Jones, overseer and churchwarden for the parish of Llanrhystud replied to a question that there was ' no Poorhouse or Workhouse in Llanrhystid, we rent 23 cottages about the neighbourhood  for the reception of the Poor from £1-10s-0d. to £5-0s-0d. making a total rent paid yearly £50-1s-6d.' [Llanrhystud Vestry Minutes].

Twenty four persons occupied rent-free cottages on the eve of the Act of 1834 and one of those was situated in Aberystwyth, a distance of nine miles from Llanrhystud.

Two typical entries are as follows;

" That David Evan of Ty Mawr, Kilcenin, be paid at the rate of £1-5s-0d. per annum from May last as rent for Cottage occupied by Mary John Jacob a pauper belonging to this parish. " [MS Llanrhystud Vestry Minutes, 15 Sept 1818].

"That three pounds per year be allowed Mary Welch together with House Rent.." [MS Llanrhystud Vestry Minutes, 1 June 1821]

The authorities tried to impose economies in the period after the Napoleonoc Wars, and in some cases they refused to pay house rent but confiscated items of furniture to pay the rent. Thus in 1821 the Llanrhystud vestry ordered the overseers ' to fetch the Clock and other unnecessary Articles from the house of Richard Morris and sell the same by Auction in order to pay the arrears of rent to Mr John Evans. ' [MS Llanrhystud Vestry Minutes, 5 Dec 1821]

About a year later the same vestry decided to herd two families into one rent-paid cottage, exclaiming that the Parish paid ' more Rent for Houses for the Poor than is reasonable or necessary---That there are several Houses rented by the Parishes large enough to contain two families and that in future two families be plac'd in such houses.' [MS Llanrhystud Vestry Minutes, 21 Nov 1822]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Rate exemption for paupers

The second method of relieving the poor in Cardiganshire was to exempt pauper cottages from the rates, or if the property was assessed, the rates were paid by the parish authorities. In the township of Llanrhystud Mefenydd, occupiers of property assessed to the value of £6-10s-8d. were exempted from payment of rates on account of poverty. [MS Llanrhystud Vestry Minutes]

At a vestry meeting in Llanrhystud in 1812, 19 resolutions were passed  concerning paupers, 11 of whom lived outside the parish boundaries, as in the case of Mary Welch; ' Resolved that Mary Welch single-woman of this parish residing in the parish of Llandinol in the county receive of the overseer of the poor the sum of one pound for her present use in addition to her allowance of ten shillings Quarterly and her House rent defrayed at the expence of this parish.'

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Examples of relief

Occasional, or casual, relief was given to paupers in money or in kind ---probably the greater part of this type of relief was given in money but fuel, clothing, barley, potatoes, medicines and medical attendance were also provided.

Examples of such relief in Llanrhystud include the following;

".......that James Richard the Overseer provides two flannel shifts and a Blanket at a reasonable price for the use of Elinor Rees, a poor woman of this parish" [9 Dec 1767].

"......ordered to Mary Roberts 4 measures potatoes and 4 Load of Turff....". [5 Nov 1801]

"......ordered 1 Tobstand of Wool to Lewis Davies" [ 5 Nov 1801]

".......That Evan Evans of Nantcenin be allow'd as relief, a Bushel of rye for seed and two bushels of Barley for bread." [ 7 Nov 1817]

Money was sometimes provided in order to purchase food, as in this example

"......That Elizabeth Davies of Drainllwynfach be allow'd 5s. as Relief to buy Herrings for salting." [ 7 Nov 1817]

Sometimes the occasional relief took the form of a loan, as in;

".......To Mary Jones near ffrood 5 Bushels Barley and for her return to the overseer the same quantity the following year." [ 28 May 1801].

"........that one Pound be now lent to Thomas Lewis of Llanrhystyd on the account of his share of the vessel called Prosperity belonging to the Port of Aberystwith[18 Feb 1820].

[MS Llanrhystud Vestry Meetings ]

  [ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth  Hicks 29 July 2000 D] 


Unemployed paupers "on the parish"

Paupers were often sent round the parish to work for their board and lodging in return for clothing provided by the vestry, but they did not earn money. Some  examples ;

"..... John David Richard go from house to house in the Hamlet or Parcel of Mevenydd, and remain so many Days at such Houses as their respective Surveys will admit of at one night at every Pound."

[MS Llanrhystud Vestry Meetings 28 Feb 1770]

"....that Jenkin the reputed son of Captain Bowen, now chargeable on this Parish , shall go from House to House for his maintenance during this year and remain one Day and a Night in each house for every twenty shillings Survey that they are charged to the Land tax."

[MS Llanrhystud Vestry Meetings 25 Feb 1783]

"...That Mary Evan Jones now idle and living upon the parish be employ'd by the farmers according to their several Survey."

[MS Llanrhystud Vestry Meetings 26 June 1822]

"...that the overseer John Lloyd is to provide clothing for John Williams and that John Williams is to go from farm to farm in the parish according to the survey."

[MS Llanrhystud Vestry Meetings 18 Aug 1824]

[Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ] 


Llanbadarn fawr

For more online information about the parish of Llanbadarn fawr see Genuki


Dr Lewis Edwards [1809-1887]

Born in a farmhouse called Pwllcenawon, near Penllwyn, Cardiganshire. He began to preach when he was at school in Llangeitho. He settled in Laugharne where he was a home missioner and also conducted a school there. He went to Edinburgh University in 1833 and  was the first Methodist minister to obtain the MA degree. He was buried in Llanycil churchyard close to the grave of Thomas Charles at Bala.

Lewis Edwards laid emphasis on the value of education and culture. He and his brother in law, the Rev David Charles     [ grandson of Thomas Charles of Bala] , opened a school at Bala , mainly for preachers, and afterwards adopted as a Calvinistic Methodist academy in North Wales. When this first opened there was much prejudice against "manufactured preachers". Dr Edwards was the Principal at Bala for nearly half a century, during which period hundreds of students came under his charge including several of the most prominent men in the denomination.

In 1845 he and Roger Edwards began the publication of a Welsh periodical, Y Traethodydd , Dr Edwards edited it until 1854 and it exercised  considerable influence on Welsh thought.  Apart from his influence upon Wales in general, Lewis Edwards has a special place in the history of the Calvinistic Methodist system . If Thomas Charles may be regarded as the founder of the Methodist Connexion so Lewis Edwards may be called its architect and builder.

Based on Famous Welshmen Welsh Dept of Board of Education, 1944. Gareth Hicks 18 July 2000]     


Ieuan Gwyllt [John Roberts 1822-1877]

He was born at Tan-rhiw-felen, Penllwyn, near Aberystwyth and educated in Penllwyn and Aberystwyth. From his easrly days he was interested in music and he attended classes held by the musicians James and Richard Mills [Llanidloes].

He went to Liverpool in 1852 to assist Hiraethog in editing the Amserau, he became well known throughout Wales as a journalist. He was a member of the Philharmonic Society in Liverpool and whilst there he began to recognise and develop the church style in music.

In 1858 he settled in Aberdare as editor of the Gwladgarwr , he attended Bethania Chapel where he met musicians like Silas Evans, Alaw Ddu and David Rosser. It was under Ieuan Gwyllt's leadership that the first Gymanfa in Aberdare was held. His hymn book,   Llyfr Tonau Cynulleidfaol , was published in 1859, a year of religious revival, and this had an important place in the development of congregational music in Wales.He also edited several magazines  e.g Telyn y Plant. He was ordained a minister during his stay at Aberdare and subsequently had charge of churches at Merthyr and Capel Coch[Llanberis]. He was buried at Caeathro cemetery, Caernarvonshire where there is a monument to him.

Throughout his life Ieuan Gwyllt aimed at raising the standard of congregational music, he composed some fine hymn tunes including Moab and Liverpool and his contribution to the development of congregational music must be regarded as the most important in his period.

Based on Famous Welshmen Welsh Dept of Board of Education, 1944. Gareth Hicks ]            


Sir John Rhys [1840-1915]

He was born in Ponterwyd. At the outset of his career he enjoyed few advantages, he attended classes held at certain farms in the neighbourhood and it is believed he was first inspired to take an interest in language and grammar  by  a weaver named Dafydd Gruffydd of Wern Deg. When a British School was opened in Ponterwyd he was sent to it, and later to a school at Penllwyn where he began his career as a pupil teacher. Later he was admitted to Normal College, Bangor. After qualifying he was appointed Head teacher at Rhos-y-bol, Anglesey, and whilst in Anglesey became prominent for his writings on the Welsh language and Welsh antiquities. He went to Jesus College, Oxford in 1865 and graduated in 1869. In 1871 he was appointed Inspector of Schools in Flint and Denbigh counties. He took the Chair of Celtic at Oxford and held it until his death, he became Principal of Jesus College in 1895.

He contributed many articles of outstanding importance on philology  e.g Lectures on Welsh Philology [1877], The Arthurian Legend [1891] and Celtic Folklore [1901] , and was also deeply interested in folklore, old customs and superstitions. He will be mainly remembered for his service to scholarship, the renaissance in the study of Welsh language which took place in the latter part of the C19 would not have been possible without his work.

Based on Famous Welshmen Welsh Dept of Board of Education, 1944. Gareth Hicks ]     


Overseers [Poor Law]

That overseers were not always honest in their dealings is evident from occasional entries in vestry books.

Three churchwardens from Llanbadarn fawr in 1817 were " to be proceeded against according to Law, for neglecting and refusing to settle their accounts." The vicar of the parish was asked to begin legal proceedings at the parish's expense against the churchwardens.

[NLW MS Llanbadarn Fawr Vestry Minutes, 17 Aug 1817]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  . Gareth ]