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The following lengthy extract about Edinburgh comes from the Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland, edited by Francis Groome, published in London, 1903.


Site Appearance Geology Extent Architecture
Lines of streets Old streets, localities & noteworthy houses History The Castle Holyrood
Royal Park Canongate Supreme Court Municipal Buildings Town Cross
County Buildings Prisons Register house Post Office Observatories
Markets Banks Bridges Railway Clubs
Theatres Libraries Museums Parks Cemeteries
Monuments Surgeons & Physicians Halls Misc buildings Infirmaries Charities
Literary societies Education Parishes Registration Districts Ecclesiastical
Social Conditions Newspapers Municipal affairs, the Corporation Police Parliamentary Representation

Edinburgh, the metropolis of Scotland and the county town of Midlothian, is situated, since the inclusion of Portobello, on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth. The observatory on the Calton Hill is in lat. 55° 57' 23" N and long. 3° 10' 46" W, and the new observatory at Blackford Hill in lat. 55° 55' 28" N and long. 3° 11' 4" W. Edinburgh is SSW of Aberdeen, S by W of Dundee, S by E of Perth, E by N of Glasgow, NE of Ayr, and N by E of Dumfries. Its distance as the crow flies is 188 miles from John o' Groat's House and 337 from London. By road it is 35½ miles from Stirling, 42 from Dundee, 42¾ from Glasgow, 44 from Perth, 48 from Hawick, 57 from Berwick-on-Tweed, 77 from Dumfries, 100 from Carlisle, 111 from Aberdeen, 159 from Inverness, and 389 from London; while by rail the distance is 36 miles from Stirling, 47½ from Glasgow, 53 from Hawick, 57¾ from Berwick-on-Tweed, 77 from Ayr via Muirkirk, and 84 via Glasgow City Union, 89½ from Dumfries, 101 from Carlisle, 135¼ from Aberdeen (by Stirling and Perth); 47¾ miles from Perth by the Forth Bridge; 59¼ from Dundee and 130½ from Aberdeen by the Forth and Tay Bridges; 163 from Stranraer; 191½ from Inverness; 392½ from London, by the Great Northern and East Coast route, 400 by the North Western, and 405¾ by the Midland.

Site.-The Scottish capital - 'one of the few great cities of the empire that possesses natural features, and which, were the buildings away, would, while it ceased to be town, become very picturesque country' - is built on a series of roughly parallel ridges and hollows that run very nearly E and W. From the shore of the Firth of Forth the ground slopes irregularly upward till at the line of George Street it reaches a height of about 225 feet above sea-level, falls again thence to Princes Street Gardens (about 150 feet, the eastern end of the hollow being overtopped by the Calton Hill, 349 feet), rises thence to the ridge extending from the Castle (438 feet at the top of the Castle Rock, 359 at the W end of the Esplanade, 300 at the W end of the Lawnmarket) to Holyrood (119 feet); sinks again to the hollow of the Grassmarket and Cowgate (220 feet), rises to the ridge along Lauriston (283 feet), falls to the Meadows (241 feet), rises again to the villa quarter of the Grange (about 300 feet), falls to the hollow of the Jordan Burn (Morningside, 250; Powburn, 184), and thence rises again to the Hills of Blackford (about 500 feet) and Braid (698 feet), between which is the hollow of the Braid Burn (about 200 feet). Overlooking the whole of the eastern and southern part of the city is ARTHUR'S SEAT. The origin of these undulations, which have so much to do with the picturesqueness of Edinburgh, is discussed at length in the section dealing with the geology, where also are indicated the various sheets of water that, at times more or less recent, occupied portions of the different hollows.

Appearance.-The peculiar nature of the site of Edinburgh, and its position with reference to the neighbouring Firth of Forth, and to the outliers of the Pentland Hills on the S and SW, has led to a comparison of the city with Athens. Stuart, one of the authors of The Antiquities of Athens, was the first to remark and describe the similarity; and he has been followed by Dr Clarke, Mr H. W. Williams (Grecian Williams), and many other descriptive writers well qualified to form a correct judgment, so that Edinburgh has, by almost general consent, been called `Modern Athens,' and the `Athens of the North.' `The distant view of Athens from the Aegean Sea,' says Mr Williams, `is extremely like that of Edinburgh from the Firth of Forth, though certainly the latter is considerably superior.' ` There are,' he adds, `several points of view on the elevated grounds near Edinburgh, from which the resemblance between the two cities is complete. From Torphin in particular, one of the low heads of the Pentlands immediately above the village of Colinton, the landscape is exactly that of the vicinity of Athens as viewed from the bottom of Mount Anchesmus. Close upon the right, Brilessus is represented by the mound of Braid; before, in the abrupt and dark mass of the Castle, rises the Acropolis ; the hill Lycabettus, joined to that of the Areopagus, appears in the Calton; in the Firth of Forth we behold the Aegean Sea-in Inchkeith, AEgina; and the hills of Peloponnesus are precisely those of the opposite coast of Fife. Nor is the resemblance less striking in the general characteristics of the scene; for, although we cannot exclaim, " These are the groves of the Academy, and that the Sacred Way !" yet, as on the Attic shore, we certainly here behold­


" A country rich and gay
Broke into hills, with balmy odours crowned,
And joyous vales, mountains, and streams,
And clustering towns and monuments of fame,
And scenes of glorious deeds, in little bounds! "


It is indeed most remarkable and astonishing that two cities, placed at such a distance from each other, and so different in every political and artificial circumstance, should naturally be so alike.' When comparing the two cities as to their interior structure, however, Mr Williams sees a considerable difference between them, and pronounces Edinburgh to be the superior. He says, ` The epithets Northern Athens and Modern Athens have been so frequently applied to Edinburgh that the mind unconsciously yields to the illusion awakened by these terms, and imagines that the resemblance between these cities must extend from the natural localities and the public buildings to the streets and private edifices. The very reverse of this is the case; for, setting aside her public structures, Athens, even in her best days, could not have coped with the capital of Scotland.

Many other picturesque views of the city may be obtained from various points within and around, the best known being those from the Castle, the Calton Hill, the top of the Scott Monument, Corstorphine Hill, the high ground to the NW of Fettes College, the Arboretum, Warriston Cemetery, the Radical Road beneath the Salisbury Crags, the top of Arthur's Seat, the high ground at Liberton, the Blackford, Braid, and Craiglockhart Hills. Scott, with whom the view from the Salisbury Crags - at a time when it commanded nearly the whole of the city as then existing - was always a favourite one, has thus described it :-`The prospect in its general outline commands a close-built, high-piled city, stretching itself out in a form which, to a romantic imagination, may be supposed to represent that of a dragon; now a noble arm of the sea, with its rocks, isles, distant shores, and boundary of mountains; and now a fair and fertile champaign country, varied with hill, dale, and rock, and skirted by the picturesque ridge of the Pentland mountains; but as the path gently circles around the base of the cliffs, the prospect, composed as it is of these enchanting and sublime objects, changes at every step, and presents them blended with, or divided from, each other in every possible variety which can gratify the eye and the imagination.' The view from the top of Arthur's Seat is much the same, only more sweeping. Of the views from the S, which are all alike excellent, probably those from Liberton and the Braids are the best; though the nearer one from Blackford has, by Scott's description, been rendered much more famous. `Fairer scene' Lord Marmion ' ne'er surveyed.'

The wandering eye could o'er it go,
And mark the distant city glow
With gloomy splendour red;
For on the smoke-wreaths, huge and slow,
That round her sable turrets flow,
The morning beams were shed,
And tinged them with a lustre proud,
Like that which streaks a thundercloud.
Such dusky grandeur clothed the height,
Where the huge castle holds its state,
And all the steep slope down,
Whose ridgy back heaves to the sky,
Piled deep and massy, close and high,
Mine own romantic town!
But northward far, with purer blaze,
On Ochil mountains fell the rays,
And as each heathy top they kissed,
It gleamed a purple amethyst.
Yonder the shores of Fife you saw;
Here Preston Bay and Berwick Law:
And, broad between them rolled,
The gallant Firth the eye might note,
Whose islands on its bosom float,
Like emeralds chased in gold.'

Sir David Wilkie, looking with the artist's eye and speaking with voice of authority, was no less enthusiastic. `What the tour of Europe was necessary to see elsewhere,' he says, ` I now find congregated in this one city. Here are alike the beauties of Prague and of Salzburg, here are the romantic sites of Orvieto and Tivoli, and here is all the magnificence of the admired bays of Genoa and Naples. Here, indeed, to the poetic fancy, may be found realized the Roman Capitol and the Grecian Acropolis.' And, says Mr Halla -

'Even thus, methinks, a city reared should be,
Yea, an imperial city, that might hold
Five times an hundred noble towns in fee,
And, either with the might of Babel old
Or the rich Roman pomp of Empery,
Might stand compare, highest in arts enrolled,
Highest in arms, brave tenement for the free,
Who never crouch to thrones, or sin for gold.
Thus should her towers be raised, with vicinage
Of clear bold hills, that curve her very streets,
As if to vindicate, 'mid choicest seats
Of art, abiding Nature's majesty,-
And the broad sea beyond, in calm or rage,
Chainless alike, and teaching liberty.'

From all the higher points of vantage, also, the views of the surrounding landscape are full of charm, and the monotony of long lines of buildings is relieved by glimpses of hill or of sea, as the eye wanders over a wide and varied range of country extending from the Lammermuirs on the SE to the Grampians on the NW, and from the North Sea on the E to the mountains about the sources of the Forth on the W; while nearer hand is the blue expanse of the Firth, with the hills of Fife beyond, and, all around on the other three sides, the fertile and well-wooded undulations of the Lothians. Nor is the surrounding landscape lost even in the very centre of the town, for from points in the streets brief but pleasant glimpses of it may be caught. Arthur's Seat in one direction, and the Firth of Forth, with Fife beyond, in another, suddenly make their appearance as we turn some corner-'a perspective of a mile or more of falling street, and beyond that woods and villas, and a blue arm of the sea, and the hills upon the farther side.' Even into the city itself the country may be said to penetrate, so numerous are the open spaces with grass and shrubs and trees, the freshness and beauty of which are none the less appreciated from their contrast with the buildings or business bustle around. `The finest view from the interior,' says Alexander Smith, 'is obtained from the corner of St Andrew Street, looking W. Straight before you the Mound crosses the valley, bearing the white Academy buildings; beyond, the Castle lifts, from grassy slopes and billows of summer foliage, its weather-stained towers and fortifications, the Half-Moon battery giving the folds of its standard to the wind. Living in Edinburgh there abides, above all things, a sense of its beauty. Hill, crag, castle, rock, blue stretch of sea, the picturesque ridge of the Old Town, the squares and terraces of the New - these things, seen once, are not to be forgotten. The quick life of to-day sounding around the relics of antiquity, and overshadowed by the august traditions of a kingdom, makes residence in Edinburgh more impressive than residence in any other British city. What a poem is that Princes Street! The puppets of the busy, many-coloured hour move about on its pavement, while across the ravine Time has piled up the Old Town, ridge on ridge, grey as a rocky coast washed and worn by the foam of centuries; peaked and jagged by gable and roof; windowed from basement to cope; the whole surmounted by St Giles's airy crown. The New is there looking at the Old. Two Times are brought face to face, and are yet separated by a thousand years. Wonderful on winter nights, when the gully is filled with darkness, and out of it rises, against the sombre blue and the frosty stars, that mass and bulwark of gloom, pierced and quivering with innumerable lights. There is nothing in Europe to match that. Could you but roll a river down the valley it would be sublime. Finer still, to place one's self near the Burns Monument and look toward the Castle. It is more astonishing than an Eastern dream. A city rises up before you painted by fire on night. High in air a bridge of light leaps the chasm; a few emerald lamps, like glowworms, are moving silently about in the railway station below; a solitary crimson one is at rest. That ridged and chimneyed bulk of blackness, with splendour bursting out at every pore, is the wonderful Old Town, where Scottish history mainly transacted itself ; while, opposite, the modern Princes Street is blazing throughout its length. During the day the Castle looks down upon the city as if out of another world; stern with all its peacefulness, its garniture of trees, its slopes of grass. The rock is dingy enough in colour ; but, after a shower, its lichens laugh out greenly in the returning sun, while the rainbow is brightened on the lowering sky beyond. How deep the shadow which the Castle throws at noon over the gardens at its feet where the children play! How grand when giant bulk and towery crown blacken against sunset! Fair, too, the New Town sloping to the sea. From George Street, which crowns the ridge, the eye is led down sweeping streets of stately architecture to the villas and woods that fill the lower ground, and fringe the shore; to the bright azure belt of the Forth with its smoking steamer or its creeping sail; beyond, to the shores of Fife, soft blue, and flecked with fleeting shadows in the keen clear light of spring, dark purple in the summer heat, tarnished gold in the autumn haze; and farther away still, just distinguishable on the paler sky, the crest of some distant peak, carrying the imagination into the illimitable world.'

Geology.-Edinburgh has always been a favourite field for geological investigation. Ever since the days of Hutton, the volcanic rocks which are so well developed on Arthur's Seat, the Calton Hill, and at the Castle, have been the subject of careful study among geologists. The striking features to which these igneous rocks give rise, arrest the attention even of the non-scientific observer. Indeed, few cities present such remarkable facilities for examining the structure and physical relations of ancient volcanic rocks. The literature bearing on the geology of Edinburgh and its environs is rather voluminous. Amongst the various writers on the subject, the names of Hutton, Playfair, Sir James Hall, Hibbert, Jamieson, Hay Cunningham, Edward Forbes, Hugh Miller, Charles M'Laren, Sir Archibald Geikie, R. Chambers, Milne Home, and Judd may be mentioned. Special reference ought to be made to the admirable volume on The Geology of Fife and the Lothians, by Charles M'Laren, and to Sir Archibald Geikie's lucid description of the geology of Edinburgh.

With the exception of Blackford Hill, which is a continuation of the Lower Old Red Sandstone volcanic rocks of the Pentlands, the newer portion of Arthur's Seat, and several isolated veins of igneous rock, the solid rocks which underlie the city of Edinburgh and Leith belong to the lowest divisions of the Carboniferous system. On account of the strata being largely impregnated with lime, they were appropriately named by M`Laren the Calciferous Sandstone Series - a term which is now generally applied to them. They may be arranged in three divisions:



Calciferous Sandstone Series

Cementstone Series

3. An upper division of white sandstones, black and blue shales, containing nodules of clay ironstone.

2. A middle division of interbedded volcanic rocks, consisting of basalts, porphyrites, and tuffs, with intercalated beds of Sandstone

Red Sandstone Series

1. A lower division of red and mottled sandstones, red, green, and grey shales and marls, with

calcareous nodules and bands merging occasionally into pure limestones. Coarse conglomerates occur at the base of this group.



The members of the lowest division occupy an irregular area, bounded by the Braid Hills on the S, Arthur's Seat on the E, and the Calton Hill on the N, while the western limit is sharply defined by the great fault extending from Craiglockhart north-eastwards by Merchiston and the Castle Esplanade, to the NW slope of Calton Hill. Within this area the strata are arranged in the form of a low arch, the crest of which runs from Blackford Hill to St Andrew Square. As this anticlinal fold is truncated on the W by the fault just referred to, it is only on the E side of the arch that the complete succession can be traced. The lowest beds are exposed in the neighbourhood of Blackford Hill, where they consist of conglomerates composed of pebbles, chiefly derived from the Old Red Sandstone volcanic rocks. They rest unconformably on these igneous rocks, and are not faulted against them, as has hitherto been supposed. It is important to note that the strata to the W of Blackford Hill occupy a higher horizon than those on the E side. As we pass to the SW this overlap gradually increases till the members of the Upper or Cementstone Series rest directly on the Old Red Sandstone formation. This overlap indicates the gradual submergence of the Pentland ridge in the early part of the Carboniferous period. At the beginning of that period the Pentlands formed a promontory jutting far into the sea in which the red sandstones were deposited, but eventually the ridge was submerged and buried beneath the accumulating sediment of the succeeding groups. Excellent sections of these basement conglomerates were exposed in 1881-82 in the cuttings of the Suburban railway.

Next in order come the sandstones of Craigmillar, and the strata which are exposed in the southern part of the town, consisting of red sandstones with red and green marls. In the districts of Newington, Grange, the Meadows, and Warrender Park, these beds dip to the N at angles varying from 10 to 15 degrees, while to the W of these localities they dip to the NW-thus indicating the dome-shaped arrangement of the strata. Excellent sections were exposed in 1879-81 in connection with the building operations in Warrender Park. They also occur in Gilmore Place with an inclination to the NW, and they reappear at the head of Keir Street with an easterly dip. The anticlinal axis must therefore run northwards between these two points. The same beds are well displayed on the S slope of the Castle Esplanade as seen from Johnston Terrace. In this well-known section, the honeycombed sandstones with red and green marls are brought into conjunction with the plug of basalt on which the Castle stands, by the great fault already referred to. They dip to the E at an angle of from 15 to 20 degrees, but as they approach the fault they become horizontal, and eventually bend over till they conform to the hade of the fault, which is inclined at an angle of 80 degrees to the NW. The SE slope of the plug of basalt is beautifully slickensided. The striae, however, are not vertical, but are slightly inclined to the NE, showing a faint lateral thrust in that direction, as well as a downthrow to the NW. From the Castle east­wards to Holyrood and the Hunter's Bog there is a continuous easterly dip at an average angle of 15 degrees, where the strata pass conformably below the inter­bedded volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat (division 2). Fossils rarely occur in the red sandstones. Fragments of wood have been found in the beds at Craigmillar, which are probably the remains of pine-like Araucaria. In the quarry above Salisbury Crags, a small Estheria Peachii was found by Mr Grieve. Under St Anthony's Chapel, in a bed crammed with vegetable matter, Mr Bryson found specimens of Dadoxylon, and Sir Archibald Geikie obtained fragments of Poacites and the remains of Rhizodus Hibberti. The beds at that locality lie above the first interbedded lava-flow, now represented by the Long Row, and it is probable, therefore, that they belong to the Cementstone Series.

Towards the close of the deposition of the red sand­stones volcanic activity seems to have begun in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. From certain volcanic orifices streams of lava and showers of ashes were ejected and spread over the sea-floor, which at intervals were commingled with ordinary sediment. The records of this volcanic action are still preserved to us on Arthur's Seat, the Calton Hill, and at Craiglockhart. These interbedded volcanic rocks must be carefully distinguished from the three great intrusive sheets of igneous rock which were injected between the red sand­stones forming the western base of Arthur's Seat. On account of their durability these intrusive sheets have more successfully resisted the denuding agencies than the intervening sandstones, and hence they now form the prominent escarpments of St Leonard's, Salisbury Crags, and the Dasses. The first outflow of lava is represented by the compact basalt of the Long Row, which is overlaid by tuffs, volcanic breccias, and ashy sand­stones which are well exposed at the Dry Dam. The general character of these volcanic ashes is different from the coarse agglomerate which now forms the higher part of the hill, and which was ejected at a much later date. The tuffs and ashy sandstones are succeeded by basaltic lavas and porphyrites, the latter forming the slopes of the Whinny Hill and Dunsappie. The junction of these rocks with the overlying shales and sandstones (division 3) is not seen on the eastern slope of Arthur's Seat, owing to the covering of superficial deposits. The evidence is supplied, however, by the section on Calton Hill.

The contemporaneous volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat are truncated on the N side by an E and W fault-an offshoot from the main dislocation trending from Craiglockhart by the Castle to the NW slope of Calton Hill. This branching fault has a downthrow to the N, and by means of it the outcrop of the interbedded volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat has been shifted about half a mile to the W as far as the Calton Hill. The existence of this fault was clearly proved in the course of draining operations along the Canongate, where a continuous section was exposed of red sandstones and marls, with a few dykes of igneous rock. The succession of the volcanic rocks of Calton Hill closely resembles that of Arthur's Seat. At the base there is a series of basaltic lavas and tuffs which are overlaid by porphyrites forming the higher part of the hill. To the E they are rapidly succeeded by black shales and sandstones (division 3) occurring in the gardens of Royal Terrace, while on the NW slope of the hill they are abruptly cut off by the great fault already described.

The strata of the upper division differ from the red sandstones in lithological character, and particularly in the greater abundance of fossils. Within the present area, the prominent members of the Cementstone Series are the white sandstones of Granton and Craigleith, and the Wardie shales. Beyond the limits of the Edinburgh district it comprises the well-known oil shales of Midlothian and the Burdiehouse Limestone which has become celebrated for the great abundance of ichthyolites and crustaceans embedded in it. The occurrence of such a thick mass of limestone in the series, however, is quite exceptional, as the calcareous bands are usually found in seams only a few inches thick. It was formerly supposed that the sandstones of Granton and Craigleith occupied a higher horizon than the Wardie shales, but it is evident from recent investigations that they underlie the shales. On the shore, at Granton, the sandstones form an arch the axis of which runs N and S. On the E side of the anticline they dip to the E, and are succeeded by thin bedded sandstones and shales, which eventually pass underneath the Wardie shales. The latter are repeated by gentle undulations eastwards as far as Trinity. The sandstones at Craigleith are evidently the inland prolongations of those on the shore, as the strike of the beds is nearly N and S. In this quarry the beds dip both to the E and SW as if curving round an anticlinal fold. A characteristic feature of the sandstones at both localities is the presence of numerous remains of plants in a fragmentary form, one of the most abundant being Sphenopteris a jinis. Huge trunks of coniferous trees have also been obtained from these beds. These sandstones make excellent building material, and have been largely quarried for this purpose ; indeed the greater part of Edinburgh has been built of this stone.

The Wardie beds consist of black and blue shales, in which are embedded nodules of clay ironstone. The nodules have yielded fish remains, coprolites, and plants. When these bands are traced inland, they become intercalated with bands of sandstone, but the shales form the essential feature of the subdivision. By means of the fault extending from Craiglockhart by the Castle to Calton Hill, the members of the Cementstone Series are brought into conjunction with successive beds of the Red Sandstone division. On the NW slope of the Calton Hill they are thrown against the volcanic series (division 2), while to the NE of that locality the effect of the displacement is to bring different members of the Cementstone Series against each other. It is evident therefore that the fault is decreasing in amount towards the NE. Along the W side of this fault the Wardie shales are generally inclined to the NW. In the neighbourhood of St Andrew Square, however, they form a well-marked anticline, which has already been referred to as the northern prolongation of the arch running southwards to Blackford Hill. In 1865 Mr G. C. Haswell recorded an interesting exposure on the W side of Hanover Street, at the corner of Rose Street, where the strata, consisting of sandstones, shales, and fireclay, form an anticline and syncline within a horizontal distance of about 12 feet. They were lately seen on the E side of Hanover Street, in the course of excavations at Rose Street, having a north-westerly dip at angles varying from 40 to 50 degrees. M `Laren noted the occurrence of similar beds at the New Club in Princes Street. Upwards of 100 feet of dark shales dip to the NW at the West Church Manse. They crop out in the cuttings of the Caledonian and Suburban railways, and they are also exposed at the Dean near the Dean Bridge. At these localities they are inclined to the NW, and a similar dip continues to near Coltbridge, which forms the centre of a synclinal fold. From this point westwards we have a gradually descending series towards the Corstorphine Hill and the Craigleith sandstones.

Reference has already been made to the fish remains and plants embedded in the ironstone nodules, but there are certain bands of shales in this subdivision which are of special importance on account of the marine fauna which they have yielded. They occur at Granton, Craigleith, the Dean Bridge, Drumsheugh, and Woodhall, and at all these localities there is a marked identity in the species of fossils. These horizons have been explored by Messrs Henderson and Bennie, who have collected a great variety of marine forms from them, upwards of 17 well-defined species having been disinterred from the Woodhall shales alone. Some of the species are typical of the Carboniferous Limestone, which overlies the Cementstone Series. The following fossils are characteristic of these beds Spirorbis carbonarius, Lingula squamriformis, L. mytiloides, Avicula Hendersoni, Myalina crassa, Bellerophon decussates, Murchisonia striatula, Orthoceras attenuatum, 0. cylindraceum. This assemblage of fossils is widely different from that met with in the Burdie­house Limestone, which is essentially a fresh or brackish water deposit. Indeed, a careful examination of the fossils derived from the various members of the Cementstone Series seems to prove that during their deposition there must have been an alternation of estuarine and marine conditions.

The interbedded volcanic rocks at Craiglockhart are probably on the same horizon as those on Arthur's Seat and the Calton Hill. At the base there is a considerable development of felspathic tuff, which is overlaid by basaltic lava. This latter rock, which is a coarse variety of basalt, presents features of great beauty when examined microscopically, showing prisms of labradorite with minute grains of augite. This mineral also occurs in distinct crystals, and the olivine, which is apparent even to the naked eye, is also well represented. These volcanic rocks are inclined to the NW, and are succeeded by sandstones and shales, while on the N side they are abruptly cut off by a fault.

The history of the intrusive igneous rocks of the Edinburgh district and the later volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat is full of interest. Reference has already been made to the three great intrusive sheets of the Heriot Mount, Salisbury Crags, and the Dasses, which belong to the period of volcanic activity towards the close of the deposition of the red sandstones. These rocks, which consist of coarsely crystalline dolerites, were not erupted at the surface like the contemporaneous lavas and tuffs of the Long Row, the Dry Dam, and Whinny Hill. Their intrusive character is clearly proved by their relations to the overlying and underlying strata. The sandstones and shales both above and below these sheets have been altered by contact with them, and the two lower ones gradually steal across the edges of the intervening strata till they unite to form the great columnar mass of Samson's Ribs.

But these igneous masses are of older date than those which cap the hill. There can be little doubt that the former belong to the period of volcanic activity at the close of the Red Sandstone Series. We have already pointed out that the older volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat lie on the E side of the anticlinal axis, on which the S part of Edinburgh stands, and that they are regularly succeeded by the higher divisions of the Carboniferous system. Long before the eruption of the later volcanic materials, the older rocks had been tilted to the E, and had been subjected to prolonged denudation. A vast thickness of material had been removed. The softer sedimentary strata had been worn into hollows, and the harder igneous rocks of Salisbury Crags, the Dasses, and the Long Row projected as ridges before the renewal of volcanic activity. The later igneous rocks consist of coarse agglomerate and basalt, the former being ejected before the basalt. The coarse ash is admirably displayed in the Queen's Drive, where the blocks are extremely large, from an examination of which it is evident that they have been derived from the older rocks of the hill. On the top of Arthur's Seat there is a mass of basalt, filling the vent from which these coarse agglomerates were discharged. The basalt of the lion's haunch is part of a lava flow which rests on the agglomerate, and sends down a branching vein into it. No precise age can be assigned to these later ejections. All that can be safely averred is, that they are more recent than the Lower Carboniferous period.

The rock on which the Castle stands consists of a compact basalt with a marked columnar structure. It is an oval-shaped mass, which, save on the E side, is surrounded by beds of division 3, and on account of its greater hardness has more successfully resisted denudation. It closely resembles many of the volcanic necks which are so common among the Scotch Carboniferous rocks. They represent the vents from which the lavas and ashes were discharged, and are now filled with tuff or crystalline rocks. The neck on which the Castle stands is abruptly truncated on the E side by the great fault which has been frequently referred to, and by means of this dislocation it trust have been thrown down from a much higher level.

At various localities throughout Edinburgh veins and dykes of basalt and dolerite occur. Some of these have an E and W trend, and are probably of Tertiary age. One of them is exposed in the path leading up to the Calton Hill, at the back of Greonside church, where it is intruded among the volcanic rocks of the hill. They are also to be seen in the Water of Leith near the Dean Bridge, and in the cutting of the Caledonian railway near Coltbridge. Several veins have been traced in the old part of the town: one from the foot of St Mary Street to St Patrick Square, and another from the eastern part of the Cowgate to the University.

The effects of glaciation are still fresh in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. The rounded contour of the, ground and the striated surfaces alike point to the operation of this agent On the Corstorphine Hill several striated surfaces occur which were first observed by Sir James Hall, the direction of the markings being a few degrees N of E. At one point on the N side of the Castle, nearly horizontal strhe were observed on a vertical face of rock pointing in a similar direction. On the Calton Hill there are several examples, and a striated surface was long to be seen at the side of the road leading to the Nelson Monument. Other examples were met with at the side of the Low Calton, owing to the removal of the boulder clay, the general trend being ENE. I n the Queen's Park they occur oil the top of the Salisbury Crags, and the splendid roche moutonnée in the Queen's Drive, above Samson's Ribs, is now well known. A remarkable example of an overhanging cliff with a striated surface is to be seen on the road leading to Duddingston, in what is locally designated 'the Windy Gowl'-a phenomenon which could only have been produced by glacier ice. In the course of 1882 well-preserved atriaa were observed by Mr B. N. Peach within 100 feet of the top of Arthur's Seat, at the top of the gully known by the name of 'the Gutted paddy.' Hero the ice-markings ascend the slope at an angle of 20° on a nearly vertical face of rock. The direction is E 18° N, and front the appearances presented by the striated surfaces it is evident that they were produced by ice moving towards the ENE. At Crainmnillar the striae run approximately E and Vin; and again, on the Braid Hills, where they are very plentiful, the trend is to the S of E. 'Striated Ipavements' in the boulder clay have been observed Loth by Hugh Miller and Sir Archibald Geikie, indi. eating an ice movement in an ENE direction. All these instances prove that Edinburgh was glaciated by ice moving towards the E, while here and there slight local deflections were produced by the irregular contour of the ground.

The greatest accumulation of boulder clay is that which covers Princes Street. In the low-lying parts of the town it is buried beneath the alluvial deposits of ancient lochs or is overlapped by the accumulations of the raised beaches. Along the coast-line it crops out from underneath these marine deposits. About 1867 a fine exposure of boulder clay was made in the course of the excavations for the Albert Dock at Leith. It consisted of a tough dark clay charged with blocks of various sizes from widely separated localities. Along with the blocks of local origin there were stones which had come from Corstorphinc Hill, the Mons Hill, Cannpsie Fells, and the Grampians. Similar evidence is obtained from the patches of boulder clay round Arthur's Seat. On the Queen's Drive, where the second escarpment begins leading down to Duddingston, there is a cousiderAe thickness of this deposit overlying the Carboniferous red marls. It is fawn-coloured, and consists mainly of sandstone blocks associated with boulders of Carboniferous limestone, fragrnents of coal, black shale, diabase, porphyrites, quartz rock pebbles from the neighbourhood of Callander, and schists from the Grampians. The same commingling of foreign and local rocks is observable in the small patch, in the gully named 'the Gutted Haddy,' at a height of over 700 feet. This locality is considerably above the level of the sources from which some of the blocks have been derived, so that they could not have been transported I by the agency of floating ice.

The deposits of the 100 feet beach lap round the bills on which Edinburgh stands, their inland margin never rising much above this level. They consist of a great series of stratified sands and clays which once formed an almost continuous plain, but which has been trenched and worn into hollows by prolonged denudation. Where a section can be obtained it is evident that the mounds on which the marine deposits rest have been carved out of the solid rock. Though the finely stratified sands predouunate in these beds, yet in places they wholly consist of finely laminated clay free from stones. Occasionally there are layers of small stones as if they had been dropped into the accumulating sediment by floating ice. These are mostly local, but a few have been transported from the Grampians. Sonic chalk stones and chalk flints also occur in the class, the former resembling the Danish chap: in the island of Faxoe. One of the best sections for examining this deposit is the clay pit at Portobello. In this section there are certain bands highly cram(rled, while the beds above and below are undisturbed. In 1881 all excellent section was exposed in Warriston Hark, nearly opposite the gate leading into the Botanic Garden, where several layers of these crumpled beds occurred, the intervening layers of sand being free from any contortion. The folds were mostly inverted, and inclined to the SW. Those phenomena may be accounted for by supposing that, during the deposition of these beds, they were occasionally subjected to the movement of pack ice driven on to the banks of sand and mud during low tide by the NE winds blowing up the Firth. The partly consolidated clays were pushed laterally by the ice as it was driven shorewards. As the ice floated or melted away, the crumpled clays were again overlaid by ordinary sediment. fife crumpling might recur at intervals with severe weather, a low tide, and NE winds. This supposition is strengthened by an examination of the contents of the beds. The shells are of an arctic type, and are not abundant; while the Foranunifera and Entoneostraca are also arctic. The clays consist of the finest sediment - the flour of the rocks, in fact - and are almost destitute of organic matter. They point to a time when the rivers flowing into the Forth were turbid with glacial mud, when the laud surface was nearly devoid of vegetation, and when the estuary was not suitable for the growth of alae.

The 50 feet beach has been carved out of the deposits of the older terrace, the underlying boulder clay, and the solid rock. It forms a narrow stri along the coast, the broadest part occurring at the Leith Links. This ancient beach is bounded by a low inland cliff which is still tolerably steep where it consists of solid rock, but in those place, where it is carved out of boulder clay, or the 100 feet terrace, it is merely a sloping bank. The strata coucist of sand and gravel with occasional shells. Hugh Miller drew attention to some interesting facts connected with the old beach near Fillyside Bank between Leith and Portobello. The stones found on the surface are encrusted by Serpulae and perforated by Sazicava, while the under valves of oysters are fre­quently attached to the boulders. Equally interesting is the occurrence of dfyu truncates, which has been preserved with the siphuncular cud uppermost in the act of burrowiug in tlae boulder clay which forms the floor of the beach at this point. In all likelihood this part of the old sea bottom may have formed an oyster scalp. The localities where these shells occur are from 4 to 8 feet above the highest stream tides, and from 30 to 38 feet above the position where they arc now found living. The elevation of the laud to its present level seems to have taken place since its occupation by man, for in the continuation of this beach farther up the Firth numerous skeletons of whales have been found along with the rude implements which were used by our ancestors. Some years ago a whale was discovered near Gargunnock, the brain of which, in all probability, had been extracted for food, the skull having been broken open at the thinnest part. Hard by was found the implement which had evidently been used for this purpose. A comparison of the marks on the face of the implement with those on the skull showed that they perfectly agreed. Kitchen middens are found at various places along the base of the cliff forming the inner margin of this terrace. The bed of oyster shells referred to by M'Laren as occurring at Seafield is in all probability of this nature. It is rather a remarkable fact that the brick clays belonging to this beach have a fetid odour owing to the amount of animal and vegetable matter they contain. At the head of the Leith Links there are several dunes of blown sand which date back to the time when the sea rolled inwards on this beach.

In the course of the excavation of its present channel, the Water of Leith has formed several alluvial terraces which belong to post-glacial and recent times, the highest, of course, being the oldest. The successive terraces are best developed where the river has cut through the deposits of the 100 feet sea beach. The lower portion of the Warriston Cemetery occupies one of these higher terraces. In connection with this subject it is interesting to note the occurrence of a buried river channel near Coltbridge, which was proved by a series of bores put down by Mr Jeffrey. One bore, which was sunk to the S of the brewery, passed through 60 feet of superficial deposits before reaching the sandstones and shales. In a second bore, a short distance to the N, 7 2 feet of drift were pierced when a dyke of igneous rock was reached. A few yards further N a third bore was put down through 200 feet of superficial deposits before reaching the solid rock. As the surface of the ground at that locality is only about 150 feet above the sea, it is evident that the bottom of this old channel must be considerably below the present datum-line. This is evidently one of those buried river-channels, of which there are several examples on the E coast of Scotland and England, pointing to a considerable elevation of the land, probably in pre-glacial times.

Edinburgh formerly possessed several sheets of water which have now disappeared. The hollow along which the North British Railway passes was occupied by a chain of lochs. The Nor' Loch, to the N of the Castle, was celebrated as the place where the witches passed through their ordeal. The Grassmarket and the Cowgate overlie the alluvium of an ancient loch, the traces of which are now almost obliterated. In the Queen's Park, the place known as the King's Mire was covered by a sheet of water. The Meadows occupy the site of the Borough Loch, the shell marl being occasionally exposed in the drains there, varying in thickness from a few inches to 6 feet. Several species of Limncca, Planorbis, CycZas, and Valvata have been obtained from this deposit, along with a few valves of Entomostraca. The skull and horns of the Cervus Elephas have also been disinterred from the alluvial deposits of the Meadows. This interesting relic is now preserved in the Museum of the Antiquarian Society in Edinburgh. A large sheet of water formerly extended from Corstorphine to Gorgie and Coltbridge, which has been drained by the gorge of the Water of Leith. An interesting notice occurs in the Scotsman of 13 April 1833, with reference to the occurrence of a considerable depth of moss in the old town. In the course of the excavations of the new court buildings in Parliament Square, a remnant of the City Wall, erected in 1450, was laid bare; and in the mossy soil below it, about 3 feet under the foundation, a number of entire skeletons were found, showing that the ground had been used for burial before the wall was built. In some places the moss was 15 feet deep.

Though the physical features of Edinburgh were mainly determined in pre-glacial times, there can be little doubt that they were largely modified during the glacial period. Those remarkable features of `crag and tail,' which are well displayed on the Castle rock, the Calton Hill, Salisbury Crags, and Arthur's Seat, were partly developed during the great extension of the ice. In the foregoing examples the projecting crags or bosses of rock face the W, which is the direction from which the ice came; while the ridge or `tail' on the lee side slopes gently towards the E. As the ice impinged on these projecting masses, the lower portion of the sheet would be deflected and compelled to move round the sides, while the higher portion would overflow the es­carpments. One can readily understand that the erosion would necessarily be greatest at the base and round the sides of the crags. The Nor' Loch and the Grassmarket Loch were probably rock basins due to this cause. The hollow at the Meadows may likewise be of glacial origin. At that locality the strike of the beds nearly coincides with the direction of the ice-flow; and as the red sand­stones crop out to the S in Warrender Park, it is probable that they are overlaid by softer strata occupying the site of the Meadows, which would be more readily excavated by the ice. And so also the hollow at Morningside must have been deepened by the pressure of the ice escaping round the N end of Blackford Hill. Indeed it is rather remarkable that the hollows and ancient lochs throughout Edinburgh are found in those places where they ought theoretically to occur, on the supposition that the district was glaciated by an ice sheet moving in an ENE direction.

Extent.-The area within the municipal and parliamentary boundary, excluding however Portobello, forms an irregular polygon of seven sides, with St Giles' Church as the centre, distant about 14 mile from the middle of each side. The extreme width, from the point where Ferry Road and Newhaven Road intersect on the N to the boundary line to the south of the Braid Hill on the S, is 4¼ miles; and the extreme length, from the corner of Henderson Terrace and the Corstorphine Road on the W to the point where the road from Duddingston crosses the Braid Burn after it leaves Duddingston Loch on the E, is 3¾ miles. The municipal and parliamentary boundaries coincide, except that the former does not include the Blackford and Braid Hills, nor part of the Inverleith Public Park. The number of acres comprised within the boundary is 6116½. Starting at the extreme northerly point, at the intersection of Ferry Road, the line passes in a SE direction along the centre of Bonnington Place, Bonnington Road, and Pilrig Street to Leith Walk, thence ESE in a straight line to near the middle of the west side of Lochend Loch, then straight NE for about 260 yards to the road passing Lochend House, along this road SE to the Restalrig Road, thence in a straight line to the London Road at the corner of Meadowbank, along the London Road to the corner of the barracks at Jock's Lodge, along Willowbrae Road till beyond Willowbrae Avenue, and thence back SW to the eastern boundary of the Queen's Park, following which it passes down to Duddingston Loch, round the east end of the loch, and along the road to Craigmillar as far as the bridge across the Braid Burn, which is the extreme easterly point. From the bridge it follows the course of the burn to the road at Peffermill, and then the centre of this road westward to Cameron Bridge. From Cameron Bridge it goes westward by Lady Road to Mayfield, thence in a straight line to the road leading from Mayfield Road to the Harrison Gateway at Blackford Hill, along this road, then round the boundaries of the Blackford and Braid Hills, and thence irregularly to the Comiston Road at the corner of Greenbank Terrace and Greenbank Place close to the South Morningside School. It then passes westward a little to the S of Comiston Drive to the NE corner of the grounds of the City Poorhouse, and thence in an irregular line almost due north to the Suburban Railway; the eastern side of this it then follows irregularly southward to the SW corner of the North British Distillery, and passes thence in a straight line NNW to near the corner of Corstorphine Road and Henderson Terrace, which is the most westerly point. From this point it strikes in a straight line NE to the junction of the Comely Bank Road with that which skirts the west side of the Fettes College grounds, passes eastward along Comely Bank Road to the road leading to the main entrance to Fettes College, from that again NNE to the western entrance to the Inverleith Public Park, round the park to the N entrance, thence in a straight line NNE to near the Free Church opposite the S end of Granton Road, and then eastward along Ferry Road to the starting point. These boundaries have been somewhat altered by the Amalgamation Act of 1896, which included within the municipality Portobello and other districts.

Architecture.-The architectural features of the Old Town and the New present a very remarkable contrast from every point of view. According to Mr R. L. Stevenson, indeed, old and new are but the complementary halves of a symmetrical whole, and the picturesqueness of the one part is brought out only by contrast with the other ; and assuredly grimy even as the Old Town has become, its quaint outlines have a peculiar charm of their own, and few things can be finer than the appearance - perhaps contrast - it presents when viewed on a bright summer afternoon from the Regent Road east of the Burns Monument. The older houses, which nearly all date from the restoration of the city after its destruction by the Earl of Hertford's rough wooing in 1544, had a substantial ground flat surmounted by wooden storeys, often reached by an outside stair, and with each successive flat projecting over the one beneath it, till the occupants of the top houses in the closes, or where the streets were narrow, could almost - in some cases actually - shake hands with their neighbours on the opposite side. Sometimes the outer stair was continued as far as the second floor, and at a somewhat later date the centre of the 'land' was pierced by an archway leading to a back court, where a projecting circular or octagonal tower, carried up the whole height of the building, contained a corkscrew (turnpike) staircase communicating with each floor. The gables were often crow-stepped, and on the steep roofs were generally dormer-windows sometimes a double row, after the Flemish fashion - with gablets and pediments. Where the houses had fronts all of stone the surface was relieved by string­courses, and by panels with armorial bearings or inscriptions, as well as by the carved lintels and pediments of the windows. Curious nondescript projections were corbelled out from the walls, as were also windows and corner turrets with conical or occasionally ogee roofs. The doorways, which were generally square-headed, were relieved by deep bold mouldings, and had often over the lintels coats-of-arms, initials, and inscriptions. In fact, the leading idea of the architects seems to have been not unity but harmony of design, combined with such individual freedom in the treatment of details as to secure a picturesque and graceful irregularity of outline, and at the same time a surface so broken up by projections, expected or unexpected, as to produce those effects of light and shade that alone satisfy the artistic eye, and which are often entirely awanting in more symmetrically designed buildings. When, on the other hand, the New Town was laid out, the idea of the Modern Athens, as suggested by Williams, or even previously, seems to have dominated the fancy of all the Edinburgh architects, and there was consequently among them an adherence either to strictly classical forms or to the modifications of them that came with the Renaissance. This is especially noteworthy in all the works of the brothers Adam, as well as in those of their successors Playfair and Hamilton, and though the taste and skill of these leaders were markedly successful in the case of large public and detached buildings, the adherence to the classical produced, in the lines of terrace and street, a uniformity that was in most cases alike monotonous and insipid. Towards the middle of the present century, however, a new departure took place, and under the guidance of David Bryce and his disciples there was a revival of designs conceived after the old Scottish style.

This has had most happy results, and coming as it did concurrently with a new interest in all forms of Gothic architecture, which has particularly affected ecclesiastical buildings, it has had a most pleasing effect on the picturesqueness of many parts of the city. Though rows and terraces are still to be found, the monotony of surface in those of later growth has at least been broken up and greater variety secured.

In many of the streets of Edinburgh, indeed, especially of the more recent ones, the buildings, mostly of white sandstone, may be said, notwithstanding Mr Ruskin's anathemas, to show features of considerable elegance, taste, and adaptability to site ; and some hideous exceptions - such as a clumsy imitation of a Greek temple in the midst of old buildings of Scottish type, or some awkward projection marring a good line in street or square - serve but to remind one that the Philistine is abroad and that the Cockburn Society has still work to do, as certainly as the beautiful examples remind us of the long line of eminent designers. It must be remembered that it is to her own sons that all the outstanding architectural features of the city, with only one or two exceptions, are due - who have tried to make Edinburgh beautiful, from the days of the building of St Giles and Heriot's Hospital down to those of the erection of Fettes College and the Medical School of the University. Return to top.

Lines of Street and Districts.-The city had its origin in the groups of buildings which must have begun at an early date to cluster round the Castle on the E .and S ; and these gradually spread eastward, and finally became united with others that had been spreading westward from Holyrood. The two together form what is called the Old Town, the main line of street running along the ridge that extends eastward from the Castle, and being known successively as Castle Hill, the Lawnmarket, High Street, and Canongate. South of this, and parallel to it, was the wide Grassmarket and the Cowgate. Between the two lines, and also extending N from the main ridge, were the numerous closes and wynds - the latter merely wider closes - for which Old Edinburgh was so famous. Many of the houses in this, the oldest, part of the town were destroyed by the great fires in 1824, and many more were removed by the operations carried out under the Improvement Act of 1867, by which many areas covered by squalid and ruinous buildings were cleared, and old streets and wynds either widened or replaced by new and more suitable thoroughfares, much to the welfare, physical and moral, of the inhabitants of those parts of the town. Some of the principal changes thus effected were the formation of Chambers Street, the widening of St Mary's Wynd and Blackfriars Wynd, the substitution of Jeffrey Street and Cranston Street for Leith Wynd, and the substitution of Victoria Street for the West Bow.

A wall seems to have inclosed the part of the town next the Castle from a very early date, and in 1450 this was extended so as to include all the Edinburgh of the period, which, as thus limited, seems to have consisted of the Castle Hill, the Lawnmarket, and the High Street, with the closes leading from them. Outside this wall during the next fifty years considerable suburbs grew up, and hence in the panic that followed the battle of Flodden in 1513 extensions of the fortifications became necessary, and a fresh wall was built, mainly by amateur labour, in great haste, as the remains of it at the Vennel and along the N side of Drummond Street still show. This passed southward from the Castle across the W end of the Grassmarket and up the E side of the Vennel, thence along Lauriston and Teviot Place, at the corner of which it turned abruptly N for a short distance to the end of Bristo, and thereafter resumed its eastward course by the back of the Industrial Museum, the S of the University, and the line of Drummond Street to the N end of the Pleasance. There it turned northward, and passing along the W side of St Mary's Wynd (now widened into St Mary Street) and its then continuation - Leith Wynd - terminated at the E end of the Nor' Loch. It was subsequently extended in 1540 and 1560, so as to include the site of Trinity College Church, immediately to the E of the Nor' Loch. There were gates at the SW corner of the Grassmarket, the West Port ; at the Bristo, Bristo or Society Port ; at the end of the Potterrow, Potterrow Port; at the end of the Cowgate, the Cowgate Port; at the end of the High Street, the Netherbow Port. Leith Wynd was also shut off at the N end by the Leith Wynd Port, and St Mary's Wynd at the S end by the St Mary's Wynd Port, close to the Cowgate Port. The Netherbow Port, as rebuilt in 1606 [The gateway, as then existing, seems to have been a structure of some pretensions, and was by far the most important of all the gates in the city. A building of two storeys-supposed to have been modelled after one of the ancient gates of Paris-it had a carriage gateway in the centre, flanked by towers with sharp conical roofs on the side facing the Canongate. To the S of the main archway was a small wicket for foot-passengers, and over it was a square tower with pinnacled corners and an octagonal spire.] , ` was one of the objects selected by Queen Caroline for destruction, to gratify her vindictive feelings against Edinburgh at the time of the Porteous Mob ; but though then spared, thanks to the exertions of the patriotic Scottish members of Parliament of that day, it fell before the reforming zeal of the magistrates of the city themselves in 1764, in which year it was demolished by the worthy successors of those would-be improvers who a few years before destroyed the Town Cross, and fit predecessors of those who, in more recent times, assented to the ruin of the exterior of St Giles and the destruction of Trinity College Church, and of whom some have, even in the years of estheticism, been willing to agree to the construction of a railway-tunnel with all its `sweet' accompaniments underneath the line of Princes Street. The walls themselves gradually fell into decay, and the incidents of the rebellion of 1745 having shown their utter uselessness as means of defence, they were, with the exception of the portions indicated, removed from time to time as was found necessary.

The walls of 1450 and 1513 - the latter particularly - seem to have had a curious effect upon building operations. After the rude fright the suburban dwellers had received when news of Flodden arrived, there must have been an unwillingness on the part of the citizens to erect houses outside the walls, and as the population was steadily increasing, the only alternative was to rise into the air, and hence the origin of the lofty lands, or tenements, of nine, ten, or eleven storeys for which the Old Town was so long famous. Of these few now remain, the highest that are left being some houses at the top of the Mound, the back portion of the Royal Exchange Buildings, and some houses to the NW of the Calton Hill in Greenside. There are also examples of the differences of back and front elevations caused by the irregularities of the site of the city. Long before the fire, however, as early as 1750 indeed, it had been felt that extension was necessary, and longing eyes were cast on the rising ground to the N, to which, however, the deep hollow of the Nor' Loch-now filled by the straggling dinginess of the Waverley Station and by the Princes Street Gardens -seemed to bar the way. Disputes and delays took place, and the first extension accordingly took place to the S, where a builder named George Brown, after erecting Brown Square (where the W end of Chambers Street now is), in 1763-64, Proceeded immediately after to build George Square. St John's Street and New Street off the Canongate dated from about the same period. At length the difficulties of bridging the Nor' Loch hollow having been surmounted, and plans for the coming streets and squares having been prepared by James Craig, architect, a nephew of the poet Thomson, the New Town proper was at last begun, the foundation-stone of the first house, in Rose Court, George Street, having been laid by Mr Craig on 26 October 1767; and from that time the city has gone on extending in all directions.


The New Town was regularly laid out with streets along the ridge from N to S, crossed at right angles by others of less importance from E to W. Fronting the hollow of the old loch is the magnificent line of Princes Street, occupying the course of an old country road called the Lang Gaitt, and, afterwards, when fenced by stone walls, the Langdykes. It was widened on the S side in 1877, and has now a carriage-way of 68 feet. It is continued westward by the line of Shandwick Place and Athole Crescent (1850), and eastward by Waterloo Place and Regent Road (1815-19). Parallel to Princes Street along the top of the ridge is George Street, with St Andrew Square (1772-8) [The dates given for the different streets are of course approximate within a year or two, as sometimes a number of years naturally elapsed between commencement and completion.] at the E end and Charlotte Square (1800) at the W end. Farther N is Queen Street (1780), continued eastward by York Place (1785-90) and Picardy Place (1809), and westward by Albyn Place (1823). Picardy Place is so called as occupying the site of the little village of Picardy formed by French refugees from the province of that name, who came to Edinburgh after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Farther N still is the line of Albany Street, Abercrombie Place, and Heriot Row (all about 1820), passing westward into the circle of Moray Place (1823), and thence by Great Stuart Street (1823), Ainslie Place (1823), and Randolph Crescent (1823) into Queensferry Street. Randolph Crescent occupies part of the site and grounds of Drumsheugh House, some of the old trees still remaining in the gardens. North of this line again is Great King Street (1820), terminating on the E in the square of Drummond Place, and on the W in the circle of Royal Circus (1823).

The cross streets from Princes Street, from E to W, beginning at the E end, are St Andrew Street (1770)­continued northward to Drummond Place by Duke Street and Dublin Street- St David Street (1770), Hanover Street (1786)-continued northward by Dundas Street and Pitt Street- Frederick Street (1795)-continued northward to Royal Circus by Howe Street - Castle Street (1795), Charlotte Street, and Hope Street (the latter two about 1800). Branching off the eastern end of Princes Street to the NE is Leith Street, continued by Catharine Street and Greenside, leading to the broad and busy thoroughfare of Leith Walk. This line was made available for carriage traffic in 1772 along the course of an ancient footpath. Greenside takes its name from the green sides of the hollow between it and the Calton Hill, which was used as early as the time of James II as an arena for tournaments, wapenshaws, athletic sports, and dramatic exhibitions (some of Sir David Lyndsay's pieces were performed here ` fra nyne houris afore none till six houris at evin'), the slopes that rose all round affording excellent points of view for the spectators. It was also used as an occasional place of execution for those condemned for heresy or witch­craft, and also in one case at least of a murderer - Robert Irvine, a licentiate of the Church, who was hanged here in 1717 for the murder of two boys to whom he was tutor. Part of the ground was the site of a Carmelite monastery, which afterwards, in 1591, became a leper hospital, the inmates of which were to ` remayne thairin nicht and day . . . under the payne of hanging,' a penalty of which they were kept carefully in mind by the gibbet set up at `the gavel of the hose.' South­ward from the E end of Princes Street is the North Bridge, which is continued in a straight line by South Bridge, Nicolson Street, Clerk Street, Minto Street, Mayfield Street, and Craigmillar Park to the extreme S side at Powburn. South Bridge (1788) is carried over the wide hollow between the High Street and the University by a series of twenty-two arches, all of which, except that over the Cowgate, are, however, concealed by the buildings at the sides. As originally constructed there were shops below the street level with steps leading down to them, but these are now gone. Nicolson Street (1762) takes its name from Lady Nicolson, to whom the ground belonged, and who had her mansion near the N end. At the S end of the street she erected, as a memorial of her husband, a Corinthian pillar, which was shamefully broken up for rubbish when the street was extended southward. The suburb of Newington was laid out about 1800. Craigmillar Park was feued in the years subsequent to 1882. Near the centre of Princes Street, opposite Hanover Street, there is a southern line formed by the huge mass of earth known as The Mound, the winding Bank Street (1798), and George IV. Bridge. The Mound was formed, between 1781 and 1830, of some two million cartloads of earth and rubbish from the foundations and building of the houses of the New Town, and replaced a series of stepping stones across the marshy bed of the old Nor' Loch, from the originator of which it was at first known as ` Geordie Boyd's Brig.' For long the greater part of the area was let for temporary purposes, while there was a paved path and carriage-way along the E side; but after the erection of the buildings of the Royal Academy and the Royal Institution, the arrangement was altered, and the present path to the E and carriage-way to the W formed. George IV. Bridge (1827-36) is partly carried over the Cowgate hollow by a series of arches, of which, however, only two are open. From the S end of it the wide Chambers Street passes E to the South Bridge. This street, formed in 1872-6, under the Improvement Act of 1867, was named after the then provost, Mr William Chambers, the publisher, the chief promoter of the improvement scheme. It took the place of Brown Square (W end), Argyle Square (near the middle), North College Street, and Adam Square (E end). At the S end of George IV. Bridge there is a fork, and to the left Bristo Street, Buccleuch Street, Causeway­side, and Mayfield Road lead to the southern outskirts, while to the right Forrest Road (1850) and the Middle Meadow Walk lead to the Meadows. At the S end of Forrest Road is the cross line of Lauriston (W), and Teviot Place (1876), Lothian Street, and College Street (E), the former leading to Lothian Road and the latter to Nicolson Street. From the Cowgate at the S end of St Mary Street (1872) the line of the Pleasance and St Leonards and the Dalkeith Road runs southward to the W side of Craigmillar Park. Pleasance seems to be a corruption of Placentia, whence came the first nuns for the neighbouring convent of St Mary, which stood near the foot of the modern Roxburgh Street. St Leonards has its name from a chapel dedicated to that saint which formerly stood on the E side of St Leonards Lane at the entrance to the Queen's Park. Scott makes special mention of St Leonards Hill as the residence of the douce Davie Deans, and the little cottage in the park adjoining this entrance has been fixed on as the dwelling he had in his mind. Dumbiedykes, with the laird's town house, is farther north. At the S end was one of the places of public execution, as the names of Gibbet Toll and Gibbet Loan, at Messrs Nelson's works, remain to testify.

From the W end of Princes Street there passes off to the NW Queensferry Street, which is continued across the Dean Bridge by Queensferry Road (1866). To the W of Queensferry Street is an important residential district, in which the principal streets are Melville Street, Manor Place, Drumsheugh Gardens, and Rothesay Place (from 1850 onwards). Southward from the W end of Princes Street is Lothian Road (1795), which is continued to the southern outskirts by Earl Grey Street, Home Street, Leven Street, Bruntsfield Place, Morningside Road, and Comiston Road.

The principal districts of the city and suburbs are Warriston and Inverleith, E and W respectively of the continuation of Pitt Street; Calton, round the base of the Calton Hill; Abbeyhill, E of Calton Hill; Jock's Lodge and Parsons Green, NE of the Queen's Park; Sciennes, SE of the Meadows; Newington, E and W of Minto Street; Craigmillar Park, E and W of the street of the same name; the Grange, to the W of Newington; Warrender Park and Bruntsfield, W of the Grange; Morningside, on both sides of Morningside Road; Plewlands, S of Morningside; Myreside, W of Morningside; Merchiston, NW of Morningside; Fountainbridge, W of the Meadows; Dalry, NW of Merchiston; Coltbridge, NW of Dalry; the Dean, W of Dean Bridge; Stockbridge, NW of Royal Circus. These are all within the municipal boundary: just outside on the west is Murrayfield, W of Coltbridge; and still farther off on the Queensferry Road the estate of Barnton was in 1893 opened up for feuing purposes. Warriston, Inverleith, Newington, Craigmillar Park, the Grange, Bruntsfield, Morningside, Myreside, Merchiston, and Murrayfield are mostly composed of detached or semi-detached villa residences.

The Calton was, in 1631, erected by Lord Balmerino into a burgh of barony, and the baron bailie and office-bearers of the Incorporation of Trades managed all the affairs of the burgh till 1856, when it was included within the municipality. Thereafter the incorporation became practically a benefit society, and the member­ship having dwindled away, and all those depending on the funds having died, the whole remaining property was in 1887 transferred to the Edinburgh Town Council, who also undertook all the obligations, the chief of which are the maintenance of the High and Low Calton burying grounds. Sciennes is a corruption of Sienna, and the name is derived from St Catherine of Sienna, to whom was dedicated a convent erected here about 1514. The site is indicated by a tablet in the garden of the corner house of St Catherine's Place. The convent had as its chapel the little church of St John, erected on the Boroughmuir in 1512. Sciennes, as well as all the ground to the W and SW, now occupied by the Grange, Warrender Park, Bruntsfield, Morningside, Myreside, and Merchiston, formed the Boroughmuir, which was in 1336 the scene of a fierce encounter between the Scots under the Earls of Moray and March and a body of foreign mercenary troops under Count Guy of Namur, which was on its way to reinforce the army of Edward III., then encamped at Perth. The Boroughmuir was the place to which those under suspicion of the plague were removed when that middle­age scourge visited Edinburgh, and was also one of the places of public execution. In the time of James III. and James IV it was the mustering place for the armies, and it was here that the forces of James IV. assembled before setting out for the fatal field of Flodden. A little artificial mound near Bruntsfield House, called King James' Knowe, and traditionally the spot where the King stood while reviewing his troops ere they set out, was removed so recently as 1876, when the ground was feued, and the `Bore Stone,' on which the royal standard was set up, is still to be seen affixed to the enclosing wall of the Morningside Established Church. On a slope just above the Jordan Burn was the little church of St Roque, in the cemetery round which were interred those who died of the plague after being driven out to the Boroughmuir. The chapel was erected about 1501, and the ruins were removed in 1803. In the beginning of the sixteenth century part of the Boroughmuir was covered with wood, and indeed the whole area formed part of the great forest of Drumselch, which at an early period surrounded the city to W, S, and E, and from which comes the modern Drumsheugh. Return to top.

Old Streets and Localities, and Noteworthy Houses - Many of the old lanes, and houses in different localities, have become famous from either historical or literary associations, and may be conveniently grouped here as affording landmarks in the history of the city, and in the various developments of its progress. In the case of both lanes and houses many have been swept away by the march of modern improvement, and others have yielded to the ravages of time, so that there remains but to indicate where they once had visible form and shape. Beginning with the oldest part of the town, it may be noted of the Lawnmarket that it derived its name from the stalls or booths which used to be erected there, especially on market-days, for the sale of `linen.' It communicated with the High Street, so late as 1817, by means of a lane on the S for foot-passengers, and a narrow carriage-way on the N of the Luckenbooths, which extended along the street to the S of St Giles, and it was blocked at its W end till 1822 by a public weigh-house. Till the opening of Bank Street on the N in 1798, it had no lateral outlets except the closes to right and left and a quaint old street, called the West Bow, which descended westward in steep corkscrew fashion at its SW corner into the Grassmarket under the S of the Castle. The Lawnmarket, as well as the Castle Hill extending from it to the Castle Esplanade, was once a patrician quarter of the city, and the upper end of it was in early times a place of public execution for heretics, witches, traitors, and common criminals.

As the houses in the line of High Street and the Lawnmarket are numbered from E to W, we shall begin our enumeration from the E end, at the junction of St Mary Street and High Street, where stood the old Netherbow Port. Tweeddale Court, No. 10 Netherbow, contains what was once the town mansion of the noble family of Tweeddale, and in after times the head office of the British Linen Company's Bank, but which is now the publishing establishment of Oliver and Boyd. The alley which leads to this court was in 1806 the scene of a mysterious murder, a porter of the bank, of the name of Begbie, having been stabbed to the heart, and robbed of £4932, which he was conveying to the main office from a sub-office in Leith. Nearly opposite to Tweeddale Court stands what is traditionally known as John Knox's House, a good example of the more ancient, picturesque, and curiously gabled houses of the Old Town. Along the lintel of the ground floor, in old spelling, is the inscription, `Love God above all, and your neighbour as yourself;' whilst at the corner there is an effigy of what, from a frame there was once round it, was supposed to represent the reformer preaching, but was afterwards found, when the frame was removed, to be Moses receiving the ten commandments from the Lord - a more likely symbol for the house of the reformer than any effigies of himself. Considerable doubt has arisen whether Knox actually lived here. It does not seem to have been his home before 1569, but it may have been so from that date till his death in 1572. Hyndford's Close, at No. 50 High Street, contained the ancient mansion of the Earls of Hyndford, afterwards occupied by Sir Walter Scott's maternal grandfather and his uncle Dr Rutherford, and a frequent resort of Sir Walter when a boy. It was in this close that the famous Jean Maxwell, afterwards Duchess of Gordon, and her sister stayed in their romping girl-hood. Here, too, lived Lady Anne Barnard, the authoress of the ballad of `Auld Robin Gray.' South Gray's Close, at No. 56, contains the birthplace of the well-known Harry Erskine, and his brother the Lord Chancellor, and it leads down to Mint Court, the site of the national mint which was erected in 1574, and of the residences of Dr Cullen, Lord Hailes, Lord Belhaven, the Countess of Stair, Douglas of Cavers, and the famous Earl of Argyll, all of the latter part of the 17th century. Chalmers' Close, at No. 81, contained the mansion of the ancestors of the Earls of Hopetoun and the residence of Lord Jeffrey's grandfather, often frequented by Lord Jeffrey in his boyhood. Paisley's Close, at No. 101, was entered through a large lofty house of 1612, which contained the shop of Sir William Fettes, the founder of Fettes College, and which, on a night in November 1861, suddenly fell, burying 35 persons in its ruins. Todrick's Wynd, nearly opposite Paisley's Close, was the scene, in 1590, of a grand banquet given by the city magistrates to the Danish nobles who accompanied the queen of James VI. to Scotland. Blackfriars Wynd, at No. 96, now superseded by Blackfriars Street, took its name from a Blackfriars' monastery which stood on the slope facing its S end. It was, for more than five centuries, a highly aristocratic quarter, and included Cardinal Beaton among its inhabitants. Strichen's Close, at No. 104, contains what was the town mansion of the abbots of Melrose, afterwards occupied by Sir George Mackenzie, `the bluidy Mackenzie' of persecuting fame. Dickson's Close, at No. 118, contained the town mansion of the Halliburtons, and also the residence of `the Scottish Hogarth,' David Allan. Bishop's Close, at No. 129, contained the town mansion of Archbishop Spottiswood, afterwards occupied by Lady Jane Douglas; and also the mansion of the first Lord President Dundas, the birth­place of the first Viscount Melville. Carrubber's Close, at No. 135, used to contain the oldest Episcopal church in Scotland, and the only one in the S of Scotland that had been duly consecrated; and a house built by Allan Ramsay in 1736 for a theatre, which, however, as the speculation failed (the city authorities being adverse), was soon turned to other uses, and afterwards in its time played many parts, being used successively as a scientific lecture-room, a Rowite chapel, and a revival meeting-house. It contained also the house of Sir William Forbes; that of Captain Matthew Henderson, much frequented by the poet Burns; and the original workshop of James Ballantyne, the author of the Gaberlunzie's Wallet. Most of these have now been swept away in connection with the formation of Jeffrey Street. No. 153 was Allan Ramsay's house, an ancient timber-fronted tenement; on the first floor was his first publishing establishment, and on the second his dwelling-house. Niddry's Wynd, opposite Allan Ramsay's house, contained a temporary residence of James VI. and his queen in 1591, and a famous chapel of 1505, founded by the Countess of Ross, and known as St Mary's Chapel; but this wynd was nearly all rebuilt when the South Bridge was constructed in 1785-88, and is now called Niddry Street. Halkerston's Wynd, at No. 163, served in ancient times as an outlet from the city, and was long an important thoroughfare.

Cap and Feather Close, which stood on part of the ground now occupied by the North Bridge, and is still represented by some of the houses on the E of the Bridge line, was the birthplace of the poet Fergusson; while No. 265, Craig's Close, contained the Isle of Man Arms, one of his favourite haunts. He died in the Darien House, which, originally built in 1698 as the offices and stores of the Darien Company, had degenerated in the following century into a pauper lunatic asylum. Its site is marked by a tablet on the building at 15 Bristo. Marlin's Wynd, which stood on part of the ground now occupied by the South Bridge, adjoining the Tron Church, took its name from a Frenchman of the 16th century who first paved the High Street. Hunter Square, a small quadrangle partly occupied by the Tron Church, at the W corner of High Street and South Bridge, and Blair Street, a short thoroughfare descending from the SW corner of that quadrangle, were formed when the South Bridge was being constructed, and took their names from Sir Hunter Blair. In Kennedy's Close, which stood on the site of Hunter Square, was the last residence of George Buchanan. Here, on his deathbed, finding that the money he had was too little to pay the expense of his funeral, he ordered it to be distributed among his poor neighbours, adding that his townsfolk might bury or not bury his bones as it seemed good to them. His body was interred next day in the Greyfriars Churchyard at the public charges. Mylne Square, at No. 173, immediately W of North Bridge, built in 1689 by the architect Robert Mylne, was entered from the street by an archway, and was long an aristocratic quarter; two flats in it, now on the line of Cockburn Street, were occupied by Charles Erskine of Tinwald, Lord Justice-Clerk, who died in 1763, and in it was the official residence of the Earl of Hopetoun when Commissioner to the General Assembly. Here also is the Union Cellar, where the `dire deed' of the signature of the Treaty of Union was long believed to have been finally perpetrated. The cellar is now concealed beneath the handsome new block of buildings erected here in 1891-92. Covenant Close, at No. 162 High Street, contains an ancient edifice, in which the National Covenant was signed in 1638, and which has three crow-stepped gables figuring curiously in close views from the S. Old Assembly Close, at No. 172, contained the City Assembly Rooms from 1720 till 1726, as it did previously the mansion of Lord Durie, the hero of the ballad of Christie's Will. Fishmarket Close, at No. 190, contained the residences of George Heriot and the elder Lord President Dundas, of convivial celebrity. Fleshmarket Close, at No. 199, was long the residence of Henry Dundas, afterwards Viscount Melville, and is now intersected by Cockburn Street. Stamp Office Close, at No. 221, contained the town mansion of the ninth Earl of Eglinton, which afterwards became, as a tavern, a famous rendezvous for men of rank and fashion; it was used by the Earl of Leven, as Lord High Commissioner, for his levees during the sittings of the General Assembly. Anchor Close, at No. 243, contained the residence of Lord Provost Drummond, and a famous printing office established by the `revered Willie Smellie,' author of the Philosophy of Natural History and the printer of the first Edinburgh edition of Burns' poems. The site of the establishment, including the room where Burns used (1786-87) to sit and correct his proofs, is now occupied by the machine room of the Scotsman newspaper. This close also contained Douglas' Crown Tavern, which was the meeting-place where that choice body of Edinburgh wits who formed the Crochallen Fencibles used to indulge in `high jinks.' Burns, who was a member, refers to the festivities in 'Rantin', roarin' Willie' and elsewhere. Writers' Court, at No. 315, contained the original library of the Writers to the Signet, and still boasts of containing, in decayed condition, the meeting-place of the Mirror Club, famous for the festivities described in Scott's Guy Mannering. Warriston Close, at No. 323, was long one of the most important alleys of the city, but now possesses scarcely any trace of its ancient features. Roxburgh Close, at No. 341, took its name from containing the town mansion of the Earls of Roxburgh. Advocates' Close, at No. 357, contained the residences of Lord Westhall, Lord Advocate Stewart, and other distinguished lawyers; and figures in connection with Andrew Crosbie, the prototype of `Councillor Pleydell,' in Sir Walter Scott's Guy Mannering. At St Giles' Church is Parliament Square, formerly Parliament Close, which takes its name from the adjoining Parliament Hall. In it, to the W of the statue of Charles II., is a small plate marked I. K., which indicates as nearly as may be the burial-place of John Knox. To the W of St Giles' a heart in the paving, formed of causeway stones, marks the site of the Old Tolbooth, `the Heart of Midlothian.'

Dunbar's Close, at No. 413 Lawnmarket, opposite the County Hall, received its name from containing the headquarters of Cromwell's army after the battle of Dunbar, and adjoins a large house to the N, said to have been occupied by the Protector himself. Libberton's Wynd, which extended southward from Lawnmarket, between the rear of the County Hall and the roadway of George IV. Bridge, is now gone. It was one of the principal thoroughfares for pedestrians to the southern outskirts, and is mentioned as early as 1477. It contained a famous tavern - Johnnie Dowie's - frequented by poets, artists, antiquaries, advocates, and judges throughout the latter part of the 18th century, and became so noted in connection with the festive meetings of Robert Burns and his admirers as to be eventually called the Burns Tavern. The head of this close, from 1817, when the Old Tolbooth was demolished, till the date of the last public execution, was the place where the gibbet was erected, the spot being now indicated by three reversed stones in the causeway. In Old Bank Close, off the S side of the Lawnmarket (a site now occupied by the pavement of George IV. Bridge), was the residence of Sir George Lockhart, President of the Court of Session, who was in 1689 murdered at the door of his own house by an unsuccessful litigant who felt a grudge against him. Brodie's Close, on the S of Lawnmarket, just above Melbourne Place, contained the Roman Eagle Hall, notable in Burns' time for its masonic meetings, which were at length dissolved on account of the disgrace which the intemperate proceedings brought on the craft. In it is still shown, in the front tenement, the house of the notorious Brodie. Riddle's Close, at No. 322, was inhabited by Provost Sir John Smith, by Bailie Macmoran, who entertained at his table here James VI. and his Queen, Anne of Denmark, and by David Hume, who here, in his first Edinburgh house, wrote part of his History of England. Lady Stair's Close, which was the chief thoroughfare for foot passengers to the New Town prior to the opening of Bank Street at No. 447, contains the house where the fashionable society of the city was long presided over by the Dowager Countess of Stair, whose subsequent history, as Viscountess Primrose, forms the groundwork of Sir Walter Scott's story of My Aunt Margaret's Mirror. Baxter's Close, at No. 469, contains the house in which the poet Burns lodged in the winter of 1786-87, along with a Mauchline friend, Mr Richmond, paying 1s. 6d. a week for share of a poor lodging and a chaff bed. James' Court, at No. 501, was built in 1727 as an aristocratic quarter, superseding several ancient closes. Built on rapidly sloping ground overlooking the New Town, it has to the N a height of nine stories. In its western half was the house in which David Hume lived from 1762 to 1771, the residence also of Blair the rhetorician, and of James Boswell, where he entertained Dr Johnson in 1773, when the Lexicographer was on his way to the Hebrides. This portion of the square was unfortunately destroyed by fire in 1857. Mylne's Court, at No. 517, was partly built in 1690 by the architect who constructed Mylne Square. The West Bow, descending sinuously first southward and then south-westward from the upper end of Lawnmarket, took its name from a bow or arch in the oldest town wall. It was probably the earliest approach to the city while as yet it was confined to a few houses within and around the Castle, and served, narrow, winding, steep, and rugged as it was, from an early date till the latter part of the 18th century, as the carriage egress from the city to all places in the W. In this capacity it witnessed many a scene, both grave and gay, from the entrance and departure of monarchs to those sad processions which so often passed from the 'Tolbooth to the Grassmarket.' Even in the memory of people still living it was a busy scene of traffic, and alive with the bustle of shops and workshops. It contained the house of the reputed wizard Major Weir, that used as the Assembly Rooms from 1710 till 1720, and the provost's mansion in which Prince Charles Edward was entertained in 1745. About 1830 it underwent great alteration, most of the old houses, some of which were among the quaintest in Old Edinburgh, being swept away, and the entire street line altered. One of the last of the survivors, a very fine example of the ancient timber-fronted buildings, which stood at the corner of the Lawnmarket, was demolished in 1878. The Castle Hill, with the closes and small courts leading from it, was long a highly aristocratic quarter ; it contained a palace of the Queen Regent, Mary of Guise, and a mansion of the Marquess of Argyll; and still contains houses which were once inhabited by such notables as the Earls of Lennox, the Earls of Cassillis, the Earl of Dumfries, the Countess Dowager of Hyndford, Lord Sempill, Lord Rockville, Lady Elizabeth Howard, Lord Holyroodhouse, and General Sir David Baird. The old residence of the Dukes of Gordon was removed so recently as 1887. It was the birthplace of the late Mr William Nelson the publisher. Ramsay Lane, descending northward from the N side of Castle Hill, contained the residence of the 'Laird o' Cock-pen,' one of the Ramsays of Dalhousie, and leads to a garden off its W side, containing what was Allan Ramsay's House, a curious octagonal edifice built by the poet himself, enlarged by his son, afterwards owned by the late Lord Murray, and vulgarly known in the poet's lifetime as the `Goose Pie.' The Original Ragged School, founded by Dr Guthrie, which for 40 years occupied a building on the E side of Ramsay Lane, was ' removed to LIBERTON in 1887.

Turning now to the Canongate, and again beginning at the E end, we find first an arrangement of stones in the causeway marking the site of the Girth Cross, formerly the scene of several notable public executions, and indicating the limit in this direction of the sanctuary of Holyrood. In White Horse Close, or Davidson's Close (No. 31), is a range of buildings dating from 1523, which seems to have been occupied as one of the White Horse Inns, and which is described by Scott in Waverley as the residence of his hero when in Edinburgh. The buildings were altered and modernised, but with care as to the conservation of old features, in 1889-91. Whiteford House, W from White Horse Close, is entered by a lane or entry, and occupies the site of an ancient mansion of the Earls of Winton, the scene of several incidents in Scott's Abbot. Queensberry House (No. 64), within an enclosure to the S, was built in 1681 by Lord Halton, afterwards third Earl of Lauderdale, and passed by purchase to the first Duke of Queensberry. Hither, when court favour failed in 1729, came the third Duke and his wife Catherine Hyde, Prior's

`Kitty, beautiful and young,
And wild as colt untamed,'


with, in their train, the poet Gay, who is said to have been a well-known customer at Jenny Ha's Changehouse, which stood on the opposite side of the street. Stripped of its decorations by `Old Q.' in 1801, it was sold to the government of the day for a barrack, and has now - as a House of Refuge for the destitute - descended from the `classes' to the `masses.' The Golfer's Land (No. 77) was, according to tradition, built by John Paterson, with the value of a stake won by assisting the Duke of York, afterwards James VII., to gain a golf match on Leith Links. The hexameter and pentameter quatrain on the front is by Dr Pitcairn, and alludes to Paterson's prowess. Milton Board School occupies the site of Milton House, which was built by Fletcher of Milton (a nephew of the patriotic Fletcher of Saltoun), who sat on the bench from 1724 to 1766 as Lord Milton. Most of the ornate work of the interior was destroyed when the old building was demolished, but part was preserved and removed by the last tenant of the house, and one of the old cornices and a mantelpiece have been preserved in the masters' room of the school. The old building was for some time used as a Roman Catholic School, the pupils of which strewed flowers in the path of the Queen as she approached Holyrood in 1842. In Panmure Close (No. 129 Canongate), at No. 15, was the residence of Adam Smith, where he died in 1790. The Canongate Tolbooth, dating from 1591, is an excellent and well-preserved specimen of the architecture of that period, and one or two modern alterations have been carried out in excellent taste. The projecting clock is a peculiar feature, and one worthy of modern imitation ; while the inscription over one of the archways, ` Patrioe et Posteris,' betokens a somewhat cynical and pessimistic view of life on the part of the old builders. In the tower are two bells with the dates 1608 and 1796. The older one has the inscription Soli Deo honor et gloria. After the erection of the Calton prison, this jail was used only for debtors it is now used partly as a public reading-room, and partly as a district police office and fire-station. At the entrance to the churchyard close by is the Canongate Cross, with, attached to it, the staple to which the jougs were at one time affixed. The stocks are now in the Antiquarian Museum. In the neighbouring Tolbooth Wynd was the Canongate poorhouse, built in 1761, but disused since the parish was, for poor law purposes, conjoined with St Cuthbert's. On the opposite side of the street, at the entrance to Bakehouse Close, is a building of 1570, the residence of that versatile rebel and royal favourite - curious admixture, yet the more he rebelled the more did `his master King James, who loved him dearly,' seem to delight to forgive him - George, first Marquess of Huntly, and of his son, the second Marquess, who was beheaded in 1649. On the front of the house are four tablets with the curious inscriptions Constanti pectori res mortalium umbra: Ut to linguoe tuoe sic ego meorum aurium dominus sum: Hodie mihi, cras tibi, cur igitur curas: Spes altera vitoe. At the W end is a curious emblem of the resurrection - wheat growing out of a heap of bones. Moray House, with its bold projecting balcony, supported by massive stone trusses, and its curious gateway with its obelisk-topped pillars, dates from the early part of the seventeenth century, when it was erected by the Countess Dowager of Home. Two of the rooms have fine dome-shaped ceilings, with raised designs. It passed afterwards to the Earls of Moray, through Margaret, the elder daughter of the builder, and hence it has its name. In the troublous times of Charles I. the Countess of Home seems to have been a strong supporter of the Covenanters, and hither accordingly - probably in consequence - in 1648 came Cromwell, escorted by certain dignitaries of the popular party, who brought him 'to the Earl of Murrie's House in the Cannigate, where a strong guard is appointed to keep constant watch at the Gate;' and here it was, if Sir James Turner may be trusted, that the terrible decision was arrived at ` that there was a necessitie to take away the King's life.' From the stone balcony, in 1650, the Marquess of Argyll, who was here at the celebration of the wedding of his eldest son with the eldest daughter of the Earl of Moray, is said to have stood with a number of the guests, to gloat over the fate of his enemy, `the great' Montrose, as he was led up the Canongate on his way to the Tolbooth, when he was brought to Edinburgh after his capture. It is a curious example of the irony of fate that `three of the onlookers, including the gay young bridegroom, perished by the hand of the executioner on the same fatal spot to which the gallant Marquis was passing under their gaze.' Hither again came Cromwell, in 1650, after Dunbar, and all through the winter the rooms must have presented a scene of busy bustle, till at last the Lord General fell `dangerously sick : worn down by over-work and the rugged climate.' The next notable occupant was Lord Chancellor Seafield, who was here at the time of the Union negotiations, and, indeed, the summer-house in the garden is traditionally said - though there is no evidence to substantiate the story - to have been the place where many of the signatures were adhibited to the treaty. Queen Mary's Bower, and Queen Mary's Thorn Tree in the gardens, seem to be misnomers due to the popular association of the name of Moray with the person of the `Good Regent,' in whose time, of course, the property did not belong to the Moray family, nor was the house built. Since 1847 Moray House has been used as the Free Church Normal Training College, and in order to increase its usefulness for this purpose a large addition was made to the building in 1877. At No. 182, on the second floor, over the archway leading into St John Street, is a house in which Smollett spent some time in 1766, and strolling westward from which he saw the `fine pavement,' the width of which, `and the lofty houses on each side,' led him to the conclusion that the whole line along, the ridge `would be undoubtedly one of the noblest streets of Europe, if an ugly mass of mean buildings called the Luckenbooths, had not thrust itself into the middle of the street.' On the W side of St John Street, is also the hall of the Canongate Kilwinning Lodge of Freemasons, of which Burns was poet­laureate, and at the meetings of which he was often present. Just opposite, at No. 13, is the house of Lord Monboddo and his daughter `- the beautiful Burnett,' the praises of whose charms were sung far and wide, and whose untimely death the eccentric old lord took so sadly to heart. At No. 10 of the same street lived James Ballantyne, the friend and misfortune of Scott. His printing office - old Paul's Work - was in the old Leith Wynd, now the lower end of Cranston Street. Near the entrance to St John Street, a circle of stones in the causeway marks the site of St John's Cross, which stood at the eastern limit of the old Edinburgh Regality. Playhouse Close (No. 200 Canongate) contained a building of 1746, which was almost the earliest regular Edinburgh theatre. It was, in its early days, the scene of one or two peculiar and noteworthy riots, and it was here that in December, 1756, Home's tragedy of Douglas was first produced on the public stage. In Jack's Land, which is entered from Little Jack's Close (No. 229), Hume lived from 1753 to 1762, ere he moved to James' Court, and here a considerable portion of his history was written. The large square tenement with the effigy of a Moor on the front, and known as Morocco Land, has associated with it a curious old legend of an Edinburgh scapegrace, and a visit of the plague. Opening off the Canongate at the top is St Mary Street, the modernised form of St Mary's Wynd - one of the first results of the City Improvement Act of 1867 - in which, on the site now occupied by the Roman Catholic Institute, stood Boyd's White Horse Inn, whither came George III. and his preceptor the Earl of Bute in 1758, and where Johnson took up his quarters when he arrived in Edinburgh in 1773, when his ire was so sadly roused by the waiter's using his fingers as the most convenient form of sugar-tongs.

The Grassmarket, which occupies the hollow S of the Castle Esplanade, was, as we have already seen, one of the early extensions of Edinburgh. The site had, in 1477, been set apart for the holding of weekly markets for country produce, and this rural connection it still retains as the place where horse markets are held and carriers' quarters cluster ; though in respect of the latter the glory has sadly departed, since the railways have absorbed the greater part of the traffic. From 1560 till the building of the New Corn Exchange in 1849 (and even after this, for the farmers were unwilling to occupy the new building) the corn market was held on the street at the W end, where also the old Corn Exchange was. From about 1660 to 1784 the E end was used as the place of public execution, and was the spot where the Covenanting martyrs sealed their testimony. The socket of the gallows, which had been covered up about 1823, was rediscovered in 1869, and its site is now marked by a cross in the causeway. This street used to contain many quaint houses of the sixteenth century, but the hand of the improvement schemers fell heavily upon it ; and even those that still remain have fallen sadly from their former high estate, for here is now the realm of common lodging-houses. The Robertson Memorial Mission Church and buildings, at the NW corner, have their western wall partly built on the old city wall constructed after Flodden. Another portion of it may be seen at the Vennel, which strikes off to the S at the SW corner of the Grassmarket. At the same point the West Port strikes off to the west. Tanner's Close, on the W side of this, contained the house of Burke and Hare, the brutal wholesale murderers of 1827. It no longer exists.

Continuing the line of the Grassmarket eastward from the SE corner is the Cowgate, originally an open road fringed with wood, connecting Holyrood with the St Cuthbert's quarter, but now one of the most squalid and densely crowded districts of Edinburgh. Begun as a patrician quarter in the time of James III., it was long a favourite residence for persons of high rank. Even so late as the 18th century Lord Minto and Lord Brougham's father lived here. The house of Sir Thomas Hope, `the strong-minded, strong-willed, stout-hearted King's Advocate,' who gained fame and fortune by his defence of the moderator and members of General Assembly who were accused of high treason in 1606, which was one of the quaintest buildings left - steep-roofed and with treble row of dormers and high chimneys - was pulled down in 1887 to make way for the Public Library. On the opposite side of the street, with battlemented tower and steeple, is the old Magdalene Chapel, now used for the purposes of the Livingstone Memorial Medical Mission. Originally founded in 1503 on the site of a Maison Dieu, and probably repaired in 1544, the chapel -which was dedicated to St Mary Magdalene, and held in trust by the Corporation of Hammermen - seems to have been little altered except by the erection of the steeple in 1621 and the formation of some windows. The tomb of the foundress still remains, and in the centre window of the S wall are the oldest specimens of stained glass manufactured in Scotland. Here in 1560 Craig, Knox's colleague and successor, having forgotten the use of his native tongue during twenty-four years' absence from his fatherland, preached in Latin; here in 1578 the General Assembly meeting within these walls resolved `that Bischoppes sould be callet be their awin names, or be the names of Brother in all tyme coming, and that lordlie name and authoritie be banissed from the Kirk of God, quhilk has bot a Lord, Chryst Jesus;' and here in 1661, for several days ere its removal to Kilmun, lay the headless body of the Marquess of Argyll, whose head had just replaced that of Montrose on the tower of the Tolbooth.

Though nowhere are buildings of historic importance so closely clustered as along the lines just described, there are scattered about in different parts of the town houses connected with various notable Scotsmen. Burns localities have been already referred to, and it may here be added that he seems to have moved from Lady Stair's close to one of the top rooms of the house in Buccleuch Street, opposite the end of Buccleuch Place, over the ` pend' that leads from Buccleuch Place to St Patrick's Square. In the following winter, when he revisited Edinburgh, he lived in the top room of the house at the SW corner of St James Square, with the window in the gable looking towards the General Post Office. Clarinda's house was in General's Entry, which opened off the Potterrow on the site now occupied by the Marshall Street Public School. Scott, the connecting link of Burns with the later generation of Edinburgh literary men, met the great bard but once. 'As for Burns,' he says, ` I may truly say Virgilium vidi tantum. I was a lad of fifteen in 1786-87, when he came first to Edinburgh, but had sense and feeling enough to be much interested in his poetry, and would have given the world to know him. . . . As it was I saw him one day at the late venerable Professor Ferguson's, where there were several gentlemen of literary reputation, among whom I remember the celebrated Dr Dugald Stewart. Of course we youngsters sat silent, looked and listened.' Scott was, however, able to give the name of the author of some lines affixed to a plate Burns was admiring, and received in return a look and word which he always remembered with great pleasure. The house where they met seems to have been Sciennes House (in the district of the same name), to which Ferguson removed in the end of 1786. This seems to be the building on the N side of Braid Place, close to the Sciennes. The house in which Scott himself was born stood in College Wynd, and the site is marked by a tablet placed by the Town Council on a building at the corner of Chambers Street and Guthrie Street, opposite the University. His other localities are 25 George Square, where his father lived after moving from College Wynd, the second floor of 108 George Street, where he set up house after his marriage (his mother died at No. 75 of the same street), 19 South Castle Street, and finally 39 Castle Street, where he lived for twenty-six years-from 1800 to 1826. When he admitted the authorship of the famous novels he was living in a furnished house at 3 Walker Street (off Coates Crescent), and the last night he spent in Edinburgh was at a hotel at 34 and 35 St Andrew Square, now used as the office of the Scottish Union and National Insurance Company, whence he was carried unconscious to start on his last journey to Abbotsford. Constable's shop was at 10 Princes Street. Dugald Stewart lived in a house, now removed, in the Horse Wynd at the E end of the Canongate, and died at 5 Ainslie Place. Sir William Hamilton spent the last years of his life at 16 Great King Street, while Sir William Allan, R.A., lived at No. 72 of the same street, and Sir Henry Raeburn for a time at 133 George Street; the ` Man of Feeling' lived at 4 Brown Square, now 36 Chambers Street, and died at 6 Heriot Row; `Christopher North' lived in turn at 53 Queen Street, 29 Anne Street (in the Dean district), and 6 Gloucester Place (W of Royal Circus), where he died; his celebrated son-in-law, Aytoun, the author of The Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers, lived at 1 Inverleith Terrace, and at 16 Great Stuart Street ; and the site of Ambrose's Tavern, where the scene of the famous 'Noctes' is laid, is now occupied by part of the Register House buildings. The Ettrick Shepherd, when in town, lodged in Ann Street (which, stood near the S end of the Waverley Bridge); at the Harrow Inn, at 46-54 Candlemaker Row (off the SE corner of the Grassmarket); and latterly at Deanhaugh Street, on the car line, in Stockbridge, where The Queen's Wake was finished. It was at the Harrow Inn, too, that Dr John Brown first met 'Rab's' master, and the gentle and genial author of the inimitably pathetic idyl founded on the subsequent meeting lived himself for many years at 23 Rutland Street, at the W end of Princes Street. Sir James Simpson lived at 52 George Street. Jeffrey was born at 7 Charles Street, near the NE corner of George Square, took up house after his marriage at 18 Buccleuch Place (3d floor), and was tenant thereafter of 62 Queen Street, 92 George Street (where he was followed by Lord Cockburn), and 24 Moray Place, where he died. It was at 18 Buccleuch Place that the design of the Edinburgh Review first took form, and another of the early pillars of that work, Sydney Smith, lived first at 38 South Hanover Street, and thereafter at 19 Queen Street and 46 George Street. Brougham, the third great man of the group who ` cultivated literature on a little oatmeal,' was born at 21 St Andrew Square, and Hume's late years were passed in a house at the SW corner of the same square, in the corner house entering from 21 South St David Street. [ Traditionally this street takes its name from David Hume himself in jest, as the great historian was by no means looked on as a saint in his own day and generation; but it is much more likely to have got its title from the desire of associating the name of St David with that of St Andrew. There may, of course, have possibly been a desire to poke fun at Hume in selecting this particular street for that purpose.] Alison the historian lived in his father's house at 44 Heriot Row; Campbell the poet - in his early days when he `instructed pupils in Greek and Latin,' and before The Pleasures of Hope came over him-on the second floor of the house on the N side of the archway leading from Potterrow to Alison Square (close to Marshall Street); Pollock wrote The Course of Time at 3 Davie Street, a street parallel to Nicolson Street, S of West Richmond Street; Dr Chalmers died at Churchhill House, No. 1 Church-hill (off Morningside Road), and his great coadjutor, Hugh Miller, had his first Edinburgh house at 5 Sylvan Place, off the S side of the Meadows, E of the Middle Walk; Darwin, when a medical student in Edinburgh, lodged at 11 Lothian Street, in which also De Quincey lived at one time at No. 42 - the second floor left. Carlyle's first lodgings in Edinburgh were at Simon's Square, off Gibb's Entry, No. 104 Nicolson Street, and he lived afterwards at Moray Place, now 3 Spey Street (off Pilrig Street), and began his married life at 21 Comely Bank, near the SW corner of the Inverleith Public Park.

Of the old mansion houses that once stood in and around Edinburgh but few of importance now remain. Grange House in Grange Loan - an E and W line of roadway connecting Causewayside with Morningside Road - was originally the Grange or granary of St Giles' Church (whence the name of both house and district), but has been of course much altered and added to at various dates. The patrimony of the Dicks of Grange, into whose hands it came in 1679, and afterwards of the Dick Lauders, of whom the celebrated Sir Thomas Dick Lauder (1784-1848) is the best known representative, it was for a time the residence of Robertson the historian, who here wrote his last work, the Disquisition as to the knowledge the ancients had of India, and who died here in 1793. Bruntsfield House, to the SE of Bruntsfield Links (which also belonged to a family of Lauders, from the fifteenth century to the beginning of the seventeenth), has portions dating from the fifteenth century, and has been altered and added to at various times, but ` still preserves much of the character of the semi-fortified mansion with protecting outworks, which centuries ago frowned over the Boroughmuir.' It passed, in 1695, into the possession of the family of Warrender, to whom it now belongs, and in whom the blood of the Lauders still flows, through the female line. To the N in Whitehouse Road stood the old mansion of Whitehouse, part of which is still included in the buildings of St Margaret's convent, in which Robertson wrote his History of Charles V., Home his Douglas, and Blair his Lectures.
To the W of this, in the Merchiston district, is Merchiston Castle, which has belonged to the family of Napier (now Lords Napier and Ettrick) since 1438. The lofty square tower, which forms a prominent part in the present pile of buildings, seems to have existed before that time, and to have been styled the King's House. Built evidently for defence, one of the walls being over ten feet thick, it had its strength severely tried in the course of the civil war in 1572, when its possession as the key to the southern approach to Edinburgh seems to have made it an object of desire to both King's and Queen's parties, and when it was in consequence, in the most impartial way, battered first by the one; side and then by the other. Many members of the Napier family have risen to eminence, but the most famous of them all was John Napier, the inventor of logarithms (1550-1617). The castle is now occupied as a private boarding-school. Craig House, W of Plewlands, is an interesting building of the middle of the sixteenth century. Over the doorway is the date 1565, and the initials L. S. C. P., of which the first two are those of Lawrence Symsone, the then proprietor of the estate, and the last two are probably those of his wife, whose name is, however, unknown. The mansion, which is said to be haunted by a `Green Ladye,' whose story, if ever she had one, has become lost in the mists of time, was long the residence of John Hill Burton (1809-81) the historian, whose library used to spread over half the rooms in the house, and even into some of the passages. The house is now used as a convalescent home in connection with the Royal Lunatic Asylum, within the grounds of part of which it stands. East Coates House, within the grounds of St Mary's Cathedral, to the N, is now the deanery of the diocese of Edinburgh. It was built by Sir Patrick Byres of Coates in the beginning of the seventeenth century. The lintel over the door of his town house in Byres Close in the High Street was removed by one of his successors in the lands of Coates, and built into the present mansion. The N wing contains also some of the ornamental portions taken from an old building in the Cowgate, known as the French Ambassador's House. Prestonfield and Peffer Mill, to the S of Arthur Seat, are separately noticed. Scott is said to have had the latter in his eye when he described the country residence of the Laird of Dumbiedykes.

Of modern houses of any size, the only noteworthy examples are the mansions of St Leonards and Salisbury Green, both side by side to the SW of the Queen's Park, and belonging respectively to the heirs of the late Mr Thomas Nelson and the late Mr William Nelson, the partners of the well-known publishing firm of Thomas Nelson & Sons. Both are excellent examples of the Scottish baronial style, and the former, designed by Mr John Lessels, has a very bold and imposing appearance, and now that the wood has begun to grow up around it, the bare aspect of the grounds that at first somewhat injured the general effect has been removed. Return to top.

History.-There can be little doubt that the Castle rock early became, in the eyes of the ancient inhabitants of the district, a most desirable place on which to build their dwellings, since, from its precipitous and inaccessible character, it could easily be defended against the assaults of enemies. The oldest names seem to be those given to it by the Britons, Mynyd Agned (painted mount), and Dineiddyn ; and by the Gael, Dunedin ; and it may possibly be associated with the locality of the eleventh of the great Arthurian battles, which took place on the hill called Agned; but whether it was fortified by the Ottadeni or Gadeni, or whether, according to legend, it was a place of refuge and safety for the daughters of the Pictish kings, and hence got its name of the Castle of Maidens, must remain matters of conjecture. With regard to the latter, Buchanan is probably right when he says that it came from romances after the manner of the French, and is no older than the thirteenth century. The oldest form of the present name known is Edwinesburgh, which appears in 1128 in the foundation charter of Holyrood, and this it has got from Edwin, Aeduin, or Eadwine, who in 617 regained his paternal realm of Deira, and extended his power over the Lothians as far at least as the Avon. The Castle and town - the latter, according to Simeon of Durham, being about 854 only a considerable village, on the eastern slope of the hill - next became a possession of the Celtic kings in the reign of Indulph (945-961), and was then called Dun-Edin, either `the face of a hill,' or the `strength of Edwin.' The name given to the Castle and the town, however, by King Edwine proved to be the one by which it was ever afterwards fated to be known, though it was not till about the middle of the fifteenth century that it came to be recognised as the capital city, being long considered too near the English border to be a place of safety. In 1093, on the death of Malcolm Ceannmor, Edinburgh became the place of refuge of Queen Margaret and her children, who were here besieged by Malcolm's brother, Donald Bane, who claimed the throne. Margaret, indeed, died in the Castle, and while the siege - or rather blockade, for the gates only were watched - lasted, those within, ` taught of God,' says Fordoun, `through the merits of the holy queen,' brought down her body by a postern on the western side, where the rock was thought inaccessible, and, sheltered by a friendly mist, carried it in safety to Dunfermline. In the time of David I. the town had become of some importance, and was constituted a royal burgh. In the early part of the reign of William the Lyon, who frequently resided at the Castle, still further progress was made, which must, however, have suffered some check during the time (1174-1186) that it was held by the English as one of the sureties for the payment of the ransom of the king. After its restoration, Alexander II. held his first parliament in Edinburgh, and in 1215 the pope's legate here held a provincial synod. Alexander III. made it the residence of his youthful queen, the daughter of Henry III., and the depository of the regalia and other valuables of the crown.

The Castle was surrendered to Edward I. in 1291, but afterwards passed into the hands of the Scots, who held it till 1294, when it was seized by the English, and remained in their possession till it was recaptured by Randolph, Earl of Moray, in 1313, and shortly after, in pursuance of Bruce's plan to leave no strengths for the enemy to hold, at least partially dismantled. According to Barbour, Randolph carried it by escalade with only thirty followers, being guided up a secret path on the NW side of the rock by one of his men, William Francis or Frank, who had found out the track when resident in the fortress some years before, and had been in the habit of stealing out by it during the night to visit his sweetheart in the town. In 1322 Holyrood Abbey was plundered by an army of Edward II; and in 1326 we find it the meeting-place of a parliament of Robert Bruce, and again, in 1328, of another which ratified the treaty with Edward III. which secured the independence of Scotland. In 1334 the Castle and town were surrendered to Edward III., who had invaded Scotland to support the cause of Edward Baliol, and in 1336 seems to have afforded brief shelter to a body of mercenary troops under Guy, Count of Namur, on their way to join Edward III at Perth. Encountered on their march at the Boroughmuir by the Earl of Moray and a body of Scots, the mercenaries were defeated and driven in confusion into the town, where many of them were slain and the rest pursued to the dismantled Castle, where they remained one night, but being unable to defend it, had to surrender on the following day to the Earl, by whom they were set free on condition of never again bearing arms against David Bruce. The Castle was rebuilt and strongly garrisoned in 1337 by Edward III. on his return from the N, but in 1341 it was recaptured by Sir William Douglas. One of Douglas's party feigning to be an English merchant, went to the governor of the Castle and represented that he had in his vessel, just arrived in the Forth, a cargo of wine, beer, and other delicacies, which he wished the governor to purchase. Samples of the wine and beer having been found satisfactory, the price was settled, and a time - early in the morning to avoid risk of disturbance from the Scots - was fixed for the delivery of the goods. At the hour appointed, the merchant arrived, accompanied by twelve resolute and well-armed followers, habited as sailors, and the Castle gates were immediately opened for their reception. On entering the Castle, they easily contrived to overturn the waggon on which the supposed goods were piled, and instantly put to death the warder and the sentries. The appointed signal being given, Douglas and a chosen band of armed followers quitted their place of concealment in the neighbourhood, and rushed into the Castle, when the garrison, caught unawares, was after a brief struggle overpowered, and the fortress regained for Scotland.

During the latter part of the reign of David II. Edinburgh was the meeting-place of numerous parliaments, contained the mint, and was confessedly the chief town, though not yet the actual capital, of Scotland. The latter dignity was, however, not far off, for on the accession of the Stewart dynasty Edinburgh became really - though probably not officially till 1452, when it became the seat of the Court of the Four Burghs - the chief burgh of the kingdom, and its fortunes became identified with those of that ill-fated house. Yet even in the reign of Robert II., with whom the city was a favourite residence, when it was visited by a body of French knights and gentlemen, who came to give aid to the King against the English, it is described as consisting of about 4000 houses, so poor that these French visitors could not be provided with proper accommodation. In 1385 Richard II. made an incursion into Scotland, when he spent five days burning St Giles' Church, Holyrood Abbey, and the greater part of the town, but was foiled in his attempt to capture the Castle. Henry IV., in 1400, repeatedly assaulted the Castle, but he was firmly repelled by the Duke of Rothesay, then heir-apparent to the Scottish crown. In 1402 Edinburgh was the meeting-place of the parliament, convene at this time to inquire into the assassination of the Duke of Rothesay; and while James I. of Scotland was a prisoner in England, the city shared largely in the general desolation which the continual struggles of the turbulent nobles brought on the whole country. Even after his release things went badly, for in 1431 there was a serious outbreak of pest; but the sunshine of royal favour no doubt helped on such growth and prosperity as enabled the young city to get over not only its many misfortunes, but also the heavy strain which the payment of its share of the King's ransom (50,000 English merks) must have caused. James frequently resided at Edinburgh, and it was at Holyrood that, in 1429, he received the submission of the Lord of the Isles, and that his son, afterwards James II., was born. At Holyrood, too, after the sudden and terrible tragedy of Perth - and this was the first coronation that had taken place elsewhere than at Scone - was the child king crowned; and during his long minority the Castle became a frequent scene of contest and intrigue between the two leading men of the day, Sir William Crichton and Sir Alexander Livingstone. In 1444, a quarrel having arisen between them, the King was for a time detained by Crichton in the Castle in dignified captivity. From this he was rescued by his mother, who, announcing her intention of proceeding on a pilgrimage to Whitekirk in East Lothian, had her luggage put on board a vessel in Leith. Inside one of the baskets the young King was concealed, and no sooner had the ship on which he was with his mother got out of Leith than it sailed up instead of down the Firth, and he was soon safe in charge of Livingstone at Stirling. He was immediately after again carried off by Crichton, who seized him as he was taking his morning ride in the royal park at Stirling, but further quarrel between the rivals was prevented by a serious danger that seemed to both to menace the Crown. This was the ever-increasing power of the house of Douglas. The then Earl of Douglas, a youth of only seventeen, was noted for his pride, extravagance, and display of power. He paid no duty at court, did no homage, and was said to have a council of his own somewhat resembling a parliament. Medieval rulers brooked no too-powerful subjects, and so Douglas and his brother, having accepted an invitation to visit the King in Edinburgh Castle, were suddenly seized and put to death. James II. and his queen, Mary of Gueldres, whom he married in 1449, were both great benefactors to the city, and, by the grants and immunities they bestowed, brought it greater increase of prosperity than had any previous monarch.

James III., during the course of his troubled reign, also conferred on the city, which he made his chief place of residence, various privileges ; and during his time Edinburgh became a place of refuge for Henry VI. of England after his defeat at Towton in 1461. James' marriage to the Princess Margaret of Denmark in 1469 was celebrated by the city with much rejoicing. The joy and prosperity were, however, of but short duration, for there soon after came a pestilence so deadly and destructive that a parliament, summoned in 1475, was deterred from assembling. Troubles of another kind soon followed in connection with the intrigues of the nobles against the King's favourites. In 1481 there assembled on the Boroughmuir one of the largest armies ever gathered in Scotland, `fifty thousand fighting men, by carriage men and borderers,' and all no doubt, as had been commanded, 'in their best array with forty days' victual.' They were not, however, destined `to pass forward with the King where he pleased in defence of the realm,' but only two days' march to Lauder, where the grim Angus and his friends had their will of the favourites, and whence the poor King himself was carried back to Edinburgh and lodged in the Castle in dignified captivity, `not put thair as ane prisoner, but for the mainteining of the commounweill . . and thus thair was peace and rest in the countrie the space of thrie quarteris of an yeir.' A series of intrigues, in which the exiled brother of the King, the Duke of Albany, was involved, led to a visit from Albany accompanied by the Duke of Gloucester and ten thousand men, who, according to Pitscottie, `planted their pallions' on the Boroughmuir, whence came the two Dukes and a thousand gentlemen, who `entered into the Tolbooth before the lords of Scotland, who were sitting then in council,' and desired that the King should be set at liberty. This was agreed to, and the monarch, with Albany on the horse behind him, proceeded amid general rejoicing to Holyrood, `where they remained a long tyme in great mirriness.' The merchant burgesses and community having paid to the English 6000 merks sterling on the King's behalf, he in return granted them the `Golden Charter,' and presented to the craftsmen the famous ensign known as the Blue Blanket, with their heraldic bearings embroidered on it by the Queen. It has ever since been `kept by the Convener of the Trades, at whose appearance therewith it is said that not only the artificers of Edinburgh are obliged to repair to it, but all the artisans or craftsmen within Scotland are bound to follow it, and fight under the Convener of Edinburgh as aforesaid.' For a time after this hollow truce was made between James and the nobles there was peace, but ere long Albany had to flee for his life, and James, having `garnished the Castle with men and victual ... and put his whole pose of gold and silver in it,' rode away to meet his destiny at Sauchieburn.

In the end of 1488, the city was the place of meeting of the first parliament of James IV., in whose time it still remained a favourite royal residence, and whose coronation as well as his marriage with Margaret Tudor both took place at Holyrood. At the same place he also entertained Perkin Warbeck, in 1495. The royal favour, however, brought the citizens evil as well as good, for when, in 1513, during one of the periodic visits of the pest, the King assembled his forces on the Boroughmuir, and departed on that inroad into England which terminated so disastrously at Flodden, all the magistrates and able-bodied citizens went in his train, and in few places could grief over the result have been more poignant, or the consequences more severe. Of the many dire portents that had preceded, but not prevented, the departure of the army, some seem to have befallen here, and Pitscottie records that `there was a cry heard at the market-cross of Edinburgh, at the hour of midnight, proclaiming as it had been a summons, which was named and called by the proclaimer thereof The Summons of Plotcock ; which desired all men, " To compear, both earl and lord, and baron and gentleman, and all honest gentlemen within the town (every man specified by his own name) to compear within the space of forty days, before his master where it should happen him to appoint, and be for the time under the pain of disobedience." But whether,' wisely adds the chronicler, `this summons was proclaimed by vain persons, night-walkers, or drunk men for their pastime, or if it was but a spirit, I cannot tell truly.' Of all who were named in the summons tradition, asserts that but one escaped the fatal field, and this was a worthy burgher, Mr Richard Lawson, who, `being evil-disposed, ganging in his gallery-stair fornent the cross, hearing this voice proclaiming this summons, thought marvel what it should be, cried on his servant to bring him his purse ; and when he had brought him it, lie took out a crown and cast over the stair, saying " I appeal from that summons, judgment and sentence thereof, and takes me all whole in the mercy of God, and Christ Jesus his son," and so, by foresight, tried to render himself safe in both worlds. Sadly as the city suffered, however, George of Touris - who had been left in chief charge in the absence of the provost and magistrates, along with four others for the bailies, 'til have full jurisdictioun in their absence' - and his companions proved worthy of their trust, and no sooner did word of the disaster arrive than they at once ordered `that all maner of personis, nyhbours within the samen, have reddy their fensible geir and wapponis for weir, and compeir thairwith to the said president's, at jowing of the comoun bell, for the keeping and defens of the toun against thame that wald invade the samyn.' The inhabitants as well as the `nyhbours ' responded gallantly to the command, and one of the results of their zeal was, as we have already seen, the Flodden Wall.

In all the troubles of the long minority of James V., and in the reign of the unfortunate Mary, Edinburgh had more than its fair share. When, in 1515, the Duke of Albany arrived from France to assume the regency, he was received `with greit blythnes and glore,' and took up his residence at Holyrood, where he summoned a convention of the nobles to meet him. The ` blythnes,' however, did not last, and through the rivalry of the Douglases and Hamiltons the city `became the scene of a succession of faction fights, rising at times almost to the dignity of civil war.' Of these the most famous is the skirmish of 1520, known as Cleanse the Causeway, which was the outcome of an attempt made by the Earl of Arran and some of the other western nobles to make Angus a prisoner. The famous Gawin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld., strove to act as mediator, and setting out from his own house, which was in the Cowgate, proceeded to Blackfriars Wynd, where Archbishop Beaton resided, to ask for his assistance in the task. The Archbishop, who was a strong Hamilton partisan, declared himself unable to do anything, and, in the heat of his protestations that on his conscience he could not help it, struck his breast, and so betrayed the fact that he had on beneath his robe a suit of armour. `How now, my Lord,' retorted Douglas, `methinks your conscience clatters.' The attack was to be made, as the Douglas party was supposed to be weak at the time, but the result was the catching a Tartar ; for Angus' followers, having barricaded some of the closes and wynds, kept their assailants at bay till, assistance arriving, they made that clean sweep of their opponents which gave the contest its name. Several of the leading men of the Arran party and some eighty of their followers were slain, and the Earl himself escaped with difficulty across the Nor' Loch, while the clear-conscienced Beaton took refuge in the Blackfriars' Church, where he was ' takin out behind the alter and his rockit rivin aff him, and had been slaine had not beine Mr Gawin Dowglas requeisted for him, saying it was shame to put hand in ane consecrat bischop. So he was saiff at that tyme.'

The Castle was the place where the captive James V. spent much of his youth, with David Lyndsay for his page, whence he was brought like a puppet by Angus from time to time, to be 'in triumph shown to his own people,' and whence he had, no doubt sore against his will, more than once to lead the Douglas forces, along with the townsmen of Edinburgh and Leith, against the friends who were attempting to release him. Edinburgh was now also, and continued to be, the regular meeting-place of the parliaments. After James recovered his freedom, he seems to have spent a considerable portion of his time at Edinburgh, and both his wives were received most warmly by the citizens. For the entry of Magdalen, Lyndsay describes them as

' Makand rycht costlie scaffalding,
Depayntit weill, with gold, and azure fyne,
Reddie preparit for the upsetting,
With fontanis, flowing watter cleir, and wyne,
Disgaysit folkis, lyke creaturis divyne,
On ilk scaffold, to play ane syndrie storie;'

but, alas 'ere a few weeks were passed `triumph and mirriness was all turned into deregies and soull massis, verrie lamentable to behold,' and the fair young bride was laid with solemn pomp in the royal vault at Holyrood. In 1538 Mary of Guise was welcomed with as great rejoicing as had been her predecessor, and the effect of the 'rewairds and propynes' then made seems to have been somewhat to impoverish the municipal treasury, for the council had, almost immediately after, to mortgage the northern vault of the Netherbow Port to raise money to repair the rest of that structure, and in 1541 the sum of 100 merks had to be borrowed for the repair of the park walls of Holyrood.

Shortly before this, however, the King had, by the institution of the Court of Session in 1532, conferred on the city a boon which has, more than almost any other, contributed to its prosperity and residential advantage; and in curious contrast to the liberal forethought displayed in this act, is the execution by fire at Greenside, two years afterwards, of Norman Gourlay and David Straiton, for their profession of the doctrines of the Reformers ; and in 1542, on the Castle Hill, of ' twa blackfreris, ane channon of Sanct Androis, the vicar of Dollour, ane priest, and ane lawit man that duelt in Stirling,' who were all found guilty of the same heinous offence. The fatal 14th of December came, however, all too soon, and James was laid by the side of his first wife in Holyrood Chapel. The period that followed was the darkest in all the fortunes of the city. Cardinal Beaton, who had placed himself at the head of the Catholic party, was able to prevent the celebration of the marriage that had been arranged between the infant Mary and Prince Edward of England, but was utterly unable to guard against the storm his action caused. On May day, 1544, he was surprised by the sudden appearance in the Firth of Forth of two hundred English ships - which, originally fitted out for an expedition to France, had been suddenly directed N - and incontinently fled to Stirling, leaving others to bear the brunt of the conflict brought about by his selfish ambition.

The English forces, under the Earl of Hertford, having disembarked at Newhaven, took possession of Leith, and sent to demand the immediate surrender of Edinburgh. The burghers, though but ill prepared for resistance, did their best to defend themselves, and not till the second day, and after a very bloody conflict, was the enemy able to take possession of the town and to attack the Castle, which, however, proved too hard a nut for them to crack. 'On the next day,' says Bishop Lesley, ` the great army came forward with the haill ordinances and assailed the town, which they found void of all resistance, saving the ports of the town were closed, which they broke up with great artillery and entered thereat, carrying carted ordinances before them till they came in sight of the Castle, where they placed them, purposing to siege the Castle. But the laird of Stanehouse, captain thereof, caused shoot at them in so great abundance, and with so good measure, that they slew a great number of Englishmen, amongst whom there was some principal captains and gentlemen; and one of the greatest pieces of the English ordinances was broken; wherethrough they were constrained to raise the siege shortly and retire them. The same day the English men set fire in divers places of the town, but were not suffered to maintain it, through continual shooting of ordinance forth of the Castle, wherewith they were so sore troubled that they were constrained to return to their camp at Leith. But the next day they returned again, and did what they could to consume all the town with fires. So like­wise they continued some days after, so that the most part of the town was burnt in cruel manner; during the which time their horsemen did great hurt in the country, spoiling and burning sundry places thereabout, and in special all the Castle and place of Craigmillar, where the most part of the whole riches of Edinburgh was put by the merchants of the town in keeping, which, not without fraud of the keepers, as was reported, was betrayed to the English men for a part of the booty and spoil thereof.' A contemporary English account says that, `considering the strength of the said Castle, with the situation thereof, it was concluded not to lose any more time, nor to waste and consume our munition about the siege thereof. Albeit the same was courageously and dangerously attempted, till one of our pieces, with shot out of the said Castle, was struck and dismounted.' The town itself was utterly destroyed. `Finally,' says the account just quoted, 'it was determined by the said Lord Lieutenant [the Earl of Hertford] utterly to ruinate and destroy the said town with fire: which for that the night drew fast on, we omitted thoroughly to execute on that day; but setting fire in three or four parts of the town, we repaired for that night unto our camp. And the next morning, very early, we began where we left off, and continued burning all that day and the two days next ensuing continually, so that neither within the walls nor in the suburbs was left any one house unburnt: besides the innumerable booty, spoil, and pillage that our soldiers brought from thence, notwithstanding the abundance which was consumed with fire. Also we burnt the Abbey called Holy Rood House, and the Palace adjoining the same.' The poor people who had managed to convey their goods and gear out of the city, in hope of finding some safe place of concealment without, did not, unfortunately, fare much better, for four thousand light horsemen from the Borders having arrived, the country was laid waste for seven miles round, and there was `left neither pile, village, nor house standing unburnt, nor sacks of corn,' and there was found much good stuff which the inhabitants of Edinburgh had, for the safety of the same, conveyed out of the town.'

Nor was this the last of the misfortunes that here befell in consequence of the rough wooing, for after the battle of Pinkie, in 1547, some damage was again done, principally about Holyrood, by the English, against whose further attacks the city was, however, protected after the following year by a garrison of 6000 soldiers sent by the French King to the assistance of his old allies and posted at Leith. Fresh troubles were, however, at hand, for the clouds of the Reformation storm had already begun to gather. John Knox arrived in Edinburgh in 1555, and by his zealous labours soon brought to a head the discontent that already existed among the excited people, and speedily gained general acceptance for the new doctrines. In the following year the 'rascall multitude,' much to the indignation of the Queen Regent, who addressed a strong remonstrance to the magistrates, destroyed some of the statues in St Giles' Church; and in 1558 they went still further, for, indignant at an edict of the bishops and clergy ordering certain heretics to show their sorrow for the error of their ways by walking penitently in the procession of the patron saint of the city, which took place on the 1st Sept. every year, and abjuring their errors at the Cross, they carried off the image of the saint before the time when it was to be borne through the streets, and after ducking it in the Nor' Loch (where there was a stool for ducking offenders against morality) they finally committed it to the flames. The clergy were, however, determined not to be balked, and a smaller image, procured from the Greyfriars Church, was borne aloft through the streets with due pomp, the Queen Regent leading the way, so that her presence might restrain the violence of the people. As soon, however, as she withdrew 'to hir dennar ' Little St Giles, as the image was called, was attacked in the most vigorous manner. One iconoclast taking the figure `by the heillis and dadding his head to the calsay' left it without head or hands, on which he exclaimed, 'Fye upon thee, young SanctGeile, thy father wold have taryed four such;' and then, says Knox, the priests fled faster than at Pinkie; `down goes the croses, of goes the surpleise, round cappes cornar with the crounes: the Gray Freiris gapped, the Preastis panted and fled, and happy was he that first gate the house; for sic ane suddan fray came never amonges the generation of Antichrist within this realm befoir.' Knox had before this time retired to Geneva, whence he returned in 1559 to find his party in open resistance to the Regent. Organised at Perth as the Congregation, the leaders of the movement led their followers triumphantly to Edinburgh, took possession of the mint and other government property, and openly defied the clerical party, whose headquarters were at Leith, where there was a French garrison. A good deal of fighting took place, but the ill-trained troops of the Reformers could not cope with the well-disciplined auxiliaries of France, and not till help was received from Queen Elizabeth in 1560 were they successful in gaining the freedom they desired. The same year was also noteworthy for one of those outbursts of popular violence for which Edinburgh was long famous, a riot having taken place in consequence of an attempt by the magistrates to suppress the game of Robin Hood.

Although Queen Mary returned to Edinburgh in August 1561, and was then conveyed in state to Holyrood, she did not make her formal entry into the capital till September, when `an endless succession of pageants and allegories greeted her progress through the town. The most costly arrangements had been made for her reception. All the citizens were required to appear in gowns of fine French satin and coats of velvet, and the young men to devise for themselves some fitting habiliments of taffeta or other silk, to convey the Court in triumph. The propyne or gift of the citizens was borne on a cart, in sight of the Queen, in a rich coffer, with certain bairns fittingly attired as its custodians. At the Buttei Tron at the head of the Lawnmarket was a triumphal arch, on the which were certain bairns singing in the waist heavenly wise, and suspended from the arch wa; a cloud opening with four leaves, in the which was am bonny bairn. As the Queen passed through the arch way the cloud opened and the bairn descended as it had been an angel, and delivered to her highness the key, of the town, together with a Bible and psalter,' after which `the bairn returned to its place and the cloud steekit.' There were other allegorical representation: of many kinds, into the meaning of which it is to be hoped the young ruler did not inquire too minutely, as, they were intended to show the dire fate impending over all the adherents of the old faith.

Far different all this, as well as the loyal rejoicings at the opening of the Parliament of 1563, when people were heard to exclaim, `God save that sweet face! Did ever orator speak so sweetly?' from the scene that follower in 1567, after six sad years of weary turmoil, when, after Carberry, with her fair face all stained with dust and tears, she was `conveyed to Edinburgh and lodged in the midst of the town, in the provost's lodging,' while `the common people cried out against her majesty at the windows and stairs, which was a pity to hear' and others evinced their malice in setting up a banner or ensign whereupon the king was painted lying dead under a tree and the young prince upon his knees praying, "Judge and revenge my cause, 0 Lord! " Vain then the sweet voice of the orator, as `her majesty cried out to all gentlemen and others who passed up and down the streets, declaring how that she was their native princess, and that she doubted not but all honest subjects would respect her as they ought to do, and not suffer her to be abused.'

Four successive regents between 1567 and 1573 failed either to bring peace to the metropolis, or a cessation of hostilities between the two great conflicting parties of Queen's men and King's men, as the respective partisans of Mary, and her son James VI. styled themselves. The city, at the time of Mary's escape from Loch Leven Castle, in 1568, was both desolated with pestilence and bristling with arms; and, after the assassination of Regent Moray at Linlithgow in 1570, suddenly passed under the military ascendency of the Queen's party. Kirkcaldy of Grange, provost of the city and, governor of the Castle, and one of the ablest soldiers of the period, ordered all opponents of the Queen to leave the city within six hours, planted a battery on the roof of St Giles' Church, strengthened the city walls, and provoked a long and disastrous strife. Two parliaments sat in the city in May 1571- the one on the Queen's part in the Tolbooth, the other for King James in Canongate; and while they fulminated forfeitures at each other, their respective followers were in constant conflict in the streets and lanes of the harassed city, which suffered from the fire of besieged and besiegers alike; while the unfortunate prisoners on both sides, as well as citizens suspected of aiding the enemy, were put to death or punished in the most barbarous way. The Castle was at length captured by the aid of an English army, in 1573, and with its fall the last hopes of the Queen's party came to an end.

The early part of the life of James VI. was spent at Stirling, and Edinburgh saw but little of regal show till 1579, when the British Solomon made his first public entry into the city amid great popular display. The allegories in which the age delighted were as numerous as usual, and one in particular reminded him of his need for wisdom by a representation of Solomon giving his decision between the two women; the keys were presented to him at the West Bow by an angel descending from a globe, he was addressed in Greek, Latin, and Scotch by fair representatives of Peace, Plenty, and Justice, and was lectured in Hebrew by Religion, while at a later hour Bacchus sat at the Cross and dispensed wine to all and sundry. In spite of this flattering reception and of former costly gifts, his gracious majesty did not prove such a kindly ruler as was expected, and tried to interfere in civic matters, and to use the city coffers in the arbitrary and high-handed way that in his successors led to the disasters that befell the later Stewarts. Costly entertainments were given to ambassadors and other notables in Holyrood at the city's expense, till at length his greed and continuous encroachments on public rights provoked the bitterest resentment. At times James was on good terms with the citizens, receiving from them gifts of money and public services; while again, as in 1596, he was so infuriated at them that he retired to Linlithgow, removed the offices of national administration, threatened to utterly destroy the city, and cherished such an intense anger against it that he vowed he would raze it to the foundation and erect a pillar on the spot where it stood. All this resulted from a riot in connection with some of the ecclesiastical disputes of the period, when the King was insulted and his life threatened, some calling `Arms,' others `Bring out the wretch Haman,' and others `The sword of the Lord and of Gideon.' The puissant monarch refused for a time to be pacified; but after various negotiations and the receipt of a present of 20,000 merks from the citizens, he was at length pleased to revoke his declarations of hostility, and made another pompous ceremonial entrance into Edinburgh, amid great demonstrations of loyalty. A fresh demonstration took place on the arrival of Queen Anne from Denmark, and a 'propyne of ane jowell' presented to the lady. In 1603, on the eve of his departure to assume the English crown, James delivered a formal valedictory address to the people in St Giles' Church, and when, after a lapse of fourteen years, he visited the city again he was greeted with great demonstrations of joy and much servile adulation, and presented with a large sum of money.

In 1633 Charles I. was crowned King of Scotland at Holyrood with great splendour, and held in the city, two days later, his first Scottish parliament. Shortly after, by his proceedings against Presbyterianism and his attempted introduction of a liturgy on the 23rd July 1637, he excited strong disaffection to his government throughout the country, and kindled a resentment which lasted more or less till the end of his dynasty. In all this, Edinburgh, as the seat of executive government, had an extensive and distressing share. The citizens were organised and trained, under direction of the town council, to resist the King's measures of ecclesiastical change. A conflict again arose between the city and the Castle, which terminated in favour of the city; and though the King afterwards appeared in person and was well received and entertained by the magistrates, the city adhered to the cause of the Covenant, and embodied a regiment of 1200 men for its support.

In 1650 Charles II. was proclaimed at the Cross, and, could he have attained tolerable footing in England, would evidently have been well supported in Edinburgh. Cromwell, in September of the same year, following up his signal victory over the Scottish army at Dunbar, took possession of Edinburgh, laid siege to the Castle, and forced it to capitulate; and did not allow the magistrates, who had all left the city, to return and resume its management till near the end of the following year. The city enjoyed a reposee of several years under Cromwell, but was so impoverished that its corporation could not meet a claim upon it for £55,000, and scarcely any citizen was able to pay his debts. The news of the Restoration in 1660 was enthusiastically welcomed, and drew from the town council a congratulatory address and a gift of money to the King; and in solemn state, through streets guarded by armed burghers, the remains of the body of the Great Montrose were brought together and interred in St Giles' Church. The parliaments, however, which met in 1661 and 1662, caused a considerable diminution of the joy, for they introduced confusion and trouble afresh by passing enactments against Presbyterianism, and causing strong measures to be taken against the Covenanters. Edinburgh was put in a posture of defence; its gates were barricaded, and all ingress and egress prohibited without a passport. The very members of the law courts assumed arms; the gentlemen of the surrounding country were called in to afford their aid; and, from 1663 till the end of Charles II. 's reign, the city was the scene of the trial, torture, and execution of great numbers of Covenanters, many of them the best and brightest men of the age. The year 1670 saw also the execution of the noted wizard, Major Weir, and his sister. The latter was hanged in the Grassmarket, and the former was strangled at a stake and his body burned at Greenside, on the spot now occupied by Lady Glenorchy's Chapel.

The Duke of York, afterwards James II. of England and VII. of Scotland, resided in Edinburgh fronn 1679 to 1682, and `behaved himself in so obliging a manner' as to dissipate all the hard thoughts that had been previously entertained regarding him. A magnificent court was maintained and many new luxuries - the use of tea among others - were introduced, into the country, and altogether the Duke, as well as Mary of Modena and his daughter Lady Anne, seem to have been very popular. The popularity, however, quickly vanished after his accession to the throne, when his measures in favour of the Roman Catholics provoked strong local dislike, and led to several riotous outbreaks. In particular, after convoking a parliament in Edinburgh in 1686, and finding it not sufficiently pliable for his purposes, he, by his own authority, did what the parliament refused to do - took the Catholics under his royal protection, assigned for the exercise of their religion the chapel of Holyrood Abbey, promoted as many Catholics as possible to the privy council and other offices of government, and showed in every way an utterly reckless disregard of all constitutional pledges and obligations. Towards the end of 1688 his officers of state sank into inaction under fear of the anticipated movements of the Prince of Orange, the Court of Session almost ceased to sit, the students of the University burned the Pope in effigy, and clamoured for a free parliament, and the Earl of Perth, the acting head of the government of Scotland, at length took flight to the Highlands, leaving the city entirely at its own disposal.

No sooner did it become known that the Prince of Orange had landed in England, and that the regular troops were withdrawn from Scotland, than Edinburgh was peopled with Presbyterians from every part of the country, and the city became a scene of tumultuous confusion. A mob, comprising citizens, students, and strangers, rose at the beat of drum, gave riotous expression of inveterate hatred against everything popish and prelatic, and proceeded to demolish the royal chapel of Holyrood. There they were fired upon and repulsed by a guard of some hundred men, who still adhered to the interests of James. The mob, however, soon rallied, and overcame the guard, slaying some and capturing the rest; they then pillaged the Abbey Church, pulled down the Jesuits' college, plundered and sacked other religious houses and private dwellings of Roman Catholics throughout the city, and burned at the Cross the paraphernalia of the Roman Catholic chapels; in short, everything connected with the scorned religion or the ecclesiastical policy of the dethroned monarch was extirpated with a fierceness approaching to frenzy. The magistrates, notwithstanding their former obsequiousness to James, were equally zealous in their alacrity to accept the Revolution, and promptly sent a congratulatory address to the Prince of Orange, assuring him of their allegiance. A Convention of Estates, held at Edinburgh soon after, proceeded at once to declare the forfeiture of James VII., to offer the crown of Scotland to William and Mary, to abolish prelacy and to re-establish Presbyterianism. It was protected during its sittings by 6000 Covenanters from the West, whose presence acted as a check on the Jacobite garrison of the Castle under the Duke of Gordon, who adhered to the cause of the fallen King till, the last hopes of the party being extinguished by the fall of Dundee at Killiecrankie, he surrendered his charge in June 1689.

The citizens of Edinburgh, now full of bright prospects of prosperity, began to turn their attention to commerce, and invested largely (the Corporation itself to the extent of £3000) in the stock of the Darien Company, projected by William Paterson, the founder of the Bank of England, in 1695 - only to their ruin, for the jealousy of other trading companies, and the remonstrances of the Spaniards, who feared interference with their colonies, induced King William to withdraw his countenance from the scheme, after he had sanctioned it by Act of Parliament; and of the gallant expeditions which sailed from Leith in 1698 and 1699 hardly a man returned. When the news of the landing reached Edinburgh the inhabitants went wild with joy, offering up thanksgivings in the churches, illuminating the city, and burning down the Tolbooth door in order to set free some prisoners. Equally violent were their demonstrations when the news of the failure came, and deep and loud the maledictions pronounced on the government which had betrayed them. The capital of £400,000 - as great a sum probably, in comparison with the wealth of the country in those days, as forty millions would be now - was entirely lost, and many of the shareholders utterly ruined. The Darien House, which was erected for the offices of the Company, [According to Macaulay a building for the offices was erected in Mylne Square, but this seems to be a mistake. There may have been a temporary office there, but the house built specially for the Company was undoubtedly that indicated above] and bore the date 1698, was a large plain building in Bristo, where the site is marked by a tablet on one of the houses. It became in the latter part of last century the city Bedlam, and was finally pulled down in 1871.

The accession of Queen Anne in 1702 was received without much show of feeling, but the meeting of Parliament at Edinburgh in 1706-7, to discuss the proposal for national union between Scotland and England, caused much excitement. Even while the proposal was merely hinted at, the citizens, smarting under the Darien disaster, with the recent massacre of Glencoe still fresh in their memories, and dreading the removal of government offices to London, regarded it with keen suspicion. When the proposal became known in its details, the long-cherished antipathies and jealousies of all classes against England kindled into a fierce spirit of opposition, and the citizens pressed in vast crowds to the Parliament House, and insulted there every member who was believed to favour the union. They afterwards attacked the house of their late provost, who was a strenuous supporter of the scheme, and then scoured the streets, and made themselves absolute masters of the city. The crown-commissioner ordered a party of soldiers to take possession of the Netherbow, posted military guards in Parliament Square and other central localities, and thus quelled for a time the surging riot; but so deep and general was the popular rage, and so great the alarm of the authorities, that nothing less than the whole available force was deemed sufficient for protection. The horse guards attended the commissioner, a battalion was stationed at Holyrood, and though three regiments of infantry were constantly on duty in the city, these proved barely strong enough to protect the Parliament during its deliberations. The Edinburgh people had, indeed, at first, some cause to complain of the effects of the measure which has so benefited the country at large, for with the departure of the members of Parliament, both peers and commoners, who had so long formed one of the mainstays of the place, there was a loss of prosperity, and the town remained for many years in an impoverished and heartless condition.

The Rebellion of 1715 commenced with an attempt to capture Edinburgh Castle by surprise. Fifteen hundred insurgents crossed over from Fife, but found the city so well protected by the fortifications which the magistrates had erected, and by the presence of a force, ready, under the Duke of Argyll, to give them a warm reception, that they declined to attack it, and marched southward. The arrival, shortly after, of 6000 Dutch troops, prevented the city from suffering any further menace. In 1736 Edinburgh was the scene of a remarkable tumult, known as the Porteous Mob. Two smugglers, named Wilson and Robertson, had been condemned to death for robbing the collector of excise at Pittenweem, in Fifeshire. Both these criminals made an attempt at escape one night by forcing a bar from the window of their cell in the Tolbooth prison, but Wilson, being a stout and powerful man, stuck fast in trying to get through, so that the jailers were alarmed and the escape frustrated. Wilson regretted much that he had attempted the passage first, and considering that by doing so he had prevented his fellow-culprit Robertson's escape, made a desperate resolve that he would yet give him an opportunity of evading the last penalty of the law. According to custom the culprits were, on the Sunday before the execution, taken, under the charge of four soldiers, to hear sermon at the Tolbooth Church. When the congregation was dispersing, Wilson, suddenly seizing one of the guards with each hand, and a third with his teeth, called to Robertson to make his escape, which he very quickly did, after knocking down the fourth guard. Wilson's bold exploit made him an object of popular sympathy, and the magistrates, being afraid of a riot and an attempt at rescue on the day of execution, supplied the town-guard, then commanded by Captain Porteous, with ball cartridge. After the execution the crowd began to hoot, and throw stones, as well as other missiles, at the executioner and the guard, when Captain Porteous rashly ordered his men to fire, and six people were killed and eleven wounded. For this conduct Captain Porteous was tried for murder and condemned to be hanged. George II. was then in Hanover, and Queen Caroline, who was acting as regent, gave a respite for six weeks to the convict, preparatory, it was believed, to a full pardon; but such was the exasperation of the people, that they determined he should suffer, despite the royal clemency. A party of citizens accordingly assembled on 7 Sept. 1736, the night previous to the day fixed for Porteous' execution, and sounding a drum, soon gathered an immense number to their aid, when they took possession of and shut the gates of the city, to prevent the entrance of the Welsh Fusiliers stationed in the Canongate, and then seized and disarmed the town-guard. After an ineffectual attempt to force the Tolbooth door with sledge-hammers and crowbars, they had recourse to fire, and soon gained an entrance. Seizing the unfortunate prisoner, they carried him on their shoulders down the West Bow to the Grassmarket, calling at a shop on the way to provide themselves with a rope, and hanged him from a dyer's pole on the S side of the street, exactly opposite the Gallows Stone. Great indignation was excited by all this at court, and the lord provost was taken into custody, and admitted to bail only after three weeks' confinement. The city was threatened with severe punishment, and by a bill that passed the House of Lords, provision was made that the provost should be confined for a year, the city-guard abolished, and the gates razed; but in the Commons the whole was modified to a fine of £2000, to be paid to Porteous' widow.

At the outbreak of the Rebellion of 1745, the old and somewhat ruinous walls were hastily repaired, and efforts made to put the city in a state of defence, while on 19 Aug. Sir John Cope, with the troops stationed at Edinburgh, left that city for the North to meet the rebels. Prince Charles, avoiding an engagement with Cope, if the latter did not rather avoid one with him, descended with his adherents upon the Lowlands by Perth, and crossed the river Forth a few miles above Stirling. Advancing rapidly he soon reached Corstorphine, three miles from Edinburgh, where, to avoid the guns of the Castle, he made a southerly detour to Slateford, whence he wrote demanding the surrender of the city. The volunteers and militia, to whom the defence of the place had been entrusted, having disbanded themselves in a very cowardly way, negotiations had to be entered into; but the Prince, unwilling for delay, gave orders early in the morning to try to take the city by surprise. A party of twenty-four men were placed at the Netherbow gate and sixty close by in St Mary's Wynd; and these, on the gate being opened to let out a coach, rushed in, overpowered the guard, and soon obtained possession of the town. Thus, on the morning of 17 Sept., the citizens found the government of their capital transferred from King George to the Highlanders under Prince Charles Edward, acting as regent for his father; and at noon on that day the heralds, with the usual formalities, proclaimed James VII as king, and read the Prince's commission of regency, at the town cross. Charles, having learned that the city was in possession of his troops, passed round by Arthur's Seat to avoid annoyance from the Castle, and took up his quarters at Holyrood, where he established his court. The magistrates were compelled to furnish supplies and the citizens to give up their arms, though private property was otherwise respected. On his return, after the victory of Prestonpans, he blockaded the Castle, provoking from it a cannonade which did considerable damage, but after two days the blockade was removed and further mischief to the inhabitants prevented. After the Prince's final defeat at Culloden, the Duke of Cumberland visited the city, and caused fourteen of the standards taken from the rebels to be burned at the cross - the standard of the Prince being carried thither by the common hangman, and the remaining thirteen by thirteen chimney-sweeps.

Famine tumults occurred in the city in 1763, 1764, and 1765, and were quelled only by military aid. In 1778 an occurrence took place, which, though eventually terminated without bloodshed, at first bore a threatening aspect, and caused great anxiety. This was a mutiny of the Seaforth Highlanders, then quartered in the Castle. It having been determined to send the regiment to India at a time when considerable arrears of pay were due, the soldiers took counsel among themselves in regard to their present condition and future prospects. One morning, during drill upon Leith Links, an unusual place for this purpose, suspicion was aroused that they were about to be entrapped on board ship, and sent off without payment of the arrears. Instantly, as in all probability had been previously arranged, the whole body shouldered their arms and marched off at quick step to Arthur's Seat, and fixed their quarters near its summit. Their officers, in the first instance, tried to soothe them with fair promises, but to these the men turned a deaf ear, having already experienced their worthlessness. Threats then resorted to being equally unavailing, as the Highlanders knew they were so situated as to place infantry at defiance, and that, from the nature of the ground, cavalry would be equally ineffective, the only resource was an accommodation through the intervention of some one in whom the Highlanders would place confidence. This was at last effected through Lords Macdonald and Dunmore, on whose honour the men had great reliance, and the differences being satisfactorily arranged, the regiment returned to its allegiance, and shortly after embarked for foreign service.

In the end of last century the city was disturbed by the `Friends of the People,' the members of the memorable British Convention being seized while attending a meeting in the Cockpit, in the Grassmarket, in 1793; while, in the following year, Robert Watt and David Downie, two of the most active of the local leaders, were convicted of high treason. Both were condemned to death, but Watt only was executed, Downie's sentence being commuted to transportation for life.

A no-Popery riot, on the occasion of the attempt to repeal the penal laws against Catholics in 1799, led to the demolition and plundering of several chapels, and the destruction of considerable property belonging to Roman Catholics, but with military aid order was restored without loss of life. The city, during the menaces of Bonaparte against Britain, made great demonstrations of loyalty, and raised a volunteer force of between 3000 and 4000 men.

In 1822 George IV. paid a visit to Edinburgh, and remained there from the 15th till the 29th of August, occasioning great excitement in the city, and drawing to it many visitors from all parts of the country. Two years later two great fires broke out in the Old Town in June and November, and caused serious damage, one of them, which lasted three days, destroying the greater part of the High Street between St Giles' and the Tron Church, and being checked with the utmost difficulty. The demonstrations in Edinburgh which accompanied the general demand for parliamentary reform in 1830 were remarkably strong, as were also those associated with the election of the first members for the city under the new bill in 1832. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visited the city in 1842, and were everywhere received with enthusiasm, even greater than that extended to George IV. The accounts of the sudden overthrow of Louis Philippe's government at Paris in Feb. 1848 excited intense interest in Scotland, one result of which was an alarming riot which took place in Edinburgh on the 7th March. Upwards of 3000 persons having assembled at the Tron Church, evidently bent on mischief, the Lord Provost enrolled a number of citizens as special constables, and sent to Piershill and the Castle for military aid, while the sheriff read the Riot Act, and advised the crowds to disperse. These proceedings being energetically followed up, a stop was speedily put to the disturbances, but not till considerable mischief had been done.

The royal family again visited Edinburgh in 1849, and in 1850 when the Prince Consort publicly laid the foundation-stone of the National Gallery; and the Prince of Wales resided at Holyrood during several months of 1859, while studying history under Dr Schmitz of the High School. In 1860 her Majesty reviewed upwards of 20,000 volunteers in the Queen's Park; and in 1861 the Prince Consort officiated at the laying of the foundation-stones of the new General Post Office and the Industrial Museum - this being among the last public appearances which the Prince made before his death. In 1863 there was a great public illumination on the occasion of the marriage of the Prince of Wales, as was also the case at the time of the Duke of Edinburgh's marriage in 1874. The Prince and Princess of Wales made a public appearance, accompanied with great masonic display, on the occasion of the Prince laying the foundation-stone of the new Royal Infirmary in 1870, and since then they have publicly visited the city in 1884, when they were at the Forestry Exhibition, and in 1886, when they visited the International Exhibition, which had previously been declared open by their eldest son, the late Duke of Clarence. Repeated visits have been made by her Majesty to the city since the occasions already mentioned, and in Aug. 1881 the Queen again reviewed the northern volunteers to the number of about 40,000 in the Park at Holyrood.

Edinburgh was the meeting-place of the British Association in 1834, 1850, 1871, and 1892; of the Social Science Congress in 1863 and 1880; of the Highland and Agricultural Society in 1842, 1848, 1859, 1869, 1877, 1884, and 1893; and of the Librarians' Congress in 1880. In April 1882 there was a Fisheries Exhibition, in 1884 a Forestry Exhibition, in 1886 and 1890 general International Exhibitions of Art and Industry, and in 1891 a Heraldic Exhibition. Return to top.

The Castle.-Exclusive of the Esplanade, the site of the Castle, which occupies the top of the sharp boss of volcanic rock at the extreme W end of the central ridge of Edinburgh, measures some 280 yards from E to W, and about 180 yards at the widest part from N to S, and covers an area of above six acres. A considerable portion of the northern, western, and southern sides are precipitous, while on the NE a steep grassy bank slopes down to the West Princes Street Gardens. The space at the top of the Castle Hill immediately E of the present fortifications, which now forms an esplanade or glacis sloping gently up to the level of the drawbridge, was originally much lower. Defended all round till about 1753 by a strong outwork, it is now entirely open, with merely a parapet wall along the side, and serves as a garrison parade and general lounging place. When the surface was at its original low level, the access from it to the Castle was by a long flight of steps, and the approach was defended on the E by an old battery called the Spur, which was demolished about 1649. After the removal of this, a narrow raised roadway was formed across the ground, and the whole level gradually raised by the deposition on it of the earth removed from the site of the Royal Exchange during the building operations there after 1753. Further improvements were made in 1816-20. The 1450 line of defence round the city passed across the top of the Castle Hill at the E end of the Esplanade, and was there pierced by a gateway called the Barrier Gate, which was temporarily restored when George IV. visited Scotland in 1822, and again in 1832-on the latter occasion for the purpose of isolating the garrison during the cholera epidemic then prevalent in Edinburgh. On the Esplanade are various monuments connected with the army, including a statue of the Duke of York erected in 1839, a Celtic cross (1862) in memory of the officers and men of the 78th Highlanders who were killed in the Indian Mutiny, another in memory of Colonel Mackenzie of the 92d Highlanders (1873), and a granite obelisk, a memorial of those of the 72d Highlanders who fell in Afghanistan in 1878-80.

Dismantled by Bruce, as we have seen, the fortifications rose again from the ruins in the brief period of power of Edward III., who erected, after the fashion of his time, a strong curtain wall with towers; and shortly afterwards David II., when he had recovered his kingdom, still further strengthened the place by the massive square tower, known from its builder as 'Davyes Tower,' in which he died in 1370. Of these early works only some small fragments, at the Half-Moon Battery and elsewhere, remain, the rest having been all reduced to ruin in 1573 during the thirty-three days' siege by the troops of the Regent Morton and the English auxiliaries under Sir William Drury. Even of the old portions that remain the appearance has been greatly changed, for the upper parts, very much shattered during the siege, seem to have been restored on new lines. 'On the highest part of the rock stood, and yet stands, the square tower where Mary of Guise died, James VI. was born, and where the regalia have been kept for ages. On the N a massive pile, called David's Tower, built by the second monarch of that name, and containing a spacious hall, rose to the height of more than 40 feet above the precipice, which threw its shadows on the loch 200 feet below. Another, named from Wallace, stood nearer to the city; and where now the formidable Half Moon rears up its time-worn front, two high embattled walls, bristling with double tiers of ordnance, flanked on the N by the round tower of the Constable 50 feet high, and on the S by a square gigantic peel, opposed their faces to the city. The soldiers of the garrison occupied the peel, the foundations of which are yet visible. Below it lay the entrance, with its portcullis and gates, to which a flight of forty steps ascended. The other towers were St Margaret's, closed by a ponderous gate of iron, the kitchen tower, the large munition house, the armourer's forge, the bakehouse, brewery, and gun-house, at the gable of which swung a sonorous copper bell for calling the watchers and alarming the garrison. The Castle then contained a great hall, a palace, the regalia, a church, and an oratory endowed by St Margaret.' Battered from the high ground at Heriot's Hospital, from where the W end of Princes Street now is, and from the high ground farther E, the east and north fronts were soon almost entirely destroyed. David's Tower, with all its guns and men, went crashing over the precipice on the sixth day of the siege, and was followed on the seventh by the Gate Tower and Wallace's Tower. The great square peel and the Constable's Tower went next, and at last, when the assailants got possession of the Spur, in which was the only well left available, the stout-hearted garrison had to yield, and the brave governor, Kirkaldy of Grange, basely delivered up by Drury, to whom he surrendered, to the Regent Morton, was soon afterwards hanged at the Cross, having, says Sir James Melvil, `perished for being too little ambitious and greedy.'

Douglas of Parkhead, the regent's cousin, who now became governor, proceeded at once with the work of restoration, the principal feature of the new defences being the Half-Moon Battery. The Douglas star and heart over the portcullis gateway still mark the builder, but the arms of Morton, which were placed there above the royal arms - a circumstance afterwards set down to his discredit when he came to be tried for his life - have long been gone. The lines of the new walls did not follow those of the old, and so we now find standing apart such fragments as Wallace's Cradle on the face of the cliff on the N, Wallace's Tower - part of the 1450 works - at the base of the same precipice, and the other ruins on the bank below the Esplanade. Prior to the invention of gunpowder the fortress was so strong by nature that art easily made it almost, if not altogether, impregnable; but in these days of long range and heavy guns, it has of course become quite useless for purposes of defence. The garrison consists generally of one regiment, but accommodation could be provided for about three on their full war establishment.

The entrance to the Castle is across a drawbridge spanning a deep dry fosse, through a gateway flanked by low batteries, up a rocky path, and through a long vaulted archway, with slits where of old there have been two portcullises, and with traces of the hinges of more than one ancient gate. The present outer gateway, which includes the guardhouse, was erected in 1886, at the cost of the late Mr William Nelson, the well-known publisher, in pursuance of his efforts to improve the picturesqueness of the Castle buildings. In the sides of the archway are placed two curious stone panels, on which are sculptured in minute detail representations of old cannon and military weapons. These formed part of a fine old 17th century gateway, which was demolished in the beginning of the 19th century to make way for the mean building which served as a guardhouse till the latest building was erected. Over the second vaulted arch mentioned above, with the grooves for the portcullises, is a panel with pilasters and pediment. The panel bears the royal arms, and was - somewhat tardily, so far as governments are concerned - placed there during the restorations of 1890, to take the place of the shield cast down by Cromwell in 1650. On the pediment are the Douglas star and heart, which seem to point to this as part of the 1574 work. The so-called dogs beneath are sometimes referred to the Duke of Gordon's governorship in 1688. The building above is the Argyll Tower, the upper part of which was restored by the late Mr William Nelson in 1890. It was used till the end of the 18th century as a state prison, and receives its name from either the Marquess of Argyll, whose place of confinement it was previous to his execution in 1661, or from the ninth Earl of the same name who was imprisoned here in 1685. Other occupants of note have been Carstares (afterwards Principal of the University) in 1682, Lord Balcarres in 1689; and Lady Ogilvie, the Viscountess of Strathallan, and several other fair Jacobites in 1746. The last occasion when it was used for prisoners charged with high treason was when Watt, Downie, and Orrock were committed to it in 1794. The Argyll Battery facing the N, a few paces beyond the archway, commands a fine view over all the New Town. It takes its name from the second Duke of Argyll, who was commander-in-chief in Scotland in 1715. Beyond and below it is Mylne's or Mills Mount Battery, built by Robert Mylne in 1689, and a little beyond, at the NW corner, are the magazine and what used to be the armoury, but is now the hospital. A high bastion behind the armoury was erected about 1856 on the site of an ancient sally-port. One of the turrets on the wall has the name of the Queen's Post, and stands on the site of Queen Margaret's Tower, but whether it takes its name from this, or from the spot having been a favourite resort of Mary of Guise and her little daughter when resident in the Castle, is doubtful. To the W of the hospital and magazine a staircase leads down to a small postern in the rock, which was the scene, in 1689, of the interview between the Duke of Gordon and Viscount Dundee, when the latter, after defying the Convention, and telling them that

`Ere the King's crown shall fall there are crowns to be broke,'

rode off to the north to raise the clans, and go whither `the shade of Montrose should direct' him. Long blocked up, it was cleared in 1888, and an inscribed tablet placed over it. Immediately to the S is Bute's Battery, and the open space is all that is left of the archery ground, which seems to have been the place where the Earl of Douglas and his brother were executed in 1440. The rest of it was in 1796 covered by the ungainly pile known as the New Barracks, which, with its arched rear elevation, appears at a distance somewhat like a factory set on a precipice. To the N of this is the Governor's House, built in 1705, and to the S the garrison prison, erected in 1840, beyond which is Drury's Battery, so named from John Drury, chief of the Scottish engineers, by whom it was erected in 1689.

Past the buildings just mentioned the road sweeps in an ascending curve, and proceeds eastward through a strong gateway into the inner or higher division of the Castle, known as the Citadel. Of this the southern part, surmounting the edge of the cliffs overhanging the Grassmarket, is the quadrangle called the Grand Parade or Palace Yard, about 100 feet square, and with buildings on all its four sides. On the N side there was formerly a large church, of very early date, and seemingly of characteristic Norman architecture; but this, converted after the Reformation into store-rooms of various kinds, was finally demolished in the middle of the 18th century, when the present hideous barracks- hideous still in spite of all Billings could do to improve them in 1860-62 - were built. The old Parliament Hall, on the S side of the Grand Parade, a magnificent apartment, about 80 feet long, 32 wide, and 27 high, was built probably about 1434, and was used for royal banquets as well as for meetings of Parliament. Here it must have been that the Earl of Douglas beheld that bull's head, `which was a sign and token of condemnation to the death;' and afterwards the hall was the scene of the coronation banquet of Charles I. in 1633, and of the festivities of 1648, when the Earl of Leven entertained Cromwell, Hazlerig, and other leading men of the Commonwealth. Cut up into mean apartments it was long lost to view till it was, in 1887-90, restored at the cost of the late Mr William Nelson, who unfortunately did not live to see the completion of the work. It is now used as a national armoury, and as such was opened with some ceremony by the Princess Louise in 1892. Occupying the rest of the S side, and the whole of the E side, of the square is the old royal palace, erected in the fifteenth century, and altered at various dates down to 1616. Queen Mary's room, where James VI. was born in 1566, is a small closet less than nine feet long, on the ground floor, at the SE corner. It still retains its original ceiling, in ornamental wooden panels, with the initials I. R. and M. R., and a royal crown in alternate compartments. The panelling was taken in recent times from an old house called the Oratory of Mary of Guise, which stood on the Castle Hill, and was demolished in 1846. The Crown Room, on the E side of the Grand Parade, contains the ancient regalia of Scotland, comprising crown, sceptre, sword of state and belt (presented to James IV by Pope Julius II. ), the lord treasurer's rod, the George that belonged to James V., the collar of the Garter that belonged to James VI., and the St Andrew and coronation ring that belonged to Charles I. The regalia were lodged here in 1707 at the time of the Union, but there was a belief - notwithstanding the provision in the Treaty that they should be always kept in Scotland - that they had been afterwards conveyed away by stealth to London; and it was only when, in 1818, a commission appointed by the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV., opened the old oak chest, that doubt on the subject was removed. Since then `the Honours' have been always open to the view of the lieges. Near the Crown Room is the room in which Mary of Guise died. In front of the Grand Parade, on the E face of the citadel, is the Half-Moon Battery. It was constructed in 1574 on the site of David's Tower, overlooks the Old Town in the line of Castle Hill and High Street, and is mounted with fourteen guns. An electric clock and apparatus connected with the Royal Observatory on Calton Hill discharges a time-gun here daily at one o'clock, by means of a wire stretching from the hill to the Castle; and it was from behind the flagstaff here that King George IV in 1822, and Queen Victoria in 1842, surveyed the city. The King's Bastion, on the NE verge of the citadel, occupies the highest cliff of the Castle rock. It forms a tier above the Argyll Battery, commands a most gorgeous panoramic view over the New Town to the Ochil Hills and Ben Lomond, and was formerly mounted as a bomb battery. In it is the famous old monster-gun called Mons Meg, composed of thick iron bars held together by a close series of iron hoops. It was constructed in 1455 by native artisans, at the instance of James II. when baffled with the siege of Threave in Galloway, a strong­hold of the Douglases, tradition adding that certain loyal lieges of the King, or more properly enemies of the Douglas, contributed each a bar to its construction, and that the name bestowed on the gun was in honour of the wife of the smith who hammered out its ribs and hooped them together. It was employed by James IV in 1489 at the siege of Dumbarton Castle, rent in 1682 when firing a salute in honour of the Duke of York's visit, removed to the Tower of London in 1754, and returned to Edinburgh in 1829 by the Duke of Wellington in response to the petition of Sir Walter Scott. St Margaret's Chapel, behind the King's Bastion, is the only building of the Castle of earlier date than the 15th century, and is the oldest extant building in Edinburgh. The nave was the private oratory of Margaret, queen of Malcolm Ceannmor; and the chancel, if not of the same date, must be but very little later. Long neglected, like so many of the historical buildings of Scotland, and even degraded to the uses of armourer's store and powder magazine, it was at length, owing to the exertions of the late Sir Daniel Wilson of Toronto, restored in 1853. Beneath the Citadel buildings on the E and S sides are vaults, which seem to have been used as dungeons. One is popularly associated with the name of the Marquess of Argyll, and another with that of Lady Glamis, who was so barbarously executed on the Castle Hill in 1538. The double range on the S was also used, in the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, for the confinement of the French prisoners of war. On the slope below the Castle buildings proper, on the S, behind the houses in the Grassmarket, are the quarters of the married soldiers of the garrison. Originally erected in 1872-73, in a style so severely plain that it positively disfigured the locality, the block has since been improved, but is still far from being `a thing of beauty.' Return to top.

Holyrood.-Holyrood, at the opposite end of the central ridge from the Castle, originated as an abbey in the time of David I.; and the ground occupied by it, as well as by the adjacent burgh of Canongate, was till that period a natural forest, which extended eastward nearly as far as Musselburgh. Monkish legend asserts that, on Rood-day, or the festival of the Exaltation of the Cross, King David I. proceeded, against the wish of his confessor, from the Castle to hunt in the forest, and that, when in the hollow between the present site of the Abbey and the N end of Salisbury Crags, and separated from his retinue, the King was assailed, unhorsed, and driven to bay by a vicious hart with powerful antlers. Just at the moment of direst peril a dazzling cross, or `holy rude,' was miraculously extended to the King by an arm shrouded in a dark cloud, and the mystic sheen struck such sharp terror into the infuriated deer that it at once turned and took to flight. On the following night the King was admonished in a dream or vision to erect and endow a monastery at the spot where this happened, in token of thankfulness for his supernatural deliverance; and here accordingly King David founded an Augustinian abbey, and dedicated it to the Holy Rude. Such is the legend, which, though no doubt partly fictitious, must have been suggested by some unusual incident that had occurred during the hunt on an annual church festival. Possibly the Abbey may owe its name to a cross, believed to contain a portion of the actual ` rude' on which Christ was crucified, and known as the 'Black Rude,' that had been bequeathed to David by his mother, the pious Margaret, who had brought it with her to Scotland, probably as a relic she cherished of Edward the Confessor. The Abbey would almost seem to have been erected to guard this relic, which appears to have been looked on as a talisman on which depended not only the fortunes of the Abbey, but the fate of the country. David II. had it carried before his army when he invaded England, but it passed ominously into the hands of his enemies at the battle of Neville's Cross, and was placed by them in Durham Cathedral, where it was long preserved, both as a trophy of victory and as an object of religious veneration.

Founded in 1128, and bestowed with large revenues on the canons regular of the Augustinian order, the Abbey was designed and built in the grandest manner, and became very soon one of the richest and most splendid monastic establishments in the kingdom. Besides the usual monastic buildings it had a magnificent cruciform church, with all the accessories of a cathedral - nave, transepts, and choir - with two towers on its western front, and a great central tower at the intersection of the nave and transepts. The apartments for royal guests stood to the south of the church, and formed in the time of the first three Jameses one of the favourite royal residences. The original cloisters to the S of the nave of the church are now traceable in only a part of their N side. The church choir, with the Lady chapel at its E end, was partly demolished by the English in 1544 and 1547, and the ruins were in 1569 `disposed be faithfull men, to repair the remanent sufficiently.' The nave, 148 feet long and 66 broad, was altered at various periods, both before and after the destruction of the other parts of the pile; and the roof, central tower, spires of the western towers, and some of the upper parts of the walls, are all gone. The wall across its E end and the large window form part of the repairs executed in 1569 to convert it into a parish church. The cloister doorway, still apparent on the south side and showing beautiful shafts and rich chevron moulding of the Norman period, must belong to the church of David I. The buttresses, side windows, and a doorway on the N side were reconstructed about the middle of the 15th century, and exhibit ornate features of the later Gothic. Most of the W front is a little later than the cloister part of the south side, and forms an exquisite specimen of the Transition Norman architecture, with mixture of pure Norman and Early English. On the face of the NW tower is an elaborately sculptured arcade, with boldly cut heads between the arches. The peculiar windows over the great doorway have been doubtfully referred to the period of Charles I., when some restorations took place, but they are probably earlier.

Charles II. restored the nave, and converted it into a chapel royal. A throne was then erected for the sovereign, and twelve stalls for the Knights of the Thistle, while the floor was tessellated with variously­coloured marble. A mob, at the Revolution, in revenge for James VII. having used the chapel for Romish worship, unroofed it, and reduced everything to a state of ruin. A restoration was attempted, and a stone roof placed over it in 1758, but the roof, being too heavy for the old walls, fell in suddenly in 1768, and destroyed all the new work. The pile was thereafter utterly neglected, and became a crumbling ruin, choked with rubbish, till 1816, when it was put into orderly condition. In 1857 its appearance was still further improved by alterations that took place in connection with the extensive clearances then effected in Palace Yard.

The royal burial-place was originally near the high altar, in the choir; and after the choir was demolished a new vault was constructed in the S aisle of the nave. Down to 1688, when the coffins were destroyed and the bones scattered over the pavement, this contained the remains of James V. and his first queen, and of Lord Darnley, and to it in 1848, on the wanton destruction of old Trinity College Church, the remains of Mary of Gueldres were removed. David II. and James II. were also buried within the walls, probably in the old vault. About the building are also the tombs of Hepburn, the last abbot of Holyrood, and of Wishart, the biographer of the great Marquess of Montrose; an interesting recumbent statue of Lord Belhaven, the strenuous opponent of the National Union; and the burial places of many other notable persons, including Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster. The chief historical events that have taken place within the chapel walls have been the marriages of James II. and James III., and the hapless union of Mary and Darnley; the presentation to James IV. of the great sword of state; and the coronation of Charles I. The foundation charter of the Abbey, which, however, speaks of the church as already in existence, bears date somewhere between 1143 and 1147, and by it the canons not only received large estates and various rights connected with multures and fishings, but also the privilege of erecting the burgh of Canongate, as well as a right of trial by duel and of the water and fire ordeal. Whether their extensive jurisdiction also included the power of protecting any delinquent who took refuge within the Abbey bounds, or whether this was a royal prerogative connected with the Palace, is not clear, but such right of sanctuary certainly existed from an early period, and extended over all the precincts, from the Girth Cross at the foot of Canongate to the utmost limits of the royal park. In early times it shielded every description of offender, but came afterwards to be used only for protecting insolvent debtors, in times especially when the law gave greater powers to creditors than it does now. The refugees within the sanctuary were for a long time popularly and satirically called 'Abbey Lairds,' and were made the subject of an old comic song, entitled The Cock Laird. A group of plain old houses, called St Ann's Yards, which stood on ground now within the enclosure to the S of the palace, and figure in Scott's Chronicles of the Canongate, was their principal retreat. Some of these houses were swept away in 1850 and the remainder in 1857. To the NE of the Abbey is the old sixteenth century house of Croft-an-Righ (King's Croft) - Scott's Croftangry - with quaint corbelled turrets and dormer windows. It is said to have been the residence of the Regent Moray, and has some curious ornamental ceilings. The fine garden and orchard behind were included within the Palace grounds in 1857.

The Palace, as distinct from the Abbey, was founded by James IV in 1501; enlarged by James V. in 1528; mostly destroyed, by the English forces under the Earl of Hertford, in 1544; rebuilt, on a much larger scale and in greater splendour, in the immediately following years ; destroyed again by fire when occupied by the soldiers of Oliver Cromwell ; and partly restored, but mainly reconstructed, by Charles II., on an entirely new plan, after designs by Sir William Bruce of Kinross, in 1671-79. The contract for the demolition of the old pile of buildings and their reconstruction shows that in 1671 the amount for the work was reckoned at £4200; but there was a second contract in March 1676 for £324, and a third in July 1676 for £350. The builder was the well-known Robert Mylne, whose name is cut in large letters on one of the pillars at the NW corner of the piazza. The pile of 1528 is still represented by the northern projecting wing of the front range of the existing palace. The palace erected immediately after 1544 comprised five courts; the first projecting toward the foot of Canongate, and entering from thence through a strong gateway flanked with towers; the second and the third occupying nearly the same ground as the present palace; the fourth and the fifth of small size, and situated to the S. The present building, consisting of the small remaining part of the pile of 1528, and the entire edifice of 1671-79, has the form of an open quadrangle, enclosing a court 94 feet square. It underwent exterior repair in 1826, interior improvement in 1842, and the roof was entirely renewed in 1878-80, at a cost of about £5000. It has, all round the S, E, and N sides, a uniform three-storey elevation, in plain Italian style. The main front to the W consists of a centre and wings - the centre a two-storey architectural screen, pierced by the entrance doorway, surmounted by a balustrade and by a small clock lantern, with an open, carved, stone cupola in the form of an imperial crown. The wings project about 40 feet, rising to the height of three storeys, with circular conical-roofed corner turrets. The enclosed court shows an arcade-piazza basement, and three upper ranges of fluted pilasters, successively Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. In the centre of the front, toward the W, is a pediment on which are carved the royal arms. The royal private apartments occupy the S and the E sides, and are reached by a grand staircase from the SE angle of the court. They were formed on a model combining features from all the older royal residences in Scotland, and lay long in a state of great neglect, but preparatory to the visits of Queen Victoria were entirely refitted. The great picture gallery on the N measures 150 feet in length, 24 feet in breadth, and about 20 feet in height. It is hung with more than one hundred alleged portraits of reputed Scottish kings, all in barbarous style, painted in 1684-86 by the Flemish artist De Witt. There is also a remarkable diptych, painted about 1484, containing portraits of James III., his queen, Margaret of Denmark, his young son (afterwards James IV.), and Edward Boncle, the then provost of Trinity Church, of which the painting is supposed to have been an altar-piece. This picture gallery was used by Prince Charles Edward in 1745 for his receptions and balls, and is the place where the Scottish peers elect their representatives for parliament, and where the Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland holds his levees. The rooms in the part of the palace erected in 1528, entering from a stair in the NW angle of the court, continue in nearly the same condition as when Queen Mary inhabited them. In consequence of their historical associations and curious furnishings, Queen Victoria, at the time of the interior improvements of the Palace, issued a special order to leave them undisturbed. They include a vestibule with some dark stains, fabled to have been made by the blood of David Rizzio, who was murdered here in 1566; an audience chamber, hung with ancient tapestry, and containing some richly-embroidered chairs, where the famous interviews occurred between Queen Mary and John Knox; and a bed-chamber, containing Queen Mary's bed and portrait. But few of the other pictures or furnishings are of much importance.

James VI., who was residing here when he received the tidings of his accession to the throne of England, was the last permanent royal occupant, though Charles I. was here for a short period at the time of his coronation, and James VII., when Duke of York, in 1680-82. Prince Charles Edward, during the brief period of his presence in Edinburgh, held high state in the Palace, in such style as greatly to delight the Scottish Jacobites. The Duke of Cumberland, on his return to the S, after crushing the rebellion on the field of Culloden, occupied the same apartments and the same bed in the Palace that had been used by his opponent. Charles X. of France took up his abode here as an exile in 1795, when he was Comte d'Artois, and again, in 1830, when the revolution of that year drove him from his throne. George IV., during his brief sojourn at Dalkeith in 1822, held his levees in the picture gallery of Holyrood; and Queen Victoria made similar use of it in 1842; while, between 1850 and 1861, her Majesty used to spend two nights in the royal private apartments of the Palace, on her way to and from Balmoral, and she was there in August 1881 for three days and two nights, on the occasion of the great review of Scottish Volunteers.

The Palace and the surrounding grounds were for long closely hemmed in by old and dilapidated houses, which, were gradually cleared away between 1851 and 1862. A spacious carriage-way was formed from Abbeyhill southward across the W side of the Palace-yard to a new entrance into the Royal Park, the old dingy houses of St Ann's Yards were cleared away, and the site, along with a considerable section of the Royal Park to the S and E, enclosed to form a private royal garden or home park; a range of offices, comprising guard-house, royal mews, and other conveniences, was erected in a castellated style along the W side of the Palace-yard; and great improvement was at the same time effected on the adjacent grounds of the Royal Park. A curious appendage to the Palace, in Queen Mary's time and earlier, was a lions' den, a small enclosure adjoining one of the windows on the N, but it has entirely disappeared. Near the place where it stood is a sun-dial, also associated with Queen Mary's name, but the connection is a mistake, as it was erected in the time of Charles I., when over four hundred pounds Scots was paid to the 'maissoune' for the working and hewing thereof. A lodge, called Queen Mary's bath, in the isolated part of the gardens on the NW, is a quaintly shaped little building. It has a spring underneath the floor. During some alterations about 1798 there was found, in the sarking of its roof, a richly inlaid but wasted dagger, supposed to have been stuck there by the murderers of Rizzio on their escape from the Palace. A series of pointed arches in a high blank wall on the S side of the thoroughfare from the Palace-yard to Canongate, belonged to a Gothic porch and archway built about 1490, and serving for some time as the outer entrance to the Abbey. The space now mainly occupied by the new guard-house and royal mews was the site of the mint, during the regency of Mary of Guise, and of the residence of Rizzio. A sandstone statue of Queen Victoria, on an ornamental pedestal, with sculptured groups of figures, from the chisel of A. H. Ritchie, that was placed in the centre of the Palace-yard in 1850, was removed in 1857, and the present ornamental fountain erected in its room in 1859 at a cost of £1700. It is a restoration of a ruined fountain in Linlithgow Palace, and has three ranges of statuettes, representing, in the highest range, four men-at-arms supporting the Imperial crown ; in the second, eight figures typical of sixteenth century life; and the lowest has heraldic figures with shields bearing the arms of James IV., James V., and James VI. and their queens. Beneath there are heads of various celebrated persons. Return to top.

The Royal Park, extending from the Palace eastward to the vicinity of Jock's Lodge, south-eastward to Duddingston, and south-south-westward to the vicinity of Newington, and comprehending Arthur's Seat, Salisbury Crags, and part of St Leonard's Hill, measures in circumference nearly five miles, and has an area of about 680 acres. It continued, for ages after the erection of the Abbey, to be natural forest, and was first enclosed and improved by James V. Improved again in the time of Queen Mary, it passed from Charles I. to Sir James Hamilton and his heirs, who rented it out to tenants; but in 1844 it was repurchased by the Crown for £30,674, and put under the management of the Commissioners of Woods and Forests, by whom it was greatly altered for the better, and the present magnificent Queen's Drive formed. Return to top.

The Canongate.-The monks of Holyrood were, as we have seen, privileged to erect a burgh in connection with the Abbey, and so the Canongate, sheltering at first under the walls of the brotherhood, extended by slow degrees westward till, at the Netherbow, it met its rival Edinburgh pushing eastward from the Castle. Its name is of course derived from its having formed the approach to the Abbey from the city and Castle. A burgh of regality almost from its birth, it received charters granting various privileges from David I., Robert I., and Robert II.; the abbots of Holyrood, as superiors, having the appointment of bailies and council, with a right to enrol burgesses. All rights and privileges, along with certain feu-duties, were afterwards conveyed absolutely to the burgh, the abbots retaining only the bare superiority, which they continued to hold till the dissolution of the Abbey at the time of the Reformation. The superiority passed then to Robert Stewart as commendator, next to Sir Lewis Bellenden of Broughton, and thereafter to several others till, in 1630, it was acquired by the city of Edinburgh, the only rights left to the ancient suburb consisting of the superiority over certain properties within its bounds, and the power to levy petty customs, market dues, and causeway mail. The magistrates were next deprived of their jurisdiction in criminal cases, but were allowed to retain a weekly court for civil causes and for the settling of certain other classes of questions, as well as to act with the assistance of an assessor as justices of peace within their own territory. The original jurisdiction, of which even these last remnants were swept away by the Edinburgh Municipal Extension Act of 1856, was very wide, extending over not only the Canongate proper, but also the Abbey district, St Cuthbert's, Pleasance, North Leith, and Coalhill in South Leith; and no one but a burgess or freeman of Canongate was at liberty to carry on trade or manufacture within the bounds. The hammermen, tailors, wrights, baxters, shoemakers, weavers, fleshers, and barbers, incorporated by royal charter in 1630, have still corporate existence, though now merely as benefit societies. Under cover of its ecclesiastical connection the burgh had for long immunity from all harm, but its security was rudely broken in 1544, when the English forces made sad havoc. During the troubles of 1571 the Canongate was for a time the seat of Parliament, and suffered severely from the fire of the Queen's party from the Castle. Return to top.

Supreme Court.-The Courts of Session and of Justiciary - the supreme courts of law in Scotland - meet in buildings on the S and W sides of Parliament Square. This space (formerly known as Parliament Close) was, along with the slope extending to the Cowgate, anciently used as a burying ground. On the lower part of the slope was a chapel of the Holy Rood, and at the NW corner were the residences of the St Giles' clergy. In consequence of the meetings of Parliament and of the Court of Session being, in the latter part of the sixteenth century, held in the Old Tolbooth, near the NW corner of the square, the churchyard became a busy thoroughfare, and part of it at any rate must have been simply an open public meeting-place, for in 1617, when James VI. returned to visit his native land, a banquet was given him in St Giles' churchyard. The Parliament House proper, which is at the SW corner, was erected in 1631-40 at a cost of £14,600, and its external elevation was such an excellent and characteristic specimen of the Scottish Renaissance style of that period that it is a matter of regret that it has been obscured and destroyed by the modern front. Built at first in an open space, it was soon surrounded by houses, the southern part of which was so high, owing to the slope, that there is said to have been sometimes fifteen storeys on the Cowgate front. Curiously enough these houses never had time to get very old, for those first built were destroyed by fire in 1676, their successors in the same way in 1700, and those last built by the great fire of 1824; after the removal of the ruins of which, the square began to assume its present form. The present front of the Court buildings was erected in 1808 in accordance with designs by Mr Robert Reid. Italian in style, the elevation shows a first storey, rusticated and pierced with semicircular arches which form piazzas. A central projection has a handsome hexastyle Doric portico. At intervals on the cornice are six sphinxes.

The great hall in the SW corner - a magnificent room 120 feet long, over 40 feet wide, and 40 feet high, with a very fine oak hammer-beam roof - was built, as we have just seen, for the accommodation of the Parliament (which had, up to 1640, held its sittings in the Tolbooth), and served that purpose till 1707. `The whole Parliament sat as one Chamber, like the States-General of France. At the south end, below the large window, stood the high throne, which, in absence of the King, was occupied by the Chancellor, who acted as chairman of the assembly. On the steps of the throne were congregated the officers of state. On either side of the upper end of the hall there were raised and decorated benches for the use of the nobles and higher barons. At a table in the centre the judges of the Court of Session and the clerks of Parliament were seated, while the commissioners of burghs and the lesser barons were ranged on plain benches lower down. Beyond these, at the end of the hall, such of the general public as had gained admittance, and the retainers of the various members, assembled. Distinguished strangers were either accommodated with seats at the extremities of the burgesses' benches, or were admitted into a small gallery, which was probably situated above the present entrance doer, where a projection may be seen in the wall. A pulpit [still preserved in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries] stood below the gallery, from which sermons were occasionally preached to the House. After the parliamentary glories had departed, the hall was used as the Outer House of the Court, and one portion, indeed, occupying some twenty feet of the N end, and separated from the rest by a wooden partition about fifteen feet high, was filled with stalls on which jewellery and cutlery were exposed for sale. Cockburn says that he bought his first pair of skates there, and he remembers his surprise at the figures with black gowns and white wigs walking about among the cutlery. A judge sat in each of the recesses in the east wall, where the statues of Lord President Boyle and Lord Jeffrey now are, and cases were pleaded before them amid all the hubbub and bustle which went on in the House itself. During the reign of George III. the hall also every year witnessed the somewhat wild revelry indulged in by the more convivial of the citizens who had accepted the invitation of the magistrates to assemble and drink the King's health on the anniversary of his birthday. In 1656 it was the scene of a great entertainment given to General Monk and the leaders of the Commonwealth; in 1680 of a great banquet to the Duke and Duchess of York and their daughter, afterwards Queen Anne; in 1822 of another to George IV.; and in 1887 of a fourth in honour of the Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The whole interior is now entirely open, and as the meeting-place of agents, counsel, and clients, as well as the promenade of the briefless, it presents during session a scene of great bustle and animation. It is lit by a great S window and by four smaller openings on the W side. The latter are filled by stained glass inserted in 1870, and bearing the arms of the various Lord-Justice-Clerks, of the famous legal writers of the Faculty of Advocates, of the Deans of Faculty, and of the successive Lord Advocates. The large window in the S end used to be filled by a representation of Justice (a badly executed copy of Sir Joshua Reynolds' design at New College, Oxford), with the figure so placed with reference to the leading of the window that it gave rise to jocular comments as to `Justice barred out trying to get in.' This was, however, removed in 1868, and replaced by the present window by Kaulbach, which represents the inauguration of the College of Justice by James V. in 1532. In the hall are statues of Forbes of Culloden (1752), by Roubillac; Viscount Melville (1811), Lord President Blair (1811), Lord President Dundas (1819), all by Chantrey; Lord President Boyle (1841) and Lord Jeffrey (1850), both by Steell ; and Lord Cockburn (1854), by W. Brodie. There are also a number of interesting portraits of various legal luminaries, At the S end are the courts for the various Lords Ordinary of the Outer House - the court of first instance - while the first and second divisions of the Inner House have their rooms off the E side. The High Court of Justiciary is still farther east. Accommodation is also provided in the building for the Secretary for Scotland, and for Her Majesty's Office of Works. Underneath the great hall is the Laigh Parliament House, which was long divided into a number of dark and inconvenient little rooms, but which was opened up in 1870. It is generally looked on as the torture-chamber of the old Scottish Privy Council, but this seems more than doubtful, as the meetings for the examination of prisoners would probably take place in the Old Tolbooth.

In this last building, which has come to have worldwide fame through Scott's Heart of Midlothian, the Court of Session seems to have originally held its sittings and Parliament its meetings. It was a gloomy structure to the NW of St Giles' Church, from the corner of which it was separated by a narrow lane, and was removed in 1817 in order to widen the street, which here previously measured only 14 feet across. The gate and keys were given to Sir Walter Scott, and are still to be seen at Abbotsford. The `Heart of Midlothian' consisted of three different buildings of different dates. The eastern, erected about 1468, consisted of a massive square tower, resembling a strong Border fortalice, four storeys high. The middle portion was built in room of a part of the older prison, which had become so ruinous that, in 1561, the magistrates were ordered by Queen Mary to take it down; and, in 1562, threats were further made that if the new building were not more quickly proceeded with the courts of justice would be permanently removed to St Andrews. The western portion, of much later date, was only two storeys high, and had a flat roof, on which public executions took place from 1785 to 1817. The site of the Tolbooth is now indicated by the figure of a heart in the causeway near the N W corner of St Giles' Church. Return to top.

Municipal Buildings.-The Tolbooth, among its many other functions, served for long as the meeting place of the Town Council, but as that body came to have a higher sense of its own dignity, it demanded better accommodation, and this it found in the Royal Exchange, on the N side of High Street, opposite the E opening of Parliament Square. The Exchange was erected in 1753-61 at a cost of over £31,000, and the front portion occupies the site of the house of Sir Simon Preston, `fornent the Croce, upon the north syd of the gait, where Queen Mary was 'logit' after her surrender at Carberry Hill. So steep is the slope on which it stands that the height, which is 60 feet in front, becomes in the rear 100 feet. The buildings, Italian in style, are arranged round an open quadrangle, the south side of which consists of a range of seven archways, about 25 feet high, with a flat roof and a vase-adorned balustrade. The central arch forms the entrance to the court, but the others are enclosed so as to form shops. The main building on the N side is faced at the base by a piazza, over which rises a centre, with four Corinthian pilasters surmounted by a pediment bearing the city arms. This portion, the interior of which was altered and rearranged in 1871, contains the Council Chamber, the Lord Provost's apartments, the Burgh Court Room, etc. In 1896 it was decided to extend, rearrange, and rebuild the Municipal Buildings, the work to be done in three sections, the first of which was commenced at the end of 1896.

The Usher (or City) Hall.-In 1896 Mr. Andrew Usher of Blackford Park, Edinburgh, presented the Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Council with a sum of £100,000 for the erection of a City Hall for popular concerts, &c. Return to top.

Town Cross.-Opposite the entrance to the Royal Exchange, at the opening into Parliament Square, stands the town cross as restored by the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone in 1885. It is designed in the style of the two old `Mercat Croces,' the first of which stood a little to the W of the present one, and the second, which was minutely described by Arnott in 1788, a little to the E, at a point marked by an octagonal figure in the causeway. The first reference to any cross is in one of the St Giles' charters in 1447, and in 1477 there is mention of one in the burgh records, the magistrates having decreed in that year that `all patrikis, pluvaris, capons, conynges, chikinnis, and all uther wyld fowlis and tame be usit and said about the Merket Croce.' From this time onward, for three hundred years, the Cross of Edinburgh began to acquire associations that made it the centre, not only of civic affairs, but of the public life of Scotland. `It was draped with tapestry or hung with scarlet cloth and green garlands when the city rejoiced; it was clothed in black weeds when civil discord ended in the execution of the leaders of the losing side; it has been lighted up by joyful "bale fires" and darkened for weeks, aye months together, by the shadow of the gallows; it has "run with wine and heard the glad shouts and loud huzzas of the citizens, and echoed to the dying speeches of the martyrs for conscience' sake." From the Cross our Kings were proclaimed and traitors were outlawed; here bankrupts were exposed to public derision, and criminals chained in the pillory to stand the taunts and assaults of the mob; it was the centre of the most jovial part of those magnificent pageants for which the Middle Ages are celebrated; and it was likewise the scene of those ghastly punishments - the mutilation of the living and the dead - which disgraced the criminal jurisprudence of the time. The story of the City Cross varies with the fortunes of the age - it is ghastly or gay as war or peace reigned in the land. [Some of the executions that have taken place at the Cross, such as that of Kirkaldy of Grange, of Morton, of Montrose, and of the two Argylls, are well-known facts of history; another, that of a person one would hardly have expected to find here, is not of such common knowledge. This was Colonel Rumbold, the owner of the Rye House, from which the celebrated plot takes its name, and one of those who guarded the scaffold at the execution of Charles I. Captured and brought to Edinburgh mortally wounded, In 1685, after the failure of the Argyll rising, it was, says Macaulay, `the wish of the government that he should be executed in England. But he was so near death that, if he was not hanged in Scotland, he could not be hanged at all; and the pleasure of hanging him was one which the conquerors could not bear to forego: So he was tried at Edinburgh, and being found guilty of high treason, was executed with all the usual barbarous ceremonial.] For some reason unknown this Cross was rebuilt in 1555, the contractor being bound `to set the lang stave as it is now,' and it was on the `turret octagon' of that date that both the later ones were modelled. Found to stand in the way of the royal procession when James VI., with 'salmon-like affection,' revisited his native land, it was removed and rebuilt on the spot already noted, where it remained till 1756, when it was `hanged, drawn, and quartered,' according to Claudero, `for the horrid crime of being an incumbrance to the street.' The `lang stave' which had been the silent witness of so many incidents in the history of Scotland, was by some accident allowed to fall among the ruins, with the result that its former fair length of twenty feet was curtailed to fourteen; but while the rest of the stones were sold for rubbish, its shattered fragments fortunately passed into the possession of Lord Somerville, by whom and his successors it was carefully preserved at Drum House, near Gilmerton, till 1869, when it was restored to the city and temporarily erected beside the N transept of St Giles. The present unicorn on the top was added at the same time. The basement building on which the old shaft now stands is an octagon, 16 feet across and 15 feet in height. At each corner is an Ionic pillar, with a mimic bastion corbelled out from the capital, while between each pair of pillars is a semicircular arch, over which, between the bastions, is a medallion. Hopes were at one time entertained that five of the old medallions, which passed into the possession of Sir Walter Scott, might be obtained and inserted in the new building, but this was unfortunately impossible. One which shows an old form of the city arms was copied, and the places of the others have been filled up by various coats of arms. The arch on the E side has, as of yore, a door leading to the open platform on the top of the octagon, whence all royal proclamations affecting Scotland are once more made, the magistrates and council having at the time of the restoration formally declared the new structure to be the Market Cross of the city.

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County Buildings, Court-house, and Police Buildings. -The County Hall, erected in 1817 at a cost of £15,000, after designs by Archibald Elliot, occupies the W side of the open space at the W end of St Giles' Church. The main front facing eastward is modelled after the Temple of Erectheus at Athens, and has a portico over the entrance, with four fine fluted columns, surmounted by a pediment. It was proposed in 1893 to add a west front towards George IV. Bridge, as the present W wall of the building, which was at first screened by houses now removed, is so plain and ugly as to be an eye-sore - the interior, which contains one large room for court purposes, another for county meetings, and offices for the transaction of county business, to be at the same time remodelled, so as to provide accommodation for the County Council of Midlothian. The alterations were estimated to cost about £20,000. In the hall is a statue by Chantrey of Lord Chief Baron Dundas. The Sheriff Court-house, a little to the S, facing George IV. Bridge, is a somewhat clumsy-looking structure in the Italian style, erected in 1866-68 at a cost of over £44,000, after designs by David Bryce. The head office of the police, at the corner of Parliament Square and High Street, is a plain Italian building, erected in 1849, and altered and improved in 1875. This is also the chief station of the fire brigade. There are sub-offices for police purposes and fire stations at Causewayside, Gayfield Square (Leith Walk), Stockbridge, West Port, Torphichen Street (Haymarket), and Waverley Market. Return to top.

Prisons.-The old Tolbooth, demolished in 1817, has been already noticed. The guard-house, erected in the time of Charles II. for the old Town-Guard - with its black hole for the incarceration of the unruly, and the sharp-backed wooden mare at its W end, on which offenders against good discipline were made unwillingly to 'ryd with stoppis and muskettis tyed to thair leggis and feit, a paper on thair breist' - which stood in the High Street, about midway between the modern police-office and the Tron Church, was removed in 1787. The present main district prison - Calton Jail - is on the SW shoulder of Calton Hill, to the S of Regent Road, on the cliff over-hanging the North Back of Canongate. It comprises three distinct groups of buildings, designed in somewhat garish imitation of a square-towered mediaeval castle. The western portion was built as the town and county jail in 1815-17, and has at the SW corner of the enclosure, perched on the edge of the precipice, the round-towered governor's house. The middle group was erected in 1884-87, in pursuance of the general scheme formulated in the Prisons Act of 1877, and took the place of the old Town and County Bridewell, built in 1791-96. The eastern group, dating from 1845-47, was originally the Debtors' Jail, but has since the abolition of imprisonment for debt been used for general prison purposes. There are also legalised cells in connection with the police-office, court-house, and justiciary court.

Register House. -The General Register House of Scotland contains not only the registers of sasines, inhibitions, and adjudications, but also the national records, the official writings of the clerks and extractors of the Court of Session, Jury Court, Court of Justiciary, the Great and Privy Seal, the Chancery, the Lord Lyon's office, and the Bill Chamber, and the duplicate registers of births, marriages, and deaths. The ancient national records were destroyed by Edward I. and by Cromwell, while those of later date were, prior to the building of the Register House, kept in part of the Laigh Parliament House, almost inaccessible, suffering injury from damp, and constantly exposed to great risk from fire. In their present place of keeping all these conditions are reversed. The original Register House at the E end of Princes Street, opposite the North Bridge, was built partly in 1774-76, partly in 1822-26, after designs by Robert Adam, in the Italian style, and cost about £80,000. A long curtain wall, on each side of a central, spacious, double flight of steps, divides a space in front of it from the street. It stood originally at a distance of 40 feet from the facade, but was shifted back, first in 1850, and again still farther in 1891, when the staircases were also altered. The double flight of steps has handsome balustrades, and leads up to the principal entrance. The front of the edifice is 200 feet long, has a basement storey mostly concealed by the structures in front of it, and two upper storeys full in view, and is ornamented from end to end with a beautiful Corinthian entablature. It projects slightly in its central portion, and is adorned there with four Corinthian pilasters surmounted by a pediment, in the form of an attached portico; has, in the tympanum of the pediment, a sculpture of the royal arms; and has a turret at each end, one containing a clock and the other having dials showing the direction of the wind. In the curtain wall is a recess with a niche containing a barometer and thermometer. In the centre of the edifice is a circular saloon, 50 feet in diameter, with galleries, from which corridors branch off to the different departments. Over it is a dome, and in a recess is a marble statue of George III by the Hon. Mrs Damar. A second block, erected in 1857-60, at a cost of over £26,000, is immediately behind the first one, and is entered from West Register Street. It forms a quadrangular pile, much smaller than the original building (to which it is similar in style, but not quite so plain), and contains the duplicate registers of births, marriages, and deaths. It stands on the site of Ambrose's Tavern, the reputed scene of the famous `Noctes.' The third block was erected in 1869-71, at a cost of about £8000, after designs by Mr Matheson. Situated to the E of the second, with which it is connected by a long stone corridor, it is used entirely for record volumes, and is a circular structure, 55 feet in diameter and 65 in height, surmounted by a dome, from windows in which the entire lighting takes place. Eight massive piers at regular intervals project from the general line of the exterior wall, a dado course dividing the elevation into a lower portion, with the piers rusticated and the inter­spaces plain, and an upper portion, in which both have moulded panels.

Post Office.-Opposite the Register House, at the corner of Princes Street and the North Bridge, is the General Post Office, occupying the site of Shakespeare Square and the old Theatre-Royal. The old Post Office, built in 1819, farther E, in Waterloo Place, is now used as the New Waverley Hotel. Of the new office the foundation-stone was laid on 23 Oct. 1861 by the late Prince Consort, almost the last public act of his life, and it was opened for business in May 1866. It cost, inclusive of the site, about £120,000, and is a magnificent edifice, in a moderately rich type of the Italian style, after designs by Mr Matheson. An addition was made to the S side in 1891-92. The N front, toward Princes Street, is the principal one, and shows a recessed centre two storeys high, and massive wings three storeys high. The recessed part, facing a pavement 43 feet wide, is pierced with three lofty circular-headed arches, resting on massive piers, and giving entrance to a vestibule of 34 by 32 feet. In the upper storey are five windows with balustrades in front, flanked by Corinthian columns, and with alternately circular and angular pediments. The basement storey of each wing is rusticated. The W front is entirely similar to the N front, with the exception that it has no vestibule. A massive cornice and balustrade surmounts all the three fronts, and the balustrade is intersected at intervals by pedestals supporting ornamental vases. The Corinthian columns on the N and W fronts, 16 feet high, consist of a single stone. There are branch offices, with money order, savings-bank, insurance and annuity, and telegraph departments, at George Street, Lynedoch Place, and Newington; and there are also throughout the city and suburbs 36 sub-offices, of which 20 have telegraph departments, and nearly 90 pillar and wall letter-boxes.

A Telephone Company has its head office in Frederick Street, with several branch stations throughout the city.

The Observatories. -The old Royal Observatory, a plain, dingy, three-storey tower on the Calton Hill, was projected in 1736 and erected in 1776, and is now used only for anemometrical and rain gauge purposes. The second Royal Observatory, to the E of it, is a very graceful little building in the form of a St George's Cross, built in 1818 from a design by W. H. Playfair. On each of the four fronts is a hexastyle Doric portico, with a handsome pediment. In the centre is a dome 13 feet high, with a solid pillar 19 feet high in the middle for the astronomical circle. Having unfortunately, from the growth of the town and the increase of the railway traffic in the hollow below, become unsuitable for the finest and most accurate observations, it has now in turn given place to another, a new observatory having been erected in 1893 on the E shoulder of Blackford Hill, where the Corporation gifted three and a half acres for the site. The buildings consist of an observatory on the N side of the site, and detached residences for the Astronomer Royal and his assistants. The observatory proper - Italian in style, with Greek feature - has a plan like the letter T, with a northern front 180 feet long and 30 feet high, flanked at the east end by an octagonal tower 75 feet high and 40 feet across and on the W by a similar tower 44 feet high and 2 across. Between the windows of the central part, whic are somewhat ornately treated, are carved the signs of the Zodiac, and the wall is surmounted by an ornament balustrade. In the towers (which are surmounted by copper domes of cylindrical form), on massive hollow brick piers, are placed the 15-inch refracting (E) and 24-inch reflecting (W) telescopes. The larger tower also contains a small vault for the sidereal clocks. The central part contains various work-rooms, and on the roof is placed a 15-inch heliostat. Extending southwards is what forms the stem of the T, in which is placed the heating and lighting apparatus and the library. A little to the W of this main building is the transit house, with walls and roof of corrugated iron, covered with curved louvres of tinned steel, with an air space of 6 inches between. It contains, on insulated piers, transit circle, with a telescope of 8.6 inches aperture and two large collimators. The cost of the whole about £34,000. The most of the instruments, well as the library, which is one of the finest in Europe were formerly in the observatory at DUNECHT House and were gifted to the nation by the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres in 1889. The observatory on the Calton Hill has been purchased by the Town Council, and in it are placed, under the charge of the City Astronomer the fine set of instruments formerly in the private observatory at Murrayfield, belonging to Mr Cox of Gorgie and gifted by him to the city in 1889.

Markets.-The chief public market for butcher is on the slope from the Old Town ridge, close to the North Bridge, and is still largely used; though of course all the best butcher meat and fish are now disposed of in shops throughout the town. The cattle market is on a large open space at the corner of Lauriston and Lady Lawson Street. At the sales, which take place every Wednesday, from 800 to 900 head of cattle and about 2000 sheep are generally disposed of. The slaughter­house is situated in Fountainbridge, on the SW side of the city. The buildings, which were erected in 1852, and occupy an area of nearly four acres, have towards Fountainbridge a massive Egyptian facade, with emblematic figures and stone caryatides of cattle, serving as corbels and supports. The old Green Market for vegetables and fruit was in the hollow now occupied by the Waverley Station, for the extension of which the site was, in 1869, acquired by the North British Railway Company. The present vegetable market is in the building on the S side of Princes Street, opposite St Andrew Street, known as the Waverley Market. It was erected by the railway company in lieu of the one they had removed, and occupies the northern part of the site of the terminus of the old Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee Railway. The wide open space within - which is often used for large public meetings - is surrounded by a gallery, giving access to a number of small shops ; and the roof, ,which is flat, is supported by iron girders and pillars. The roof has a series of wells or deep depressions, with glass sides for lighting the interior of the market, and was greatly improved in 1877 by the formation of flower-beds on the intervening parts of the platform. A grain and produce market is held every Wednesday in the Corn Exchange and the adjoining part of the Grassmarket.

Banks.-The Bank of Scotland, an establishment which received its charter as early as 1695, was originally in Old Bank Close, which was swept away when the streets in the line of George IV. Bridge were formed, but was in the beginning of the nineteenth century moved to its present home in the building facing the straight part of Bank Street, at the top of the Mound. Originally erected in 1806 at a cost of £75,000, [A considerable part of the cost was due to difficulty in finding a firm foundation.] after a design by Richard Crichton, it was greatly altered and enlarged in 1868-70, after designs by David Bryce. It is now a highly ornate building in the Italian style, with campanile towers and a great central dome, all surmounted by statues, that of Fame, on the top of the dome, being 7 feet high. The elevation to the N, seeming to rise from the strong curtain wall which screens it below, has a most imposing appearance as seen from Princes Street.

The new Union Bank, built in lieu of former premises on the E side of Parliament Square, stands on the S side of George Street, a little E of Frederick Street. It was erected in 1874, after designs by David Bryce, in ornate Italian style, and with a frontage of more than 100 feet, extends backward to Rose Street Lane. It rises from a sunk basement to a height of three storeys crowned with attics, is screened from the pavement by a handsome stone balustrade, and has three Ionic porticos at separate entrances. The windows on the first and second floors are each flanked by richly-headed pilasters, and surmounted by a triangular pediment, while the whole terminates in a bold, cornice, supporting a balustrade. It contains a magnificent telling-room, fully 80 feet long and nearly 50 wide. The Clydesdale Bank, at the E corner of George Street and North Hanover Street, has its principal front to George Street. Erected in 1842 for the Edinburgh and Glasgow Bank, now extinct, the building is adorned with Corinthian pillars and pilasters, and with a handsome stone balcony. The Commercial Bank (established in 1810), on the S side of George Street, midway between Hanover Street and St Andrew Square, was built in 1847, after designs by David Rhind, and has a facade 95 feet long, with profusely decorated windows, and a good Corinthian portico. It is entered through a lofty vestibule, surrounded by a gallery with Ionic columns, and lighted from a panelled roof supported by Corinthian columns rising in the same line with the pillars supporting the gallery. The telling-room is 90 feet long and 50 wide, with a dome roof supported by Corinthian columns, and enriched with ornaments in alto-relief. The portico on the facade rises from the top of a flight of steps, and has six fluted columns 35 feet high, with bold, graceful, well-relieved capitals ; and the tympanum is filled with sculptured figures in high relief, from the chisel of A. Handyside Ritchie, emblematic of commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural enterprise. The group of statuary comprises a central figure of Caledonia on a pedestal, supported at the sides by figures of Prudence, Agriculture, Commerce, Enterprise, Manufactures, Mechanical Science, and Learning ; it is figured on the notes of the Bank.

The National Bank (established in 1825), on the E side of St Andrew Square, at the corner of West Register Street, was originally a large private mansion, one of the earliest aristocratic structures of the New Town. Exteriorly plain, it was enlarged in 1868, and again in 1885, the addition at the latter date forming the envelope of one of the strongest safe-rooms in Britain. The interior is of toughened steel, manufactured by Messrs Chubb & Sons, and this is set in casings of firebrick and concrete, to a thickness of nearly 3 feet. The British Linen Company's Bank (established in 1746), on the E side of St Andrew Square, immediately N of the National Bank, was built in 1852, after designs by David Bryce, at a cost of £30, 000 ; and is a good structure in the Palladian style. Its front, about 60 feet high, shows a rusticated basement and two upper storeys. The windows of the second storey have the tympanums filled with sculpture ; while those of the third storey have small balconies supported on carved consoles and massive wreaths of ash-leaves, suspended by rosettes at the top of the architraves. Six fluted Corinthian columns rise singly from the basement to the height of about 31 feet, inclusive of their pedestals. The entablature is about 7 feet high, has a finely sculptured frieze in alto-relief, and is recessed. Six statues, each 8 feet high, from the chisel of A. H. Ritchie, representing Agriculture, Mechanics, Architecture, Industry, Commerce, and Navigation, stand on it. Behind the statues is a balustrade about 7 feet high. The telling-room is a splendid cruciform saloon, 74 feet by 69, lighted by a cupola 30 feet in diameter and 50 feet high. The floor is a brilliant mosaic of encaustic tiles ; the roof is supported by eight Corinthian columns and twenty-four Corinthian pilasters, their pedestals of marble, their shafts of polished Peterhead syenite, their capitals of bronze ; and a panelled arrangement beneath the cupola contains allegorical figures of Mechanics, Science, Poetry, and History, and busts of the founder of the Bank of England, George Buchanan, Adam Smith, Fletcher of Saltoun, Lord Kames, Dr Duncan Napier of Merchiston, Sir Walter Scott, Professor Wilson, Rennie, Watt, and Wilkie. The Royal Bank, established in 1727, stands at the head of an enclosed and paved recess on the E side of St Andrew Square, immediately N of the British Linen Company's Bank. Originally the town mansion of Sir Lawrence Dundas, the ancestor of the Marquess of Zetland, it was built, after a design by Sir William Chambers, on the model of a villa near Rome ; then passed by sale to the Board of Trade, and afterwards to the Royal Bank. It presents a neat front, with four Corinthian pilasters, surmounted by a pediment, with a sculpture of the royal arms. All the banks have sub­offices throughout the whole city. The Savings Bank occupies premises in a good building of the old Scottish style, to the E of the Free Church College, at the top of the Mound.


Insurance Offices.-The Life Association Office, in Princes Street, nearly opposite the Mound, was built in 1855-58 from designs by Sir Charles Barry and David Rhind. It is an ornate building of three storeys, divided by cornices and balustrades. The basement storey is in rusticated Doric, and has a grand central archway, the second is Ionic, and the third Corinthian. Both of the upper storeys have ranges of columns between the windows, and pairs of small pillars adjoining the sides of the main lights; and these lights are recessed and arched, and have spaces over them filled with elaborate sculptures. The part of the edifice not occupied by the Life Association is used for shops, a hotel, and offices. The Scottish Widows' Fund Life Assurance Office, on the W side of St Andrew Square, at the corner of Rose Street, was built in 1848 by the Western Bank Company, stood a considerable time unoccupied after that company's failure in 1857, and was then sold to its present owners at a price greatly below its original cost. It is a large, elegant, symmetrical edifice in the Florentine style, with screen balustrade, neat porch, handsome window-mouldings, and heavy projecting roof. The Scottish Provident Institution, on the S side of St Andrew Square, a little E of St David Street, erected in 1867, is an elegant edifice in Italian style. The Standard Insurance Company's Office, on the N side of George Street, near St Andrew Square, has a neat Corinthian portico, showing on the tympanum a sculptured group by Steell, representing the parable of the Ten Virgins. The Caledonian Insurance Company's Office, in the same street, a little farther W, has four beautiful Corinthian columns, with massive entablature. The Edinburgh Life Insurance Company's Office is on the S side of George Street, a little E of Hanover Street, and was formerly partly occupied by the Antiquarian Museum. It has Doric features and two porches in its basement storey, Corinthian features in its second storey, and a massive cornice and a balustrade. The North British and Mercantile Insurance Company's Office in Princes Street, to the E of Hanover Street, has a neat, projected basement storey, surmounted by a statue of St Andrew with his cross. The Scottish Union and National occupies a plain but good building in St Andrew Square.

Bridges.-When the erection of the New Town was resolved upon, the construction of some easier means of communication than then existed across the valley of the Nor' Loch became imperatively necessary. Accordingly, in 1763, the hollow was drained, and on the 21st October of the same year the foundation-stone of the North Bridge was laid. The work, however, was not begun till two years after, when, through miscalculations of the builder, a considerable portion of the incomplete structure fell in August 1769, and caused loss of life. This mishap being repaired, the bridge was securely completed in 1772, at a cost of about £18,000. Rebuilt in 1894-97 the North Bridge is constructed of iron girders resting on stone piers and abutments. It consists of three spans of 175 feet each, the north abutment being in line with the south face of the General Post Office, and the south abutment at the south side of Market Street. The width between the parapets of the new bridge is 75 feet, while that of the old bridge as altered more than twelve years ago was 54 feet. Each span is of six steel arched ribs, over which there is a system of steel bracing supporting the roadway. The parapets and outer facing of the arches are of ornamental cast-iron work. The South Bridge and George IV. Bridge have been already noticed. Regent Bridge, across Low Calton at Waterloo Place, was erected in 1815-19. Waverley Bridge, crossing the North British railway, to the W of the Waverley Market, occupies the site of the Little Mound, and was originally a stone bridge, replaced in 1870-73 by a 3-span iron structure, which again had to give way to a more commodious one erected in 1895-96. Dean Bridge, which carries the Queensferry Road across the valley of the Water of Leith, was built in 1832 after designs by Telford. It has four beautiful arches, 96 feet in span, and has a height of 106 feet above the rocky bed of the stream below. The breadth between the parapets is 39 feet, and the footpaths on each side being carried on arches of greater radius than those of the roadway, seem to be set on to the main building, but the effect is much more graceful than that of the patch on the North bridge. There is a beautiful view from the bridge both up and down the stream, but this a small section of the citizens are constantly trying to shut out by demanding every now and again that the parapet shall be heightened - the occasion of the outcry being that some poor creature has committed suicide by leaping over to the rocks beneath. Considering that this happens once in five years or so, it is to be hoped that the view may long be spared. To the W of the bridge is the little old-fashioned village from which the district takes its name. It is of considerable antiquity, as is plain from the mills belonging to it having been granted by David I. to the monks of Holyrood. At Well Court here are a group of quaint-looking and artistically designed buildings, erected by Mr J. R. Findlay of the Scotsman, as model dwellings for workmen. They were designed by Mr Sidney Mitchell, and afford ample evidence that all the latest improvements in sanitation can be combined with picturesqueness of effect. To the E of the bridge, and close to the footpath leading from Water of Leith village to Stockbridge, is St Bernard's Well, which is said to take its name from the redoubtable Abbot of Clairvaux, who, having drunk of the spring during his visit to the district while preaching the second crusade, gave it his blessing, and so secured to it for ever the possession of healing virtues. However that maybe, the mineral spring is spoken of in the Scots Magazine for 1760 as having been `lately discovered.' It was covered in shortly afterwards, and a small temple was erected over it in 1790 by the eccentric Lord Gardenstone, who had derived benefit from drinking its waters. There was a ' pump-room' (if we may call it so) designed by Alexander Nasmyth, surmounted by an open pillared canopy, in which was placed a statue of Hygeia. This fell afterwards into disrepair, but was restored in 1887 by the late Mr William Nelson, and the sadly damaged statue replaced by a new one of marble from the chisel of D. W. Stevenson. Farther up the stream than Dean Bridge was a narrow, inconvenient structure by which the old Queensferry Road crossed the river. This was, however, removed in 1886, and replaced by the present handsome Belford Bridge, which has an arch of 68 feet span, 52 feet above the stream. The roadway is 38 feet wide. There are several other bridges, but none of them calls for particular notice. Return to top.

Railway Stations and Railways. -The present Waverley Station of the North British Railway Company occupies the entire areas of the original stations of the North British and Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway Companies, about half the site of the terminus of the old Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee railway, and the whole of that of the old vegetable market. It was mainly brought into its present shape in 1869-73, when the greater part of it was covered by a glazed roof in narrow cross ridges, supported on an iron framework. The station was then thought to have enough spare ground within its own limits to meet all expansion of traffic for many years to come, but the opening of the Suburban line in 1884 and of the Forth Bridge in 1890 rendered fresh extension necessary, and new works were begun in 1892 to provide additional accommodation, by the construction of two new tunnels through the Mound and on to Haymarket, and the inclusion of part of the East Princes Street Gardens. This entailed an almost entire reconstruction of the station, for which a large hotel was built at the corner of the North Bridge and Princes Street. Haymarket Station accommodates the north-western part of the city. For the E, NE, and N there are stations at Easter Road, Leith Walk, and Bonnington; and for the SW, S, and SE on the Suburban line (which is a circular route) at Haymarket, Gorgie, Craiglockhart, Morningside Road, Blackford Hill, Newington, Duddingston, Piershill, and Abbeyhill. The old Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway (now included in this system) starts at St Leonards, and joins the Suburban line near Duddingston. The passenger carriages on it were drawn by horses for some time after, locomotive engines were used on other railways, and it hence got the name of the 'Innocent Railway.' It is now used only for the conveyance of coal. The original terminus of the Caledonian Railway Company was on the W side of Lothian Road, where the goods station now is, and ceased to be used in 1869, when a new passenger station was erected on a site to the N, at the S corner of the west end of Princes Street. This structure, which was of a very makeshift nature, was removed in 1892-93, and replaced by the present one, which is much more worthy of the company and the situation. Designed in the Renaissance style by Messrs Kinnear and Peddie, it is a handsome building of two storeys, with frontages of 75 feet to Princes Street, 175 to Rutland Street, and 450 to Lothian Road. This portion- the stonework of which is all of red sandstone from Corsehill and Corncockle quarries, Dumfriesshire - is so constructed as to allow a hotel to be built over it at any future time. The whole covered area is about 18,000 square yards, and is 850 feet long with 190 feet of average width. The framework of the roof, which is of mild steel, is a wide form of ridge and valley, and is carried on steel girders that have a clear span from wall to wall. The mainline and branches provide accommodation for the W and N of the city by stations at Merchiston, Murrayfield, Craigleith, and Granton Road.

The Tramways. -A system of tramways for the principal thoroughfares of the city and its environs was authorised in 1871, and now comprises lines from the General Post-Office to Leith, Newhaven, and Trinity ; to Haymarket and Coltbridge ; by Waterloo Place, Regent Road, and London Road, to Portobello ; by North Bridge, South Bridge, Nicolson Street, and Clerk Street, to Newington and Powburn ; by Princes Street, Lothian Road, and Earl Grey Street, to Morningside, and thence eastward by Churchhill and Grange Road, to junction with the Newington line at Minto Street; by Princes Street, Lothian Road, Earl Grey Street, and Gilmore Place, to Merchiston ; and from the Tron Church by High Street, George IV. Bridge, Forrest Road, and Lauriston, to Merchiston. All these lines are at present worked by horse traction, though permission has been obtained to employ mechanical power under certain conditions; but other two lines (dating the first from 1885 and the second from 1890), on the north of the city, where the gradients are very steep, have from the first been worked by endless cables. The one extends from Princes Street northward by Hanover Street, Dundas Street, and Pitt Street, to the N end of Inverleith Row ; the other from Princes Street by Frederick Street, Howe Street, and Circus Place, to Comely Bank.

Clubs and Hotels.-The Conservative Club in Princes Street, erected in 1882-84 at a cost of £32,000 (exclusive of site, &c.), after designs by Dr Rowand Anderson, is one of the best buildings in Edinburgh. The front is a plain but dignified example of the Italian Renaissance, and has a height of 76 feet from pavement to cornice. The masonry of the street floor (the first of seven, of which two are in the roof) is rusticated, all above is ashlar, and the whole surmounted by a carved frieze and cornice. Some of the windows have pediments and others cornices, while all have architraves. Two of those on the smoking-room floor, and all those on the dining-room floor, are joined by a balcony. A large oriel projection extends as high as the third floor. The Liberal Club, close by, was removed to its present home in 1890, the buildings - formerly used as a hotel - being altered and refitted for club purposes. The New Club, in Princes Street, a little W of Hanover Street, was built, and is maintained for their own exclusive use, by an association of noblemen and gentlemen, limited to 660 in number, and elected by ballot. It is a spacious edifice, after designs by W. Burn, with Tuscan doorway, projecting basement windows, stone balcony on curved trusses, and surmounting balustrade. It was considerably enlarged about 1865. The University Club, in Princes Street, between Castle Street and Charlotte Street, erected in 1866-67, after designs by Peddie & Kinnear, at a cost of nearly £14,000, is in the Palladian style, with elegant Grecian details ; and, has a handsome interior, with accommodation for 650 members. The United Service Club in Queen Street, and the Northern Club in George Street, as well as the many large and handsome hotels in Princes Street and elsewhere, do not call for particular notice. One of the hotels in Princes Street has, since it was built in 1876, had part of the basement set apart as a small arcade, 100 feet long by 30 wide.

Theatres, &c. -The old Theatre Royal, in Shakespeare Square, at the E corner of Princes Street and North Bridge, was built in 1769 at a cost of about £5000, and had flanks and rear as plain as those of a barn, but the front to the N had a piazza-porch and some sculptures. It was demolished in 1860-61 to make room for the new Post-Office. The Adelphi Theatre stood at the corner of Broughton Street and Little King Street, where both these thoroughfares join the head of Leith Walk. It was used chiefly in summer while the Royal Theatre was shut, had no kind of architectural ornamentation, and was burned in 1853. The Queen's Theatre and Opera House, which occupied the site of the Adelphi, was erected in 1856, showed little exterior ornament, and was burned in 1865. The new Theatre Royal occupies the same site, and was erected, after designs by David Macgibbon, immediately after the destruction of the Queen's Theatre ; it has an elevation to Broughton Street of an Italian tetrastyle portico, decorated pilasters, arched windows, and a frieze; and was designed to have, in niches of that elevation, allegorical statues of Tragedy, Comedy, Music, and Dancing. The interior was destroyed by fire in 1875, and again in 1884. Restored thereafter, it has now accommodation for 2000 persons. The Lyceum Theatre, at the corner of Grindlay Street and Cornwall Street, is a plain building, erected in 1883, and has accommodation for 3000 persons. The old Southminster Theatre, which was on the W side of Nicolson Street, near Nicolson Square, was burnt in 1875, and replaced by a large building, used chiefly as a circus; but this has, in its turn, given place to a large music hall, with accommodation for 3000 persons, erected in 1891-92 at a cost of £25,000, after designs by Mr F. Matcham. This, the Empire Palace of Varieties, makes (from its position behind other buildings) little external show, but is magnificently, as well as conveniently, fitted up inside, the decorations, which are very elaborate, being after Indian types. Of the roof, the chief feature is an octagon-shaped dome of iron and glass mounted on wheels, so that it can be removed when the weather is fine, and the audience permitted to enjoy cool fresh air on a summer evening. The stage, which is 75 feet wide and 40 deep, has a fire-proof curtain, the stairs are fire-proof, and there are hydrants innumerable all over the building. The whole place is heated by hot-water pipes, and lit by electricity. The opening up of back entrances from the Potterrow unfortunately necessitated the removal of the small but interesting building erected, in 1673, by the incorporation of tailors of Easter Portsburgh, and used as the court-house of that extinct burgh. The Albert Hall, in Shandwick Place, built in 1876 in connection with a scheme for an Institute of the Fine Arts, is now used for occasional entertainments.

Libraries.-The Advocates' Library, founded by Sir George Mackenzie in 1680, originally occupied a flat in a close at the SE corner of Parliament Square, and had a narrow escape from destruction during the great fire of 1700. It is now housed in rooms below and to the W of Parliament Hall, and has various extensions toward George IV. Bridge, erected from time to time as necessity has demanded. Some of the rooms contain portraits and busts of various noteworthy legal luminaries Supported from the private funds of the Faculty of Advocates, it is always accessible to visitors and literary workers, and has been since 1709 one of the five libraries (the only one now in Scotland) entitled to receive a copy of every book published in Great Britain. It contain nearly 300,000 printed volumes, besides large and important collections of MSS. and a varied collection of literary curiosities. Of these, there may be mentioned a manuscript Bible of St Jerome's translation, believed to have been written in the eleventh century, and know to have been used as the conventual copy in the Abbey of Dunfermline; a copy, in two volumes, of the first printed Bible by Faust and Gutenberg ; the Gospels, in the Tamil language, written upon dried leaves; five parchment copies, in MS., of the National Covenant of 1638, with the actual signatures of Rothes, Montrose, Loudon, and others ; letters of Mary Queen of Scots ; the Wodrow manuscripts ; an interesting collection of Celtic MSS. ; the first stereotype plates ; the original manuscript of Waverley, old copies of the classics, etc. Among the chief librarians have been Thomas Ruddiman, David Hume, Adam Ferguson, Dr Irving, and Samuel Halket.

The Signet Library, adjoining Parliament House on the N, presents uniform elevations, in the Grecian style, of two storeys, to Parliament Square and County Square. It has a lower apartment, 170 feet long, 40 wide, and 22 high, with two rows of Corinthian pillars and open arches dividing it into unequal sections; and an upper hall of magnificent character, 132 feet long and 40 wide, with a richly-panelled arched ceiling, supported by 24 Corinthian pillars and 36 pilasters. The two halls are connected by a fine staircase, adorned with busts and portraits of eminent lawyers. At one time the property of the Faculty of Advocates, the building was by them sold to the Society of Writers to the Signet about the beginning of the 19th century. The designs on the dome of the upper hall were executed by Thomas Stothard, R. A., in 1822. In the centre of the frieze opposite the entrance are represented Apollo and the Muses. Facing them, in three compartments, are portraits of orators, poets, historians, and philosophers, placed as follows: - Immediately opposite the figure of Apollo is that of Demosthenes, on whose right is Cicero, and on his left Herodotus and Livy. To the left of these are historians and philosophers, the former being represented by Hume, Robertson, and Gibbon, and the latter by Sir Isaac Newton, Lord Bacon, Napier of Merchiston, and Adam Smith. In the group which contains the poets, Homer occupies the centre, on his right are Shakespeare and Burns, and on his left Milton and Virgil. The west window was, in commemoration of the jubilee of Queen Victoria, filled with stained glass bearing the coats of arms of various keepers and deputy-keepers of the Signet. The library (begun in 1778), which is kept up by the Society of Writers to the Signet, and is liberally accessible to visitors, contains about 70,000 volumes, exclusive of pamphlets and tracts. It is peculiarly rich in works on topography, antiquities, biography, and British and Irish history.

The Library of the Solicitors before the Supreme Courts is in a large and handsome building to the S of the Parliament House, from which it is entered by a bridge connecting it with the end of the corridor between the Outer and Inner Houses. Generally Scottish baronial in style, it was erected in 1888-91, after designs by Mr J. B. Dunn, at a cost of £30,000 including the site. The S front, to the Cowgate, is 150 feet high, and the lower part is used for dwelling-houses, entering from that street. The upper part shows handsome corbelled oriel windows, with parapeted roof and picturesquely grouped chimneys. The library portion is occupied by the Entrance Hall, Library, Reading Room, Society's Hall, etc. The windows in the entrance hall contain medallion portraits of Scott, Brougham, Cockburn, Jeffrey, Erskine, Stair, Sir William Hamilton, and Inglis; those in the library, similar likenesses of Nisbet of Dirleton, Bankton, Sir James W. Moncreiff, Lords Fraser and Kames, Baron Hume, Lord Murray, Thomas Thomson, Boyle, Sir C. Mackenzie, C. T. Bell, and Forbes of Culloden. In a large window in the library, figures of Justice. Peace, and Fidelity illustrate the Society's motto, Pro jure, pace et fiducia. The library contains about 16,000 volumes, mostly legal, but there is room for about 70,000.

The Public Library, in George IV. Bridge, was built in 1887-90 from designs by Mr Washington Browne, at a cost, inclusive of site, of £50,000, that sum having been gifted to the city by Mr Carnegie of Pittsburg on condition that the citizens should adopt the Free Libraries Act. It stands on the site of a very quaint and characteristic specimen of old Edinburgh architecture, known as the Hope House, built in 1616. The style is that of the French Renaissance of the time of Francis I., and sculptured ornament has been freely used. The front to George IV. Bridge has two storeys with attics, but that to the Cowgate is three storeys more. The principal part of the front, which is recessed, has a circular-headed doorway, with a window of similar design on either side. Over these are three elaborately sculptured panels, and above these again three oblong mullioned windows lighting the reference library, the whole being surmounted by a cornice and balustrade. On the main floor is the lending library, entered from George IV. Bridge; the one below this is occupied by the reading-room, the next lower by workrooms, and the basement by the heating and electric-lighting apparatus. There is also a juvenile library on the same floor as the newsroom. The books number about 75,000 volumes, but the collection is rapidly increasing. In a niche in the staircase is a bust of Mr Carnegie by C. M'Bride, presented by the Corporation in recognition of Mr Carnegie's generosity to Edinburgh. Other libraries are noticed under the different institutions with which they are connected.

Museums and Picture Galleries.-The Industrial Museum, or Museum of Science and Art, on the S side of Chambers Street, occupies the site of Argyle Square and the old Trades' Maiden Hospital. The foundation stone was laid by the late Prince Consort in October 1861, and between that time and 1866 about one-third of the whole building was finished and opened. The second portion, to the W of the main entrance, was added in 1871-74, and the design was completed when the W wing was erected in 1885-89. Designed by Captain Fowke, R.E., it is externally a handsome block in the style of the Venetian Renaissance, and is 400 feet long, 200 wide, and 90 high. The interior structure is after the scheme invented by Sir Joseph Paxton for, and so successfully employed by him in the Great Exhibition building of 1851. Over the main entrance, in the centre of the front, are three colossal groups, executed by Mr John Rhind, and placed in position in 1889, representing Science, Natural History, and Applied Art ; while in panels in the spandrils are relief heads of the Queen, the Prince Consort, James Watt, Darwin, Michael Angelo, and Sir Isaac Newton. The E wing and adjoining rooms contain the magnificent collections of Natural History specimens formerly in the University, as well as the many specimens added since 1866 at the national expense. In the W wing the upper galleries are occupied by the geological collections formed in the course of the Geological Survey of Scotland, and a series of the maps executed by the surveyors. In those of the floor beneath are the magnificent Indian and Persian collections, and in part of the ground floor is a library containing the publications of the Patent Office, a set of the Ordnance Survey maps, and over 7000 volumes on technical and scientific subjects. In its industrial department the museum has one of the largest collections of raw products anywhere in the world, together with illustrations of nearly all the principal manufactures of Great Britain, and many of those of foreign countries. There are also sections showing various processes connected with the construction and materials of buildings, mining, metallurgy, ceramic art, vitreous manufactures, decorative art, textile manufactures, photography, materia medica, chemistry, food, and education. Admission is free on Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, but 6d is charged on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays.

The National Gallery, on the southern part of the Mound, was erected in 1850-58, at a cost of £40,000, after designs by W. H. Playfair. Intended to provide suitable accommodation for the annual exhibition of the Royal Scottish Academy, [ The Royal Scottish Academy, the body officially representative of Art in Scotland, sprang from a Society of Scottish Artists formed in 1826, and its proceedings were for half a century governed by a royal charter granted in 1838. The original charter having through lapse of time become somewhat unsuited to the necessities of the age, a new one was procured in 1889. Under this the members of the Academy are arranged in three orders - Academicians, Associates, and Honorary Members. The first rank consists of thirty Academicians, who must be settled and resident in Scotland, and who forfeit part of their privileges if they are absent more than three years from the country. The number of Associates and Honorary Members is practically unlimited. An exhibition of paintings is held every year, and instruction is given to students in different branches of art. There are funds amounting to about £26,000, from the income of which pensiosn may be granted to members or their widows, or aid provided for them in case of necessity.] for a Scottish National Gallery of Painting and Sculpture, and for a section of the School of Design, the buildings are Ionic in style, with their greatest length from N to S, and with a broad transept in the centre. The N and S fronts, which are exactly alike, show a double portico and centre, each wing having four columns and a pediment, and the centre two columns in antes and a balustrade. The transept has a hexastyle portico with pediment, while the other parts of the E and W walls are somewhat bare, relieved only by pilasters and a balustered parapet. The eastern division of the building, occupied by the Royal Scottish Academy, is for three months every year used for the exhibition of paintings held by that body. The similar western portion is devoted to the exhibition of the permanent collection of works of art in the National Gallery. This includes works, or copies of works, by Titian, Tintoretto, Guido, Paul Veronese, Greuze, Hob­bema, Spagnoletto, Vandyke, Rembrandt, Velasquez, Murillo, and other continental masters ; portraits by Sir Thomas Lawrence, Sir Henry Raeburn, Sir J. Watson Gordon, and Graham Gilbert; works of Sir George Harvey, Sir Noel Paton, Horatio Macculloch, Dyce, Etty, Sir William Fettes Douglas, John Phillip, Roberts, Faed, Herdman, Paul Chalmers, and other modern artists; and some very fine specimens of water-colour drawings. Admission is free on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays, but 6d is charged on Thursdays and Fridays.

The Royal Institution, to the N of the National Gallery, on the N end of the Mound, was founded in 1823, extended in 1832, and completed in 1836, at a cost of about £40,000. Designed in a most masterly manner by W. H. Playfair, it is in pure Doric style of the time of Pericles, with fluted columns along all the face of each of its four sides, resting on flights of steps, and surmounted by a uniform entablature. The N front, containing the principal entrance, has a fine portico with three lines of columns, the first and second having each eight and the third two, while a massive pediment, with richly carved tympanum, surmounts the entablature. The S front corresponds in form and ornament, but has only two lines of columns, the first with eight and the second with four in antes. The E and W fronts are precisely alike, with a distyle projection at each end, and seventeen columns between. On the top of the N front is a colossal statue of Queen Victoria, executed in 1848 by Sir John Steell, and showing Her Majesty in robes of state, with a mural crown, and holding orb and sceptre. The top of each of the distyle projections bears two sphinxes. The edifice contains the apartments of the Board of Trustees for the Encouragement of Manufactures and of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, a gallery of statuary, and the class-rooms of the Life School of the Royal Academy and of the School of Design, which is in connection with the Department of Science and Art, and is carried on by two masters and two mistresses. The gallery of statuary contains casts of the Elgin Marbles, of all the celebrated ancient statues, of the Ghiberti gates at Florence, and of a series of antique Greek and Roman busts originally collected at Rome. It is open free on Saturdays, and at a charge of 6d. on Wednesdays and Fridays.

The building containing the National Portrait Gallery and the Antiquarian Museum, at the E end of Queen Street, was erected in 1885-90, after designs by Dr Rowand Anderson, on a site provided by Government and the Board of Manufactures, and at the cost of Mr J. R. Findlay of the Scotsman, whose munificent gifts for the purpose, amounting in all to £50,000, are commemorated in an inscription on a panel near the central doorway.

The style is Italian Gothic of the early 14th century, with English Gothic details. 'The main entrance, in the centre of the building, is by a deeply-moulded pointed doorway, with the mouldings carried up and finished as pinnacles supporting a gablet carried to the eaves. On the first floor level is a quadruple window with tracery. The accompanying allegorical sculptures and ornaments, also the gift of Mr Findlay, are very handsome and elaborate. A quatrefoil over the door bears the arms of the Board of Manufactures, who are the custodiers of the Gallery, and the cusped panels of the spandrils have figures of War and Peace. Of the three panels above, under the sill of the large window, the centre one has figures of Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Poetry, and Music, while that on the right has the Sciences, and that on the left the Ruder Arts-the latter being represented by workers of the flint, bronze, and iron ages. In the large panel under the main arch of the gable over the window is a central figure of Scotland, supported on the right by figures symbolical of Industry, and on the left by others representing Religion. The panel in the centre above bears the arms of Scotland before the Union, and on the apex of the gable is a statue of History. In the niches at the sides of the doorway are statues of Malcolm Ceannmor and Queen Margaret by Birnie Rhind, by whom also the other figures mentioned above were designed and modelled. On each side of the doorway are four large pointed windows, and over them a line of smaller windows arranged in pairs, with pinnacled niches between for statues. At each corner, corbelled out from about half­way up the first floor, is an octagonal tower, with niches on each face, and surmounted by an open balustrade and spire, of which the former is carried all round the building. Two of the many niches - all to be ultimately filled by statues of those eminent in connection with Scottish history - have been already filled by the figures of Malcolm III. and his queen, mentioned above, while others are occupied by statues of Queen Mary, with Maitland of Lethington and Bishop Lesley beside her, and of James VI. The part of the building to the W of the main entrance contains the collections of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, that to the E those of the Antiquarian Museum, while accommodation is also found for the rooms of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. The first contains many admirable and interesting pictures and engravings, which, however, need not be here referred to in detail. The treasures of the Antiquarian Museum are under the control of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (charter dated 1783), by which the collections were first begun in 1780. They became national property by the gift of the Society in 1851. Admission to the whole building is free on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays, and the Portrait Gallery is also free on Mondays, but 6d is charged on Thursdays and Fridays for both.


The Botanic Gardens and Arboretum.-The Royal Botanic Garden was founded by Sir Andrew Balfour and Sir Robert Sibbald in 1670, and was used for the purpose of teaching by the professor of botany in the University from 1676. Its first site was in the valley to the rear of the Post Office, in a district long after known as the Physic Gardens; but in 1763 it was transferred to Leith Walk, and thence, in 1824, to its present position on the W side of Inverleith Row. It was enlarged to the extent of 10 acres about 1867, by the inclusion of the contiguous Experimental Garden, formed in 1824, and belonging to a society instituted in 1809 for the improvement of the cultivation of flowers, fruits, and culinary vegetables. It contains a superintendent's house, a lecture room, a museum, extensive hot-houses, a fine palm-house, beds of plants arranged according to the natural orders, an extensive Pinetum, collections of native and medical plants, a winter garden, and a magnificent rock-garden. In 1878-81 the adjoining mansion­house and policy of Inverleith were acquired by government and the city corporation, and the grounds, extending to about 30 acres, set apart for the purposes of an arboretum. which has not, however, made the progress it should have done if, as it was hoped, Edinburgh is to become a great centre of forestry instruction. The professor of botany at the University is Regius Keeper of both Botanic Garden and Arboretum. The lecture-room is supplemented by a class museum and a large herbarium. The hot-houses were founded in 1835, and gradually extended to a great range, comprising now a large octagon in the centre, and two lateral wings each with a central octagonal compartment-the large central octagon being added so late as 1872. The chief palmhouse is 96 feet long, 57 wide, and 70 high; and contains magnificent specimens of both herbaceous and ligneous endogens. The Rock-Garden is one of the finest in Europe, and commands, from its topmost terrace, a very striking view of the city. The whole extent of ground is about 60 acres.

Public Parks.-The great public park of Edinburgh is the Queen's Park, including Arthur's Seat, which is separately noticed. Of the others the Northern, or Inverleith Public Park, is a flat open space of some 60 acres, immediately to the W of the Botanic Gardens and Arboretum. It was acquired by the town in 1889 at a cost of £33,500, and after being laid out was opened to the public in 1891. Provision is made for games of different kinds, and a ride is to be formed along part of the boundary. The handsome E and W gateways, the band-stand, and the sun-dial in the SE corner were the gifts of patriotic citizens.

The East and West Princes Street Gardens occupy the hollow along the S side of Princes Street, and are divided by the Mound. The former portion was first laid out and planted in 1830, under the direction of Dr Patrick Neill, and was rearranged in 1849-50, when its beauty was unfortunately broken in upon by the extension of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway. Still further injury was caused by the extension of the Waverley Station to the W in 1892. The high bank on the S is wooded, but on the N a terrace about 100 feet broad, on the same level as Princes Street, extends all along the side, and is bounded by a handsome parapet wall with pedestals at intervals. A walk about 10 feet wide extends along the middle of the face of the slope below, and is reached, from the ends of the terrace, by two flights of steps, each 15 feet wide at the top, and expanding with circular wing walls to nearly 30 feet toward the bottom. The space between the terrace and the walk is laid out with grass, in which are open flower beds. The West Gardens are laid out much in the same way, but contain, along the edge of Princes Street and elsewhere, more trees and shrubs, while the slope on the S up to the Castle ridge is much higher. Reclaimed from the marshy bottom of the Nor' Loch, they were formed under powers of a special statute in 1816-20. Originally town property, they were for a time alienated and attached to the feus in Princes Street, from the owners of which an unsuccessful attempt to recover them for public use was made in 1852. After this they became, however, partially available to the citizens at certain hours on particular days, and in 1876 were reacquired by the Council and thrown completely open. They were at the same time greatly improved. The large and elaborate fountain near the W end of the gardens, designed and executed by Durenne of Paris, was presented to the city by Mr Ross of Rockville in 1869, and is known from its donor as the Ross Fountain. High up on the S slope, near the wall of the Castle Esplanade, is a curious stone bearing an incised cross and a runic inscription, recording that it was erected in memory of a Norseman of the name of Hjalm. It was brought from Sweden many years ago by Sir Alexander Seton of Preston.

The Calton Hill, all formerly a public common, was so seriously encroached on by the formation of the Regent and London Roads, as well as by the construction of the Regent and Royal Terraces and the private gardens connected with them, that for long little more than the mere crown remained public property-a state of matters which in 1893 it was proposed to rectify by the Town Council becoming custodiers of the large Regent Gardens to the E of the present public part of the hill.

The Meadows are about three-quarters of a mile long, and have a mean width of about 300 yards. They were anciently covered by a lake called the South or Borough Loch, which by partial drainage in the seventeenth century became an unhealthy marsh. In 1722 the eastern part of the ground was let to Mr Thomas Hope under obligation to drain and enclose it - it is said that Robert Burns' father was one of the workmen employed; and this was so effectually done that, as Hope Park, it became the favourite promenade for the fashionable of those days. A considerable marsh, however, still remained; and not till 1842 was the whole converted into `dry green sward.' Fresh drainage and levelling-up operations were carried out in 1858-60 and in 1870-75. The whole now presents a fine level expanse of grass bordered by wood. Near the W end are trees planted by the Queen, the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the late Duke of Clarence, to commemorate their visits to the Exhibition of 1886. The sun-dial beside them is also a memorial of the Exhibition. The pillars at the W end were presented in 1886 by the Master Masons of Edinburgh, and illustrate the different building stones of the district. The pillars at the E end were presented in 1881 by Messrs Nelson, the publishers, as a token of gratitude for the use of part of the ground after the great fire that destroyed their works in 1878. The Lauriston entrance, opposite the S end of Forrest Road, was formed in 1850. To the NE of the Meadows is the hall of the Royal Archers, the Queen's Body Guard for Scotland, for whom a portion of the East Meadows is fenced off as an archery ground. South-west of the Meadows is Bruntsfield Links, all that now remains open of the once extensive common of the Boroughmuir. Long the happy hunting-ground of golfers, their glory has in this respect departed since the opening of the public course on Blackford Hill, though a 'driving-putter' game is still allowed.

The Blackford and Braid Hills, on the extreme S side of the city, became public property in 1884 and 1889 respectively, at a cost of about £20,000. The higher grounds of both command charming and extensive views not only of the city itself, but of the surrounding country, and the open space provided (107 acres at Blackford and 134 at Braid) affords ample scope for the enjoyment of the citizens. The large ornamental gateway at the NE entrance of Blackford Hill was erected in honour of Sir George Harrison, who was Lord Provost when the hill was purchased. On the Braids an extensive and excellent golf course was formed to compensate the golfers for their relinquishment of the right of servitude for the game over Bruntsfield Links. The two parks are separated by the deep dell of the Burn of Braid and some intervening fields, but in 1891 connection through these was established by means of bridges and footpaths. The Harrison Public Park, between Dalry and Merchiston, does not call for particular notice. Return to top.

Cemeteries. -The Cemetery of Dean was formed in 1845, on the grounds of Dean House, a curious old mansion built in 1614, and long the family residence of the Nisbets of Dean, and afterwards of Mr John Learmonth, who built Dean Bridge. Tastefully laid out with terraced walks on the slopes leading down to the river, and retaining manyof the old trees, it was considerably extended in 1871-72. It contains a number of beautiful monuments, and is the last resting-place of many distinguished men, among whom may be mentioned Lords Cockburn, Jeffrey, Murray, and Rutherford; Professors Wilson, :Aytoun, Edward Forbes, and Goodsir; Sir William Allan, David Scott, Paul Chalmers, Sam Bough, William Brodie, W. H. Playfair, George Combe, and Russel of the Scotsman. Near the centre of the ground is a tall obelisk to the memory of soldiers of the Cameron Highlanders; at the north-east gate is an imposing memorial to the Nasmyth family; and a cross marks the spot where are interred the remains of Lieutenant Irving, one of the officers of the Franklin Expedition, which were found and sent home more than thirty years after his death. Warriston Cemetery, to the NE of the Botanic Gardens, was formed in 1843-44. and laid out with much taste. It commands from some of its walks one of the finest of the northern views of the city and its environs, and has an extensive range of vaults, above which is a balustraded terrace with a small mortuary chapel. Among a number of beautiful monuments, those of Alexander Smith, the poet, and Sir James Y. Simpson, the celebrated physician, may be noted. High and Low Calton Cemeteries, at Waterloo Place and Regent Road, contain the graves of David Hume, Sir David Allan, Constable, Blackwood, Professor George Wilson, Dr Candlish, Lord Gifford, Sir Robert Christison, and Dr John Brown, the author of Rab and his Friends. In the High Cemetery, which was gifted to his vassals by Lord Balmerino, there is also an obelisk, erected in 1844, in memory of some of those who were sent into exile in 1794 for their connection with the revolutionary movements of that period. The new or Low Cemetery was formed to compensate for the part of the old burial ground removed when the line of Princes Street was extended eastward by Waterloo Place. Grange Cemetery, in the district of the same name, was laid out shortly after the one at Warriston, and contains the graves of Dr Chalmers, Sheriff' Speirs, Sir Andrew Agnew, Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, the second Lord Dunfermline, Hugh Miller, Dr Guthrie, Dr Duff, and Dr Robert Lee. The other cemeteries do not call for particular notice, and the various churchyards are noticed under the churches with which they are connected. Return to top.

Monuments.-On the summit of the Calton Hill pre-eminence is given to one of the ugliest monuments in Edinburgh - the curious butter-churn structure by which public taste saw fit to perpetuate the memory of Lord Nelson. Founded soon after Trafalgar, but not completed till 1815, it comprises an octagonal battlemented basement, containing several rooms, surmounted by a circular embattled tower of four storeys, over which is a similar but narrower turret of one storey. Rising to the height of 102 feet from the ground, and 450 feet above sea-level, it commands from the parapets of its tower and turret an extensive and magnificent view. The entrance is surmounted by an inscription tablet, the crest of Nelson, and sculpture in bas-relief representing the stern of the San Josef; the interior contains an autograph of Nelson, and various curiosities connected with his name and exploits. On the summit is a time-ball, with a diameter of 5 ½ feet, erected in 1852. It is raised by machinery every day a little before one o'clock, and falls exactly at the hour by a drop which acts in connection with an electric-clock in the adjoining Royal Observatory, a wire attached conveying, at the same time, an electric current to the time-gun in the Castle. The ball is seen all round, and by its fall ship­masters at Leith and Granton are able to regulate their chronometers. The National Monument, a little to the NE of Nelson's monument, was projected in 1816 to commemorate the Scottish heroes - naval and military - who fell in the wars with Napoleon. Designed by W. H. Playfair, in imitation of the Parthenon, and promising to reflect the highest credit on his genius, it was founded in 1822 during George IV.'s visit to Edinburgh, and was begun in 1824; but, in consequence of failure of funds, operations ceased after the erection of twelve columns, with basement and architrave. The pillars, which cost upwards of £1000 each, are large, fluted, and beautifully proportioned ; and the whole, looking like the fragment of some great ruin, has probably as excellent an effect as the finished structure would have had.

Burns' Monument, on the S side of the Calton Hill, in Regent Road, crowning a rock 10 feet higher than the level of the street, was erected in 1830, after a design by Thomas Hamilton. It is a circular Corinthian cycle­style of twelve columns, raised on a quadrangular base, and surmounted by a cupola in imitation of the monument of Lysicrates at Athens, and contains a bust of Burns by W. Brodie, and a number of interesting relics of the poet. A marble statue of Burns, Flaxman's last work, which stood formerly in the monument, is now in the National Portrait Gallery. A monument to Dugald Stewart, the distinguished Scottish philosopher, on the W face of the hill, overlooking Waterloo Place, was erected in 1831, after a design by W. H. Playfair. It is in the style of a Grecian temple, partly copied from the Choragic monument of Lysicrates; and has a high basement, an open interior, a beautiful funereal urn, a rich entablature, and a cupolar canopy. Professor Playfair's monument, higher up, at the SE corner of the New Observatory, was also designed by W. H. Playfair, who was the professor's nephew; it isa solid Doric structure of small dimensions, but great purity of style.

On a pedestal of Peterhead granite, in front of the Register House, is a bronze equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington, by Sir John Steell, inaugurated in 1852, on the anniversary of the battle of Waterloo. The horse is represented as rearing under the curb, as if pulled suddenly up when in full gallop, while the rider sits erect and calm, holding in his left hand the horse's reins and his plumed hat, and seeming, by the gesture of his right hand, and by the expression of his countenance, to be issuing some command connected with the evolutions of a battle. The weight of the entire figure rests on the horse's hind legs and tail ; and it demanded great skill to distribute the metal, of which there is about 12 tons, through the parts in such a way as to produce a secure equipoise. The Duke not only sat to the artist for his portrait, but also rode before him, so as to give him exact ideas of his style of horsemanship. The inauguration took place in the midst of a violent thunderstorm, which gave origin to the following epigram:-

 'Mid lightning's flash and thunder's echoing peal,
Behold the Iron Duke, in bronze, by Steel!!'

The horse and figure are nearly 14 feet high, and the pedestal, which is very plain, thirteen. The cost was £10,000.

The next important monument in the Princes Street line is that of Sir Walter Scott, which stands in the East Princes Street Gardens, opposite St David Street, where it was erected in 1840-44, at a cost of nearly £16,000, after designs by George M. Kemp, a self-taught architect, who, on his travels over Europe studying Gothic architecture, supported himself the while by working as a stone-mason. He was unfortunately drowned in the Canal at Edinburgh before the work was finished. The monument, which has particularly excited the scorn of Mr Ruskin, who styles it ` a small vulgar Gothic steeple on the ground,' is a handsome imitation of the finer market crosses of mediaeval age, Four great basement arches meet in a centre like those beneath the central tower of a cathedral, and from the piers of these four other arches spring diagonally outwards, and rest on strong octagonal buttressed exterior piers, which are surmounted by turret pinnacles. Elegant pierced flying buttresses ascend from the inner side of the base of these pinnacles, and from the end of a pierced horizontal parapet over the contiguous spandrils, to the middle of the second stage of the monument. A contracting series of galleries, arches, turrets, and pinnacles soars aloft from the summit of the four grand basement arches, stage above stage, till it attains a height of about 200 feet from the ground, and terminates there in a finial. The capitals, mouldings, niches, parapets, crocketings, and other ornaments are in the same style of Decorated Gothic and on the same pattern as those of Melrose Abbey. A stair of 287 steps ascends to within a few feet of the top, whence there is a most magnificent bird's-eye view of the city. In each front of the main basement, above the archivolt and in the parapet, are nine small niches ; and in the exterior piers, in the turret-pinnacles above them, and in the prominent parts of the second stage, are many more. Figures of the principal characters in Scott's poems and novels were originally intended to occupy all the niches, and 4 of these were forthcoming at the erection of the monument, 1 more ten years after, 27 statuettes and 16 likenesses of Scottish poets in 1874, 8 medallions in 1876, and 32 statuettes in 1882. Flights of steps from the ground, on all the four sides, converge to a platform beneath the four grand basement arches, on a pedestal in the centre of which is a marble statue, by Steell, of the great Wizard, representing Sir Walter seated in a characteristic attitude, attended by his dog Maida. Executed in 1846, at a cost of £2000, it was cut from a block of marble weighing upwards of 30 tons, and is well-formed and harmonious ; but, though large in itself, it looks almost unduly small when compared with the pillars and arches around. On the capitals of the pillars supporting the vaulted roof are representations of Hogg, Burns, Robert Fergusson, and Allan Ramsay on the W front; George Buchanan, Sir David Lindsay, Tannahill, and Lord Byron on the S front; Smollett, James Beattie, Thomson, and John Home on the E front; Queen Mary, King James I., King James V., and Drummond of Hawthornden on the N front. The medallions are ranged in pairs, in spandrils between the panels of the walls, and they represent the heads of John Knox, James V., George Buchanan, James VI., Queen Mary, Charles I., the Regent Moray, and the Marquis of Montrose. For a fee of 2d. access is obtained to the galleries and Museum. The latter, instituted in 1879, contains a number of interesting objects associated with the great novelist.

To the E of the Scott monument is a bronze statue of Dr Livingstone, by Mrs D. O. Hill, erected in 1876, while along the terrace to the W is one of Adam Black, the publisher, also in bronze, by J. Hutchison, erected in 1877. Still farther W, at the corner next the Royal Institution, is one of Professor Wilson, by Steell, erected in 1865. In the West Princes Street Gardens, at the NE corner, is a marble figure of Allan Ramsay, also by Steell, and erected in 1865 by Lord Murray, who was related to the poet. It rests on a pedestal, on which are medallions of Lord Murray (N), of General Ramsay (Allan's grandson), of his wife, and of his daughters, Lady Campbell and Mrs Malcolm. To the W is a statue, in bronze, by W. Brodie, of Sir James Simpson, seated, in his academic robes. It was erected in 1877. Near the W end of the Gardens is a large Celtic Cross, designed by Dr Rowand Anderson and erected in 1879, in memory of Dean Ramsay, the well-known author of Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character, who was incumbent of the adjoining Episcopal Church of St John.

On the George Street line there is, within the recess in front of the Royal Bank, a bronze statue (by Campbell, 1835) of Sir John Hope, afterwards fourth Earl of Hopetoun, who succeeded to the command of the British army after the death of Sir John Moore at Corunna. It represents the General in Roman costume leaning on a charger, and has inscriptions commemorative of his military achievements. In the centre of St Andrew Square is a Doric column, modelled after that of Trajan at Rome, in memory of Henry Dundas, first Viscount Melville. It was erected in 1821-28 'by the voluntary contributions of the officers, petty-officers, seamen, and marines of these united kingdoms' (Viscount Melville having held office as treasurer of the navy), at a cost of £8000, after a design by Mr Burn, and consists of a basement and pillar surmounted by a statue 14 feet high, executed by Forrest. The basement is square and massive, and adorned with symbolical devices, while the pillar, which is simply fluted, diminishes in diameter from 12 feet 2 inches at the bottom to 102 feet at the top, and contains a spiral staircase. The whole reaches a height of 150 feet. Opposite the end of George Street, on the W side of the square, is a bronze group of Alexander and Bucephalus, modelled by Sir John Steell in 1832, but not cast till 1883, when it was commissioned and, in 1884, presented to the city by a number of the artist's friends and admirers. At the intersection of George Street and Hanover Street is a statue of George IV by Chantry, erected in 1832, and representing the gracious monarch in a very 'first-gentleman-of-Europe' attitude. At the intersection of Frederick Street is a dignified statue of Pitt by the same artist, erected in 1833, and at the intersection of Castle Street one of Dr Chalmers by Steell, erected in 1876.

In the centre of Charlotte Square is one of the finest of the Edinburgh monuments, the dignified and beautiful memorial of the late Prince Consort, which, designed and partly executed by Steell, was unveiled by the Queen with great ceremonial in 1876, on which occasion the sculptor received the honour of knighthood. The monument, which is a colossal equestrian statue of the Prince in the uniform of a field-marshal, rises from a platform of Peterhead granite 20 feet square, and forms three stages, with a total height of 35 feet. The first stage, some 4 feet high, has at each angle a square projection, surmounted by a group of figures-which represent Labour (Maccallum and Stevenson), the Army and Navy (Clark Stanton), Learning and Science (Stevenson), and the Nobility (W. Brodie)-offering tribute of reverence to `Albert the Good.' The second stage bears quotations from the Prince Consort's public speeches; and the third, which is richly moulded, has bronze bas­reliefs - the larger ones showing the marriage of the Queen and the opening of the Great Exhibition of 1851, and the two lesser ones illustrating the domestic and artistic tastes of the Prince. A group of objects resting on the ledge formed by the projection of the second stage is emblematic of his honours and pursuits.

Next in importance and beauty to the Prince Consort's monument comes the memorial of the fifth Duke of Buccleuch, erected in West Parliament Square in 1887-88. A statue by Boehm, 10.5 feet high, surmounts an elaborate hexagonal pedestal, 22 feet high and 10.5 feet across, designed by Dr Rowand Anderson in the style of the fifteenth century. The latter is divided into two stages, of which the lower shows a moulded buttress, rising at each angle, surmounted by a buck's head bearing a shield of one of the leading families allied by marriage to the Buccleuchs. Between the buttresses, and surmounted by delicately pierced canopies, are bas­reliefs representing six of the leading incidents in the familyhistoryof the Scotts - the death of Sir Walter Scott at Homildon Hill in 1402; the burning by the English of Catslack Tower in Yarrow, along with Lady Buccleuch and all her household, in 1548; the attempted rescue of James V. from the power of Angus in 1526; the burning of Branxholme by the English in 1532; a rising of the Scotts under Buccleuch to pursue English reivers; and the interview between Queen Elizabeth and the ` Laird' when he went to appease her Majesty for the rescue of Kinmont Willie in 1596. The second stage, rising from a Decorated base, has pinnacles with allegorical figures of Fortitude, Liberality, Temperance, Prudence, Charity, and Truth, and on the faces between are canopied reliefs of incidents in the life of the Duke - his reception of Queen Victoria at Dalkeith in 1842, the inception of the Granton Harbour, the anniversary dinner given him by his tenantry in 1877, his installation as Chancellor of Glasgow University, his appearance as a colonel of militia at the head of his regiment, and his coat of arms on a garter plate. The historical panels were executed by Clark Stanton, the allegorical figures by Birnie Rhind, the upper panels by Stuart Burnett, and the other ornaments by D. W. and W. G. Stevenson. The total cost was nearly £7000.

Other monuments are a statue of Sir William Chambers, erected in 1891, in the centre of the street that bears his name (executed by John Rhind, and placed on a pedestal designed by Mr H. J. Blane, with panels representing Liberality, Perseverance, and Literature); an equestrian statue of Charles II. (judiciously concealed in Parliament Square), made of lead, and cast in Holland in 1685; a bronze statue of the second Viscount Melville, erected in 1857, at the intersection of Melville Street and Walker Street; a statue of James Watt at the Heriot-Watt College; one of Sir David Brewster in the University Quadrangle; and a pretty little Eleanor cross at the W end of Queen Street, erected in 1868 in memory of Miss Catherine Sinclair. The memorials on the Castle Esplanade have been already noticed; some, of minor importance, do not need special mention, and a few are noticed in connection with the churches.

Surgeons' and Physicians' Halls.-Surgeons' Hall, on the E side of Nicolson Street, was built in 1833, at a cost of £20, 000, after a design by W. H. Playfair, succeeding the old Chirurgeons' Hall on the W side of the Pleasance, in the High School yards. It is a large and splendid edifice, in the Grecian style, presenting to the street a lofty hexastyle Ionic portico, the base in the form of a curtain-wall, the columns fluted and well proportioned, and the frieze and the tympanum adorned with fine carved work. It contains apartments for meetings, tastefully-fitted galleries, and a valuable museum, chiefly of anatomical and pathological subjects. The Royal College of Surgeons, to whom the hall belongs, was incorporated in 1505, and reincorporated in 1778 ; maintains courses of lectures for students of medicine; and issues diplomas which, together with those of the Royal College of Physicians, are recognised as qualifying for the practice of Medicine.

The Physicians' Hall was, from 1775 till 1845, on the S side of George Street, on the ground now occupied by the Commercial Bank ; and was a beautiful structure three storeys high, in pure Grecian style, with a tetra­style Corinthian portico. The present hall in Queen Street, midway between St David Street and Hanover Street, was built in 1845, after designs by T. Hamilton, and contains a fine hall for meetings and a good museum. It has a Corinthian portico of peculiar character, comprising successively a tetrastyle and distyle with entablatures, and a pediment. The tetrastyle has columns of the rare quasi-Corinthian kind called by some architects the Attic ; the ends of the first entablature are surmounted by statues of Esculapius and Hippocrates, from the chisel of A. H. Ritchie, and the apex of the pediment is crowned by a statue of Hygeia. A new library-hall, with a circular ceiling, 27 feet 6 inches high in the centre, divided into panels, ten of which are filled in with glass, was added in 1877. It is in the Italian style, and was designed by Mr David Bryce. The Royal College of Physicians, to whom the hall belongs, was incorporated in 1681; possesses an exclusive but obsolete privilege of practising medicine within certain limits of the city; and is charged with the public duty of preventing the sale of adulterated drugs. It maintains an annual course of six lectures on mental diseases, and indirectly supports the medical schools of the city.

Miscellaneous Public Buildings. -The Assembly Rooms on the S side of George Street, midway between Hanover Street and Frederick Street, were built in 1787 by subscription, and were considerably improved internally in 1871. They have a plain Italian front, with a tetrastyle Doric portico, on a rusticated piazza basement, over which is a more recent projection which accommodates the orchestra. The principal room is 92 feet long, 42 wide, and 40 high. The Music Hall, in the rear of the Assembly Rooms, is accessible by the same entrance, and extends back to Rose Street. It was built in 1843, after a design by Messrs Burn & Bryce, at a cost of more than £10, 000, and contains a principal apartment 108 feet long and 91 feet wide, with richly, panelled ceiling and shallow central dome, an orchestra large enough for several hundred performers, and a large organ built by Hill of London. It is much used for great public meetings, and has accommodation for 1500 persons. The Masonic Hall, on the S side of George Street, behind the street-line of houses, and entered by a vestibule through the house No. 98, was erected in 1858-59, after a design by David Bryce, and is a spacious well-arranged edifice. The Masonic Hall, on the new side of Blackfriars Street, was built in 1871, and is a substantial structure in the Scottish Baronial style. The Oddfellows' Hall, on the E side of Forrest Road, was built in 1872-73, after designs by J. C. Hay, at a cost of about £5000, and is in the Italian style, with balcony and corner turrets. The Young Men's Christian Association building, on the W side of South St Andrew Street, was erected in 1875, after designs by George Beattie & Son, at a cost of about £18,000, and is a six-storey edifice in the Italian style, containing a hall, a reading-room, a library, and other apartments. The Catholic Young Men's Institute, in St Mary Street, was built in 1869, after designs by Cousin, at a cost of £5000, and is in the old Scottish domestic style. The Inland Revenue Office, on the S side of Waterloo Place, is a plain Graeco-Italian building of four storeys. The Highland and Agricultural Society, for the promotion of the interests of agriculture (instituted in 1784, and incorporated by royal charter in 1787), has its offices in a plain building in George IV. Bridge, nearly opposite the sheriff courthouse. The Volunteer Drill Hall, on part of the site of the old city work­house, off the W side of Forrest Road, was erected in 1872, and comprises a main hall 135 feet long, 96 wide, and 46 high from the ground to the roof-ridge, with segment circular roof supported on iron ribs and glazed in three stretches. The Militia Depot stands off the E side of Easter Road, adjacent to the Granton branch of the North British Railway. It was erected in 1868, comprises neat ranges of two-storey buildings, for the occupancy of the resident staff, and has commodious enclosed grounds for drill. There are large and handsomely fitted up proprietary baths at Drumsheugh and Thirlstane Road, and a large public swimming-bath on the low ground near the N end of Pitt Street. In Infirmary Street large public swimming and plunge baths were erected by the Town Council in 1886 at a cost of £8000. The public wash-house in South Gray's Close was erected and fitted up in 1892 at a cost of £3800.

The Corn Exchange, on the S side of the Grassmarket, towards the W end, was erected in 1849, after a design by Cousin, at a cost of nearly £20,000, and is a massive though plain structure in the Italian style, well suited to its site and uses. Its facade comprises a main front of three storeys, 98 feet long and 60 feet high, and two small wings recessed from the line of the main front, both of them containing staircases, and the western one rising as a clock-tower one storey higher than the rest of the building. The doorway is adorned with two rustic Doric columns ; the windows have ornate mouldings, and are varied in design in all the three storeys. The portion of the edifice equal in height to the facade extends only so far as to contain the vestibule, and the main part for business extends to the rear over a distance of 152 feet. It is constructed like a railway station, with the roof, from which it is lighted, supported by two rows of metal pillars. It is often used for great public meetings. The Stock Exchange, which cost about £17,000, including the price of the site, is a building in the Queen Anne style, at the NW corner of St Andrew Square, and was erected in 1890 after designs by Mr J. M `Lachlan. Over the first floor there is a large panel representing Commerce, while on the belting of the second are four figures representing the quarters of the globe.

One or two public buildings, which no longer exist, but which figure occasionally in the civic annals, may here be noted. The old Weigh-house, which stood on the thoroughfare at the head of the Lawnmarket and the West Bow, was surmounted by a small spire, which combined with those of St Giles' and the Netherbow gateway to give the line of High Street a picturesqueness of appearance greatly superior to what it now possesses. It was demolished by Cromwell in 1650, and the site occupied in 1660 by an ungainly building with a machine for the same purpose called the Butter Tron, to distinguish it from the other weigh­beam in the central part of High Street, which was the Salt Tron. This was held by the Jacobites as a military post in 1745, and was finally demolished in 1822, in the course of the preparations for the public reception of George IV. The Luckenbooths extended eastward between the Lawnmarket and the High Street, from the Old Tolbooth to nearly the City Cross, and were separated from St Giles' Church by a narrow lane. They consisted principally of lofty houses with timber fronts and projecting peaked gables, erected probably about the end of the fifteenth century, with the exception of that farthest to the east. This, which was of considerably more recent date, was remarkable as having been occupied in 1725 and subsequent years by Allan Ramsay's bookselling establishment, and between 1775 and 1815 by the well-known publisher and bookseller Creech, who was twice lord provost of the city. The whole of the Luckenbooths were demolished in 1817. The lane between them and St Giles' was lined on both sides with shops, of which those on the S side, built against the walls of the church at various dates from 1555 onwards, were called the Krames. A flight of steps leading from the E end of the lane past the church, and known as St Mary's Steps, received its name from a statue of the Virgin that occupied a niche on the W side. Another lane, called the Old Kirk Style, which passed through the middle of the Luckenbooths to the vanished Norman porch in the north-western part of St Giles', was in 1525 the scene of the murder of M `Lellan of Bombie by the lairds of Drumlanrig and Lochinvar. The Black Turn­pike, immediately W of the site of the Tron Church, was a large structure of such solidity and stateliness as to be one of the most remarkable features in the line of the High Street. Erected about the beginning of the fifteenth century, it was long believed to have been, as the mansion of the lord provost Sir Simon Preston, the place of imprisonment of Queen Mary in 1567, after the battle of Carbery Hill ; but, as noted elsewhere, it is now definitely ascertained that this stood on the opposite side of the street farther to the west. The Black turn­pike was demolished in 1788. Blackfriars' Monastery stood on, or near, the site of the old High School in Blackfriars Wynd, and had large gardens extending to the Cowgate, the Pleasance, and the Potterrow. Founded in 1230 by Alexander II., it was used by the founder so frequently as a residence that it became known as the King's Mansion. It had a large cruciform church, with central tower and lofty spire, which was partially destroyed by fire in 1528, and was totally demolished at the Reformation in 1558, the lands belonging to the Brotherhood being granted by the Crown to aid in the erection and endowment of Trinity Hospital.

Infirmaries, Lunatic Asylum, &c.-The Royal Infirmary, instituted on a small scale in 1729, and incorporated by royal charter in 1736, was first provided with suitable buildings in 1738. Those in Infirmary Street, though extended from time to time, were at length found to be utterly inadequate for modern requirements, and it was decided to have a new Infirmary on a new site. The ground to the W of the Middle Meadow Walk, occupied by, and around, George Watson's Hospital, was chosen for the purpose, and here, between 1870, when the foundation-stone was laid by the Prince of Wales, and 1879, when they were first occupied, the present buildings were erected, the cost being defrayed partly from the capital fund of the institution and largely by a very munificent public subscription. The site, facing on the N the open grounds of George Heriot's Hospital, and on the S the Meadows, is an excellent one. Designed by Bryce in a plain variety of the old Scottish style, the buildings are constructed on the separate pavilion plan, the pavilions, which are three storeys high, being connected by one-storey corridors. The centre of the main front, to Lauriston, is four storeys high, and has a massive square clock-tower with corbelled corner turrets. The pavilions have round towers at the corners similar to those at Holyrood and Falkland Palaces. A nurses' home was added in 1892, in which year also additional ground was acquired to the W, on which new wards were to be built at an estimated cost of £100, 000. The number of indoor patients treated annually varies from 6000 to 8000, and the outdoor from 26,000 to 28,000; while the expenditure is about £36,000, of which a half is met by voluntary subscriptions, about a sixth by the interest of investments, and the rest is made up by legacies, donations, and students' fees. Connected with the Infirmary there is a convalescent home at Corstorphine and a Samaritan Society for aiding patients and their families.

Also in Lauriston, farther to the W, are the Chalmers Hospital for the Sick and Hurt, and the Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital. The former sprang from a bequest by George Chalmers, a plumber in Edinburgh, of about £27,000, which was allowed to accumulate from his death in 1836 till 1853. The building, which was erected in 1861-63, is a long plain structure, and is under the management of the Faculty of Advocates. The income is about £1500, and the yearly number of patients is about 300, of whom one-fourth pay for their treatment, the charge being five shillings a day. About 3000 outdoor patients are also attended to every year. The Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital is a plain building, erected in 1871 in accordance with the expressed views of Sir James Simpson as to what such an hospital should be, and provides gratuitous medical aid for women, both in the institution and at their own homes. Nurses are also trained. The original Royal Maternity Hospital, instituted in 1843, was in St John Street. About 1000 cases (one-third indoor) are attended to annually at a cost of about £800, almost entirely met by voluntary subscription. The Longmore Hospital for Incurables, a plain but handsome classic building in Salisbury Place, Newington, was first erected in 1880, but was altered and added to in 1886, and again in 1891. It is named after Mr J. A. Longmore, whose trustees provided £10,000 for the building fund of 1880, and also supply part of the income, the rest being derived from voluntary subscriptions. The Royal Hospital for Sick Children was commenced in 1860 in a small house in Lauriston Lane, and was afterwards removed to a separate building near the SW corner of the Royal Infirmary, with a fine lawn bordering the West Meadows. Here it remained till 1891, when the place had to be abandoned on account of defective drainage, and the site having been acquired for the extension of the Infirmary, it was resolved to erect a new hospital on ground at Rillbank, on the opposite side of the Meadows, that had up till then been occupied by the Trades' Maiden Hospital. The building is a handsome one in the English Renaissance style, and has provision for 118 beds, at a cost of about £30,000. There are from 600 to 700 indoor patients every year, and about 7000 cases are attended to in the dispensary attached, the total expenditure being about £4000, of which nearly the whole is met from voluntary subscriptions. The managers of the Royal Infirmary having decided to refuse to admit cases of infectious disease, these are now received in the Epidemic Hospital, in Infirmary Street, where provision has been made by the Corporation, acting as Local Authority for the city, for the treatment of patients thus afflicted. There are also, throughout the city, various dispensaries for general as well as particular forms of disease, where about 50,000 poor out-door patients are attended to every year.

The erection of an asylum for the treatment of the insane was first advocated by Professor Andrew Duncan, whose attention had been called to the unsatisfactory state of the provision then made for lunatics, by his having attended the poet Fergusson in his last illness. A subscription was started for the purpose in 1792, and in 1806 the government of the day made a grant in aid of the building fund of £2000 from the money received for the estates forfeited in 1745; and the contributors having been incorporated by royal charter in 1807, and a site procured at Morningside, the foundation of the first part of the present buildings (what is now known as the East House) was laid in 1809, - and the first patient admitted in 1813. The patients have been, from the first, of all classes of society, the surplus income derived from the board and treatment of the wealthy being applied to making provision for the poor. In 1840 arrangements were made with the Edinburgh City, St Cuthbert's, Canongate, and North and South Leith parishes for the reception of pauper lunatics, and in consequence, between that date and 1850, large additions had to be made to the original buildings. Owing, however, to the spread of the city, the present situation became unsuitable, so in 1878 the managers acquired the estate of Craighouse, to the SW, and in 1893 engaged in erecting there a new Royal Edinburgh Asylum for the Insane - a very handsome building, designed by Mr Sydney Mitchell, in the late French Renaissance style. The Midlothian and Peeblesshire Lunatic Asylum is also at Morningside. There is an establishment, dating from 1861, for the treatment of female inebriates, at Queensberry Lodge, in the South Back of Canongate, S of Queensberry House.

The Royal Blind Asylum, which dates from 1793, originated with Dr Blacklock, David Miller, the Rev. Dr Johnson, and the celebrated Wilberforce, and first occupied a house in Shakespeare Square, whence it was removed in 1806 to No. 58 Nicolson Street, where the large warehouse still is for the sale of the productions of the blind inmates. It included another house at No. 38, purchased in 1822 for the accommodation of females, and now used for the males who do not reside with friends; the females and the blind children having been removed in 1876 to a spacious new building at West Craigmillar. The institution is managed by a body of directors, and instructs and employs the males in making mattresses, brushes, baskets, mats, and other objects, and in weaving sackcloth, matting, and rag-carpets - the females in knitting stockings, sewing covers for mattresses and feather beds, and other occupations. Both of the buildings in Nicolson Street were originally private houses, but that at No. 58 was altered and adorned, about 1860, at a cost of £3500. A handsome new facade, with stone-faced dormer windows and a neat cornice and balustrade, was then erected. It is pierced with a large central door-way, flanked by two spacious windows, and surmounted by a bust of the Rev. Dr Johnson. The new building at West Craigmillar, on a rising-ground S of Powburn, was erected in 1874-76 at a cost of £21,000, and is in light French style, with a handsome central clock-tower 80 feet high, surmounted by dome and lantern. Accommodation is provided for 200 inmates. The school for blind children, prior to its amalgamation with the Royal Blind Asylum, was in a commodious building, originally a private house, at No. 2 Gayfield Square. The Institution for the Deaf and Dumb dates from 1810, and stood originally in Chessels Court, in Canongate ; but acquired, in 1826, an edifice off the N side of Henderson Row, on the N side of the town. It is managed by a body of fourteen directors, and early acquired so much celebrity, by the excellence and success of its system of training, as to be made a model for similar institutions in other cities. The building was erected, by subscription, at a cost of £7000.

Charities and Religious and Philanthropic Societies. - Trinity Hospital, which was founded in connection with Trinity College Church by Mary of Gueldres, and occupied part of the original collegiate buildings of the church, refitted for the purpose after the Reformation, had some curious architectural features, but was entirely removed in 1845 to make room for the Waverley Station. Prior to its demolition it afforded homes to 42 inmates, who were either burgesses of Edinburgh or wives or unmarried children of such, not under fifty years of age. From 1845 to 1880 pensions of £26 a year were granted, and since the latter date the charity, which is in the charge of the Corporation, has been managed under a scheme then authorised by the Court of Session. By this, 60 pensioners, 22 of whom are appointed by private patrons, receive £25 a year, while 140 receive £15. One-eighth of the whole number must be incurables, for whom no limit of age is fixed, while the others must be persons not under 50 years of age, who have at some time resided and maintained themselves in Edinburgh for two years, or the wives or children of burgesses - all being in decayed circumstances. There is also a separate Crighton bequest (1889), which provides pensions of £12, with £5 of funeral expenses, for eight persons of the same class. The Alexander Fund, for the benefit of indigent persons of good reputation who have fallen into decayed circumstances through causes beyond their own control, was formerly administered by the Governors of Trinity Hospital, but has been since 1880 under the care of a separate body of trustees, consisting of the ministers of Edinburgh as well as the Town Council. Persons of kin of Mr Alexander of Knockhill, who died in 1696, or of the surname of Alexander, have preference, otherwise the beneficiaries, who at present number 33, are as noted above. The pensions are of the value of £27 15s. 6d. The Lennie Fund provides seven persons with pensions of £10 a year. The Christie Fund, bequeathed by Mr Robert Christie, merchant in Edinburgh, in 1888, is for promoting the comfort of old men or women over 60 years of age, resident in the county of Edinburgh, indigent and suffering from acute and painful diseases. In 1883 Mr Thomas Lockerby bequeathed £31,000 for the erection and endowment of twelve or more alms-houses, in or near Edinburgh, for the relief of those who, having been left, or having acquired, a competency, have been thereafter reduced to indigence by the fault of others, the recipients to be allowed a free house and 10s. a week. Preference is to be given to natives of the south of Scotland, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. With this bequest is now conjoined a sum of about £4000, bequeathed in 1892 for the same purpose by Miss Agnes Macaulay, Glasgow. In 1892 Mr Thomas Nelson, the publisher, bequeathed in trust to the Corporation £50,000 for the erection and maintenance of shelter halls in poor districts of Edinburgh, where persons of the working class may go to sit, read, write, converse, and otherwise occupy themselves. There are other minor funds for the relief of indigent persons of different classes, and among the many agencies of all kinds whose purpose is the relief of the poor andd the afflicted, we may note the Society for the Relief of Incurables at their own homes, the Destitute Sick Society,. the Deaf and Dumb Benevolent Society, the District Nurses' Home, the Jubilee Nurses' Institute, the Lying-in Institution, the Society for the Relief of Married Women, the Homes for Crippled Children, the Ravenscroft Convalescent Home, several societies for the relief of the blind, societies for the relief of indigent gentlewomen, and of the indigent aged of both sexes; the Society for Improving the Condition of the Poor, the Night Asylum, the Society for the Relief of Deserving Foreigners, the Association for the Relief of Soldiers' and Sailors' Families, the United Industrial School, a Model Lodging-House Society, the Society for Feeding Destitute Children, and the Courant Fund for a similar purpose ; the House of Refuge; Bread, Meal, and Coal Societies, several soup kitchens and rescue homes, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, Orphan Homes and societies for Aiding Discharged Prisoners, and for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. These societies, etc., are almost all entirely supported by subscriptions, and it has been estimated that, including the contributions to the hospitals and infirmaries, and to reformatories and industrial schools, the sum of about £50,000 is voluntarily raised every year in the city for charitable and philanthropic purposes.

Literary, Scientific, and Miscellaneous Societies and Institutions.- The Philosophical Institution (1832) has, in premises at 4 Queen Street, a news-room, a reading-room, and an extensive library, and organises every year concerts and a winter course of lectures by distinguished men on philosophical, literary, and miscellaneous subjects. The Edinburgh Literary Institute, incorporated in 1870, erected a handsome building in Clerk Street in 1872, and has there a news-room, library, ladies' room, etc. It organises lectures similar to those of the Philosophical Institution. There is also an Edinburgh Subscription Library in George Street, instituted in 1794 and incorporated in 1815. The Royal Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland was founded in 1833 and incorporated in 1847. It purchases works of Art, which are distributed among the subscribers by drawings on the Art Union principle.

At the head of the scientific societies stands the Royal Society of Edinburgh, instituted in 1783; and among others maybe mentioned the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, the Geological Society, the Botanical Society, the Meteorological Society, the Royal Physical Society, the Royal Medical Society, and the Field Naturalists' Society. Connected with the University are the University Union, the Philomathic Society, the Diagnostic Society, the Dialectic Society, the Philosophical Society, the Speculative Society, the Scots Law Society, the Tusculan Society, and the Cap and Gown Club. Among the miscellaneous may be noted the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, the Scottish History Society, the Scottish Text Society, the Juridical Society, the Cockburn Association, the Institute of Bankers, the Architectural Association, the Sanitary Protection Association, the Edinburgh Health Society, the Pen and Pencil Club, a number of county associations, and the usual school and athletic clubs of all kinds. There are also 19 masonic lodges (including No. 1 Mary's Chapel, No. 2 Canongate Kilwinning, No. 5 Canongate and Leith, and No. 8 Edinburgh Journeymen), 8 lodges of the Scottish Order of Oddfellows, and 5 lodges of Free Gardeners.

There are connected with the city the Queen's Rifle Volunteer Brigade, with three battalions ; the Fourth Volunteer Battalion the Royal Scots, the First Edinburgh City Volunteer Artillery, and the Forth Volunteer Division Royal Engineers (Submarine Miners). Associated with these are the City of Edinburgh and Midlothian Rifle Association, and the East of Scotland Tactical Society.

Educational Institutions.-The University.-The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1582 by James VI., or rather by his advisers, urged on somewhat unwillingly by the Town Council, the members of which showed a keen desire to have a 'Tounis Colledge.' The infant university began its active life in the following year in the buildings of the Collegiate Church of St Mary in the Fields, which appears to have been founded in the 15th century, and stood, as its name implies, originally outside the city walls, but was included within the extension wall of 1513. It occupied the ground now covered by the south-eastern portion of the present University buildings in South Bridge, and the street area thence to the NW corner of Drummond Street. Among the portions appropriated for University purposes was the Provost's house, which, almost destroyed by the explosion which killed Lord Darnley within its walls, was repaired and used as the house of the Principal. It existed till at least 1803, and its site is now covered by the University Library. The buildings were enlarged, in 1617, by additions containing a common hall and several class-rooms ; but these, which were both unsightly and incommodious, becoming ruinous, a resolution was come to, after the middle of the 18th century, to sell part of the property and raise public subscriptions for the erection of an entirely new edifice of great extent and magnificence, a resolution that resulted in therealisation of about £32,000. The new University, which was to be erected about two quadrangles, was founded in 1789, but the funds became exhausted when only the front or E part had been built. This, however, became immediately available for college purposes, and formed a striking contrast to the ruinous old structures which required to be retained. This unsightly patchwork condition of affairs remained till 1815, when an Act of Parliament was obtained, allotting £10, 000 a year for the further construction of the edifice till it was completed. The original design by Adam was then revised and extensively altered - particularly as to the interior facades, and by the substitution of one quadrangle for two - by W. H. Playfair, and building operations went regularly on till the N and the W sides of the quadrangle were completed. Thereafter there was again a long pause, and only in 1834 was the work brought to a completion.

The edifice presents its main front to the South Bridge, and measures 358 feet from E to W, and 255 feet from N to S. The style of architecture is Graeco-Italian, and the exterior facades show four storeys, differing much from one another in height. So closely is it hemmed in by the buildings around that the full architectural effect of the different elevations is very much injured and even lost. The basement storey is rusticated, the second and third are lofty, with moulded windows, and the fourth is an attic. The central part of the main front contains the entrance, and has three lofty archways, of which the middle one is for carriages. The entrance is adorned by a grand Doric portico, with centre and wings, the former recessed and having two attached columns at the sides of the carriage archway, and the wings, which cover the side archways, having each two projected columns. All the six columns are of equal diameter and 26 feet high, and are each formed of a single block of stone. A very broad entablature, with a long appropriate Latin inscription, surmounts the portico. A massive dome was designed by Adam to rise immediately behind the entablature, and to form the crowning feature of the main front, but owing to lack of money it was not proceeded with at the time; and the present dome was not erected till 1887, the necessary funds for the purpose having been bequeathed by the late Mr Robert Cox of Gorgie in 1872. The original design was, however, departed from, and improved on by Dr Rowand Anderson, to whose skill the present handsome structure is due. The top of the lantern, which reaches a height of 153 feet, is surmounted by a figure of Youth bearing on the Torch of Knowledge, modelled by Hutchison.

The quadrangle, which stands considerably higher than the exterior level, and is reached by steps through the side arches, is very spacious, and has finer architectural features than the exterior fronts. A continuous platform or small paved terrace goes round the base of the main elevations, considerably higher than the level of the open court, and is reached at intervals by flights of steps, and adorned with handsome balustrades. The fronts of the main elevations have two lofty storeys, the lower one rusticated, the upper adorned with columns, and the junctions of front with front are not corners but curves, containing the entrances to most of the apartments, and the curves are filled in the lower storey with arcade-piazzas, and in their upper with open galleries supported by Ionic columns. The E front, or that containing the street entrances, is adorned with Doric columns and entablature. The W front is fitted in the central part of its lower storey with an arcade-piazza - within which is a statue, by Brodie, of Sir David Brewster, a former principal -and is adorned in its upper storey with Corinthian attached columns and Venetian windows. The N and S fronts correspond to each other, and have on their upper storey a series of Corinthian attached columns. The library, which occupies both storeys of the S side, has a magnificent principal hall, measuring 185 feet in length and 54 feet in breadth, and contains about 180,000 printed books and 3000 volumes of manuscript, besides numerous busts and pictures of professors and distinguished alumni.

The buildings just described, which provide accommodation for the class-rooms of the Faculties of Arts, Divinity, and Law, as well as for general University purposes, constitute what is now known as the Old University, the Medical Faculty and School having been transferred in 1880 to what is known as the New University, in Teviot Place, on the opposite side of the Middle Meadow Walk from the Royal Infirmary. The number of students, which in 1858 had been only about 800, rose gradually till, in 1869, there were more than 1500, and as there were then 33 professors and only 17 class-rooms, the problem of extension had to be faced. In 1873, therefore, an appeal was made to the public for subscriptions, to enable new class-rooms, etc., to be built, the first idea being to acquire a site opposite the old Royal Infirmary. The removal of the latter, however, led to a change of plan, and the present ground was bought at a cost of £30,000. The public subscriptions amounted to nearly £150,000, and a government grant of £80,000 having been obtained, the New Medical School buildings were begun in 1878, partially opened in 1880, and finally completed and transferred by the Committee of Subscribers to the University authorities in 1888. Designed by Dr Rowand Anderson, in the Italian style of the Cinque Cento period, and ranged about two quadrangles, they form one of the handsomest piles in Edinburgh. `The main frontage presents, as its central feature, a slightly projecting elevation, pierced by the archway which forms the principal entrance. Over the arch is an ornate window, flanked by pilasters, between which are niches for statuary ; and the whole is surmounted by a bold semicircular pediment, intended to be occupied with a group of sculpture. The facade is three storeys in height, except in the projecting west wing, which has an additional floor. On the ground floor the windows are square, and are surrounded with simply moulded architraves. Above these runs a well-marked string-course, ornamented with dentils. The first floor windows are round-headed, and furnished with architraves, their arches showing boldly in the masonry of the wall. Next comes a broad frieze, relieved at intervals with circular panels intended for carved work. Over this the string-course is repeated ; and the upper floor windows are separated by pilasters, each being divided by a shaft which supports a circular tracery in the window head. The wall is finished at the top with architrave, frieze, and cornice, and crowned with a low-pitched roof, covered with red tiles.' At the NE corner is the M'Ewan Hall, erected in 1889-97, in the semicircular form of a Greek theatre ; here all the great academic ceremonies take place. The great outer wall has a diameter of 144.5 feet, and the inner wall of arches and pillars has a diameter of 134 feet, and measures at right angles to this 107 feet. The height is 90 feet, and light is obtained from a large skylight, and from windows placed close to the roof. The roof is carried on 22 steel ribs, the horizontal strain being borne by the bracing between, and the horizontal thrust of expansion and contraction on the walls avoided by setting the ribs on rollers. Across the stage the strain is carried by a strong steel girder. Thrusts on the inner wall, on which the roof is set, are transmitted to the outer wall by flying buttresses. The external facade harmonises with that of the main building, and is divided into three stages, of which the first is panelled with circular lights, the second is blank, and the third arcaded with three arches between each buttress. The buttresses have niches for figures. There is in the auditorium accommodation for about 3000 persons. The general design was furnished by Dr Rowand Anderson, and that for the roof by Mr Westland; while the hall receives its name from Mr William M'Ewan, M.P., of Edinburgh, by whose munificence the necessary funds were provided. Between the hall and the present buildings is the base of the great campanile, 32 feet square, and intended to rise to a height of 275 feet. To the S of the hall is the Music Class-room and Museum, erected in 1858, after designs by Cousin, in the purest style of the Italian Renaissance of the early sixteenth century. To the E of this is the Students' Union, erected in 1887-89, after designs by Mr Sydney Mitchell. Plain in style, and after the decidedly Scottish types of the palaces of Dunfermline and Stirling, and the earlier portions of Linlithgow, the building has richly moulded and deeply recessed arched and cusped windows, and a boldly corbelled and battlemented parapet. At the SE corner is a tall circular turret, corbelled out to an octagonal form at the top, and at the corners of the N end are two circular towers, with conical roofs. It contains a large debating hall and reading-room, smoking and billiard-rooms, luncheon-rooms, and a large gymnasium. The funds for the erection of the Union were provided partly by private subscription, but to a great extent by the proceeds of a bazaar held in the Waverley Market in 1886 - probably the largest and most successful affair of the kind that ever took place in Edinburgh. Buildings partly for the residence of students were in 1892-93 constructed at the Castle Hill.

Opened in 1583 by Robert Rollock, who became the first Principal in 1586, and was almost from the first assisted by a Latin Lecturer, the University had by 1685, when the study of medicine was introduced into the curriculum, no fewer than eight professors. There are now eighteen professorships in the Faculty of Arts, four in the Faculty of Divinity, seven in the Faculty of Law, and thirteen in the Faculty of Medicine, while there are eight University Lecturers. The professorships, with the dates of their foundations, are-humanity, 1597; mathematics, 1679; Greek, 1708; logic and metaphysics, 1708; moral philosophy, 1708; natural philosophy, 1708; history, 1719 ; rhetoric and English literature, 1760; practical astronomy, 1786; agriculture, 1790; theory of music, 1839; Sanskrit and comparative philology, 1862; engineering' 1868; geology and mineralogy, 1871; commercial and political economy, and mercantile law, 1871; theory, practice, and history of education, 1876; fine art, 1879; Celtic history and literature, 1882; history, 1893; divinity, 1629; Hebrew and Oriental languages, 1642; church history, 1694; biblical criticism and biblical antiquities, 1846; public law, 1707; civil law, 1710; Scots law, 1722; conveyancing, 1825; botany, 1676; institutes of medicine, 1685; practice of physic, 1685; anatomy, 1705; chemistry and chemical pharmacy, 1713 ; midwifery and diseases of women and children, 1726; clinical medicine, 1741; natural history, 1767; materiamedica, 1768; clinical surgery, 1803; medicaljurisprudence, 1807; surgery, 1831; general pathology, 1831. The University lecturers deal with natural theology (Gifford Bequest), forestry, agricultural entomology, civil and criminal procedure, mental diseases, diseases of the eye, clinical instruction on the diseases of children, and comparative embryology. The patronage of fifteen of the chairs entirely, and of six others partly, was formerly held by the town council of Edinburgh ; but, under the University Act of 1858, was transferred to seven curators, four of them chosen by the town council and three by the university court. The patronage of the chairs of rhetoric, practical astronomy, engineering, Sanskrit, geology, church history, biblical criticism, public law, natural history, clinical surgery, and medical jurisprudence is held by the Crown; that of the humanity chair by the Lords of Session, the Faculty of Advocates, the Society of Writers to the Signet, and the curators; that of history, civil law, and Scots law chairs by the Faculty of Advocates and the curators; that of the agriculture chair by the Lords of Session, the University Court, and the curators; that of the music chair by the University Court; that of the commercial and political economy chair by the Merchant Company and the curators; that of the conveyancing chair by the Deputy-Keeper and Society of Writers to the Signet and the curators; that of education by Bell's Trustees; that of fine art by the University Court and the President of the Royal Scottish Academy. That of all the other chairs is held by the curators.

The emoluments of the principal and professors are derived from various sources. Formerly each professor received his own class-fees, but the University Commission in 1893 proposed that in future all these shall be paid into a general Fee Fund, from which the occupants of the Chairs for the time being shall receive the sum necessary to bring their incomes up to certain fixed amounts. The sums (the first figures representing the normal, and those in brackets the minimum salary) thus assigned to the various professors will be, for the Principal, £1100 and an official residence; the Professor of Humanity, £1100 (£800); Greek, £1100 (£800); Mathematics, £1100 (£800) ; Natural Philosophy, £1100 (£800); Logic and Metaphysics, £900 (£700); Moral Philosophy, £900 (£700); Hebrew and Oriental Languages, £600 (£400); Rhetoric and English Literature, £900 (£700); Astronomy, £325, with official residence, and exclusive of the salary of the Professor as Astronomer-Royal; Agriculture, £600 (£400); Sanskrit, £500(£450);Engineering, £700(£500); Geology, £700(£500); Political Economy, £600 (£500); Education, £600 (£450); Fine Art, £500 (£430); Celtic, £600 (£555); History, £900 (£700); Public Law, £600 (£400); Civil Law, £600 (£400); Constitutional Law, £600 (£400); Scots Law, £850 (£500); Conveyancing, £850 (£500); Physiology, £1400 (£800) ; Anatomy, £1400 (£800); Chemistry, £1400 (£800); Pathology, £1400 (£800); Botany, £1000 (£800); Natural History, £1000 (£800); Medicine, £600 (£500); Midwifery, £600 (£500); Materia Medica, £600 (£500); Clinical Surgery, £600 (£500); MedicalJurisprudence, £600(£ 500); Surgery, £600 (£500). Separate provision is made, where necessary, for the salaries of assistants and for class expenses.

Attached to the several faculties there are over one hundred fellowships and scholarships, tenable for from two to four years, and of various values up to £120. Of bursaries in the Arts Faculty there are over 200, of the annual value of over £5000, and ranging in amount from £4 to £90; in Divinity over 40, annual value about £1000, and ranging from £7 to £90; in Law 8, annual value about £200, ranging from £19 to £90; in Medicine 60, annual value £2500, ranging from £20 to £70.

The chief officers of the University are a chancellor, chosen by the general council ; vice-chancellor, chosen by the chancellor; rector, chosen by the matriculated students; principal, chosen by the curators; and assessors, chosen by respectively the chancellor, the town council, the rector, the general council, and the Senatus Academicus. The University Court consists of the rector, the principal, the lord provost of Edinburgh, and the assessors. The Senatus Academicus consists of the principal and the professors. The winter session, for all the faculties, opens in the middle of October and closes about the middle of April. The summer session, which comprehends only the faculties of law and medicine, with tutorial classes in arts, opens in the beginning of May and closes near the end of July. The annual number of students is about 3400, of whom a little more than half are students of medicine. The first graduation ceremony was held in 1587, when Rollock conferred the degree of M.A. on 47 students. During the year 1891-92, 82 students took the degree of M.A., 19 that of B.D., 20 that of LL.B., 3 that of B.L., 230 that of M.B. and C.M., 44 that of M.D., 3 that of D.Sc., and 33 that of B.Sc. The General Council, which comprises about 5000 members, meets twice a year, on the first Tuesday after 14 April and on the last Friday in October, and on special occasions on the requisition of a quorum of members. The University unites with that of St Andrews in sending a representative to parliament.

In the portion of the new buildings set apart for the Anatomical Museum, there are now also shown the skulls, and casts of busts and heads, formerly in the Phrenological Museum in Chambers Street. Originated by a bequest made in 1832, under which Mr W. R. Henderson left the residue of his estate, amounting to over £6000, in trust for the advancement of phrenology, the collection, which is a very valuable one, and includes part of that of Spurzheim, was at first housed in a hall at Surgeon Square, but was in 1877 transferred to a building in Chambers Street erected specially for it. Ten years later, when this was acquired by the Heriot Trust for the extension of the Heriot-Watt College, the trustees decided to place the specimens in the keeping of the conservator of the University Anatomical Collection, on condition that the public should have, as formerly, free access on certain days of the week.

There is an Extra-Mural School of Medicine with some fifty lecturers, whose courses of instruction are recognised as qualifying for graduation in medicine. The lectures are delivered in buildings connected with Surgeons' Hall in Nicolson Square, in Chambers Street, in Park Place, and elsewhere.

There are also an Edinburgh Association for the University Education of Women ; an Edinburgh School of Medicine for Women at Surgeon Square, with 18 lecturers; and a Medical College for Women in Chambers Street, with 21 lecturers.

The Edinburgh Veterinary College, on the N side of Clyde Street, near the NE corner of St Andrew Square, is a modern three-storey edifice in plain Doric style. Established in 1818, it was brought into full working order in 1823 by the late Professor Dick, by whom it was also endowed at his death in 1866. It is under the trusteeship of the magistrates and town council of Edinburgh, and, the patronage of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, and is conducted by a principal, four professors, and seven lecturers. The winter session commences early in November, and continues till the end of April ; and the summer session commences in the second week of May, and continues till the end of July. The New Veterinary College in Leith Walk was established in 1873. It is conducted by a principal and seven lecturers.

The Heriot-Watt College. The Heriot-Watt College sprang from the old School of Arts, which was founded in 1821 by Mr Leonard Horner and others for the purpose of teaching working tradesmen, at convenient hours and at a cost within their reach, branches of science, the knowledge of which was beneficial in the exercise of their trades. It was the first institution in Great Britain formed for the express purpose of giving education in the principles of science to the industrial classes. After occupying for a time premises of a very humble character in Niddry Street, the school was afterwards moved to a building in Adam Square, which, at first rented, became in 1851 the joint property of the directors and of the subscribers to a fund for erecting a memorial of James Watt, and after this time it became known as the Watt Institution and School of Art. Watt's memory was further perpetuated by a statue placed in the Square. In 1871 the old building, which had become too small for its purpose, was pulled down to make way for the E end of Chambers Street, and premises were erected in the new street, opposite the Industrial Museum, after designs by David Rhind. In 1879 the directors presented to the governors of the various educational trusts in Edinburgh a memorial setting forth the claims of the institution to additional endowment, and in 1885 the Educational Endowments Commission sanctioned a scheme for the amalgamation of the Watt Institution with George Heriot's Trust, from whose resources funds for extension were to be supplied. Under the fostering care of the past and present managers the original classes of mathematics, chemistry, natural philosophy, and mechanical drawing have been increased till they number 43, in which instruction in different subjects is given by professors, lecturers, and instructors. There are over 3000 pupils in attendance. The Chambers Street building was largely extended and altered in 1886-88, after designs by Mr Chessar. After a somewhat florid Italian style, it has now a facade of 268 feet, with centre and two wings. In the centre is a spacious doorway, with groups of columns on the street and first-floor levels. Between the groups of pillars, at the height of the first floor, are busts of George Heriot and Mr Leonard Horner; while above is a handsome pediment, the upper part of which is filled in with carvings having in the centre a shield with Heriot's coat-of-arms. On the apex is a figure of a boy hammering on an anvil, symbolical of Industry. On the pediment of the W wing are carved Heriot's initials, and symbols of Peace and Plenty, while on that of the E wing are Watt's initials and a representation of the model of Newcomen's engine in the Glasgow University collection, the repairing of which led the great Scottish inventor to the investigations which resulted in the steam engine. The statue which was formerly in Adam Square now stands on a pedestal to the E of the doorway.


Free Church College.-The Free Church College was instituted in 1843, and was for several years provided with accommodation in private houses in George Street, but was in 1850, removed to buildings of its own at the head of the Mound. These, erected in 1846-50, after designs by W. H. Playfair, at a cost of nearly £47,000, are in the English Collegiate style of the Tudor period, and are conjoined on the E with the Free High Church. The main front is to the N, overlooking the Mound, and is divided into two storeys, crowned with a range of dormer windows. In the centre, giving admission to the quadrangle, is a groined archway, surmounted by two large oriel windows, and flanked by two square towers, rising to the height of 121 feet, buttressed at the corners from base to summit, and each terminating in four heavy crocketed pinnacles. At the NE corner is a similar tower, 96 feet high, belonging to the Free High Church. The quadrangle, which measures 85 feet by 56, has on the S two octagonal towers, surmounted by ogee roofs. The library contains over 40,000 volumes, and is particularly rich in works bearing on patristic theology, ecclesiastical history, systematic theology, and the Reformation period. There is also a good museum. The educational work is carried on by a principal, and professors of systematic theology, apologetics, church history, Hebrew and Old Testament exegesis, exegetical theology, evangelistic theology, and natural science, there being also a lecturer on elocution.

To the S of the college buildings, on the site of the palace of Mary of Guise, is the Hall - erected in 1858-59 at a cost of £7000, after designs by David Bryce - where the meetings of the Free Church General Assembly are held. It has accommodation for about 1700 persons. The Assembly met, prior to 1859, in the large plain low-roofed hall at Tanfield (at the S end of Inverleith Row), where it was first constituted in 1843. The offices of the Church are in the block of buildings at the head of the Mound, already mentioned as containing the Savings Bank.

The United Presbyterian Synod Hall.-The United Presbyterian Synod and Theological Halls were, prior to 1877, in a plain building, originally a private house, in Queen Street ; the hall, which has accommodation for about 1100 persons, having been erected over ground to the back in 1847, after the amalgamation of the United Secession and the Relief synods with the United Presbyterian Synod. It is still used for occasional public meetings. The new Synod and Theological Halls are in buildings originally erected, in 1875, at a cost of £65,000, for the West-End Theatre, and purchased, in 1877, on the failure of the company to which that belonged, by the United Presbyterian Church. Designed in what may be termed the Geometric style, the front is bold and imposing. The hall where the Synod meetings are held has accommodation for over 2000 persons. The educational work is carried on by a principal and professors of systematic theology, Hebrew and Old Testament exegesis, New Testament literature and exegesis, church history, and practical training. There is a good library of some 30,000 volumes.

The Protestant Institute of Scotland, organized in 1850, and maintaining classes, conducted by a lecturer, for training students of all Protestant denominations in the polemics of the Romish controversy, has a plain building in George IV. Bridge, erected in 1862, in commemoration of the tercentenary of the Reformation. The Episcopal Church in Scotland has a Theological College at Coates' Hall, conducted by a principal and four lecturers.

Normal Schools.-The Church of Scotland Normal School and Training College, in Johnstone Terrace, near the W end of the Lawnmarket, was erected in 1845, at a cost of £8500, and is now used exclusively for the training of female teachers, and for the practising school ; the training of male teachers having been, in 1879, transferred to a building erected for the purpose near the E end of Chambers Street. The educational work is carried on by a rector, eight teachers, and a lady superintendent ; while the practising school is conducted by a head-master and ten assistants. The Free Church Normal School is, as has been already noticed, in Moray House, in the Canongate. The educational work is carried on by a rector, nine teachers, and a lady superintendent, and the practising school is conducted by a head-master and eleven assistants. The Training College for Schoolmistresses in connection with the Episcopal Church in Scotland, at Dalry House, is carried on by a principal, two masters, and five mistresses.

The Royal High School.-This institution, which, under the old name of the Grammar School, dates from 1519, probably sprang from a school in Holyrood, which seems to have existed from a much earlier date. It occupied for some time a dwelling-house in Blackfriars Wynd, which had been a palace of Archbishop Beaton ; was removed in 1555 to a house at the E side of Kirk of Field, near the head of what came to be called High School Wynd ; and acquired in 1578 a new building for itself, within the Blackfriars' cemetery, on the ground at the foot of Infirmary Street, giving to the tract around it the name of High School Yards. Another edifice, erected on or near the same site in 1777, gradually, owing to the inconvenience of the situation, lost caste in the eyes of the citizens of the New Town, and was, in 1828, sold to the directors of the Infirmary, to be used as a surgical hospital. The present Royal High School, on the S face of Calton Hill, a little above the line of Regent Road, is built on a terrace cut out of the solid rock, and forms a prominent object in all the eastern views of the city. Erected in 1825-29, after designs by Thomas Hamilton, at a cost of £35,000, it has a curtain-wall measuring upwards of 400 feet in length, with a lodge at each end, in front of the main building, but at a considerably lower level. The main building consists of a centre, two lofty open corridors, and two wings. The two lodges have each a tetrastyle portico, and the one contains class-rooms, while the other (originally intended for the use of the janitor) was, in 1885, converted into a small swimming-bath, a new lodge for the janitor having been erected at the W end of the ground. Two doorways, Egyptian in design, boldly break the centre of the curtain-wall ; and a double flight of steps, flanked half-way up by Egyptian projections, ascends to a spacious platform at the level of the main building. All these features are merely ornamental, the real access being through the playground by a gateway on a higher level considerably to the west. A massive Doric portico, copied from the temple of Theseus at Athens, with a front range of six columns over 20 feet high, and a rear range of two columns, rises from the platform at the top of the double flight of steps, and covers all the centre of the main building. The open corridors, connecting the centre with the wings, commence at points slightly behind the portico ; and are each supported by six Doric columns. The wings present their shorter elevations to the front, and are adorned only with pilasters and entablature. The central part of the main building contains a large examination hall, a library hall, the rector's apartments, and some smaller rooms ; the wings contain class-rooms, and apartments for masters. To the S is agym nasium, erected in 1885. At first a purely classical seminary, the High School now furnishes systematic instruction in all the departments of a commercial as well as a liberal education ; the curriculum, extends over a period of six years, and the classes are conducted by a rector, 15 masters, and 2 lady teachers. The school was formerly under the care, and is still under the patronage of the magistrates and town council ; but, in terms of the Education Act of 1872, it is now managed by the city school-board.

The Edinburgh Academy, on the N side of Henderson Row, was founded as a classical school by a number of distinguished citizens, including Leonard Horner, Henry Cockburn, Henry Mackenzie, Sir Walter Scott, and Sir Harry Moncrief. . The building, erected in 1824, at a cost of £13,000, after designs by W. Burn, is a low but neat Doric structure, occupying the centre of a playground of about three acres. A new gymnasium and laboratory were added in 1890, and additional classrooms in 1892. Not far from the school, near the Inverleith Public Park, is a large cricket-ground of nine acres, for the exclusive use of present and past pupils. Under the royal charter of incorporation, the management is in the hands of a board of fifteen directors, of whom three are elected annually from the body of subscribers. The curriculum in the upper school extends over seven years, the boys in the senior division being divided into the Greek, German and Science, and Army sections, so that they may be, according to circumstances, prepared for the universities, for business life, or for the army or public services. Special attention is given to athletics. The instruction is carried on by a rector, 18 masters, and 5 lady teachers.

Fettes College, on a gentle eminence at Comely Bank, in the north-western outskirts of Stockbridge, was erected in 1865-70, at a cost of about £150,000, after designs by David Bryce, and is an extensive and stately edifice in the domestic Gothic style, prevalent in France and Scotland in the sixteenth century, showing in its grand proportions and infinite variety of detail, all the leading features of a great baronial castle. The arcaded front, the pointed mansards, the boldly-corbelled corner turrets, and the massive tower, render the building, as seen from a distance, most imposing and picturesque, while the elegance and diversity of detail make it equally beautiful on a close view. There are also a beautiful and richly adorned chapel, a large gymnasium, and an hospital. The school originated in a bequest by Sir William Fettes of Comely Bank (1750-1836), under which the residue of his estate was 'to form an endowment for the maintenance, education, and outfit of young people whose parents have either died without leaving sufficient funds for that purpose, or who, from innocent misfortune during their own lives, are unable to give suitable education to their children.' The sum originally available was £166,000, and this was allowed to accumulate for a number of years, till it reached such an amount as the trustees deemed sufficient to carry out the intentions of the testator in a satisfactory way. The number of boys on the foundation is limited to fifty ; and, beautiful as the building is, it seems somewhat of a mistake that such a palace should have been erected for the accommodation of so small a number. A large number of day-scholars and boarders are also admitted at an entrance-fee of ten guineas, an annual fee of £25, and an annual charge for board of £60. For the accommodation of boarders, four boarding-houses (each of which is managed by one of the masters) have at different times been erected within the grounds. The education given is of the highest class, and is carried on by a head-master and 17 masters. Connected with the institution, there are exhibitions at Edinburgh University of £60 a year each, founded in 1875; and at the English Universities of £100 a year each, founded in 1876.

Merchant Company's Schools.-Under the care of the Merchant Company are George Watson's College for Boys, George Watson's College for Ladies, The Edinburgh Ladies' College, Daniel Stewart's College (for boys), and James Gillespie's Schools (for boys and girls). George Watson's College had its origin in a bequest of £12,000 made in 1723 by George Watson, a native of Edinburgh, first a merchant in Holland, and afterwards accountant of the Bank of Scotland. The fund was to be applied for the maintenance and education of boys who were the children or grand-children of decayed merchants in Edinburgh. Originally constituted as George Watson's Hospital, the institution was conducted on the monastic system, the boys living, as well as receiving their education, in the building ; but, in 1870, sweeping changes were made, and the governors (Sir Thomas J. Boyd being Master of the Company at the time), taking advantage of the powers of the Endowed Institutions (Scotland) Act, obtained permission to convert all their hospitals into day schools, and in the case of the Watson bequest to include girls within its scope. The foundationers, limited to 60 (of whom, under an amending order of 1888, one-fourth are to be elected by competition among boys attending the school), are to be either (1) sons or grandsons of burgesses and Guild brethren, members of the Merchant Company; or sons or grandsons of ministers of the Old Church, Edinburgh; or (2) sons or grandsons of burgesses and Guild brethren admitted prior to 1881, not members of the Merchant Company. They must be between 9 and 14 years of age when admitted, and are boarded in families in Edinburgh. They may also receive certain benefits at the time of leaving school. Connected with the trust there are open fellowships at Edinburgh University. The original school, built in 1738-41, stood on the site now occupied by the Royal Infirmary, to the managers of which it was sold in 1871. The present buildings (on the N side of the Meadows, to the W of the Royal Infirmary), which had, up to the year mentioned, been occupied as the Merchant Maiden Hospital, were erected in 1816, at a cost of £12,500, after designs by Burn, and show a handsome front, with a tetrastyle Ionic portico, modelled after the temple of the Muses on the Ilyssus. Extensions were made to the N in 1872-73, and E and W projecting wings with open square towers, as well as a gymnasium, a workshop, and a laboratory, were added in 1892-93. The number of pupils is about 1200. The School for Young Ladies was established in 1870, in dwelling-houses altered for the purpose on the N side of George Square. The buildings were afterwards, in 1890-91 and in 1892, still further altered and enlarged. The number of pupils is about 900.


The Edinburgh Ladies' College was founded, as the Merchant Maiden Hospital, in 1695, by contributions from the Merchant Company, and by a large donation from Mrs Mary Erskine, the widow of an Edinburgh druggist. Incorporated in 1707, it originally occupied premises at the corner of Bristo and Lothian Street, but having outgrown its accommodation, acquired in 1816 the building just described. Altered under the provisional order already referred to, as having revolutionised all the Merchant Company's schools, it was, in 1871, removed to the premises at the W end of Queen Street, where it is now carried on. There are 41 foundationers, of whom 21 are selected by competitive examination from girls attending the school. They must all be between 9 and 16 years of age when admitted, and must ` be the children or grandchildren of such who are, or were, merchant burgesses of Edinburgh, or ministers of Edinburgh, Canongate, Leith, or West Church, or who have been governors of, or benefactors to, the hospital.' They are, under the supervision of the governors, boarded with families in Edinburgh. There are also bursaries in connection with the trust. The number of pupils is about 1200.

Daniel Stewart's College, on the Queensferry Road, owes its existence to a bequest of £13,000 in money and some house property, made by Mr Daniel Stewart, an officer of the Court of Exchequer, in 1814, to be allowed to accumulate, for building and endowing an hospital for the maintenance and education of boys, the children of honest and industrious parents, whose circumstances in life do not enable them suitably to support and educate their children at other schools. Erected in 1849-53, at a cost of £30,000, after designs by David Rhind, the buildings show a curious mixture of Elizabethan and Scottish baronial. They are ranged round three sides of a quadrangle, and have several towers, of which the two chief, with lanterns and ogee roofs, rise to a height of 120 feet. The education given is similar to that in George Watson's College, and the foundationers, 40 in number, are selected from the same class in the same proportion. The number of pupils is about 900.

James Gillespie's Schools, to the W of Bruntsfield Links, were founded in terms of a bequest by James Gillespie of Spylaw, a tobacconist and snuff-merchant in the High Street, who left the greater part of his property for the endowment of a charitable school, and the maintenance of old men and women. The building, which does not need particular description, and for which Burn is responsible, was erected in 1801-3, and occupies the site of the curious old pile known as the Wright's-houses, which belonged to a branch of the Napier family. The charitable school was, under the scheme of 1870, converted into an excellent primary school, while the old men and women beneficiaries - who are persons not under 55 years of age, (1) of the name of Gillespie from any part of Scotland; (2) anyone belonging to Edinburgh or its suburbs; (3) anyone belonging to Leith, Newhaven or any part of Midlothian; and (4) failing these, any person belonging to any part of Scotland - receive pensions of from £10 to £25 a year. Connected with the trust are twelve bursaries for enabling deserving pupils to attend the higher class schools of the Company, where they receive education free. There are about 1400 pupils.

George Heriot's Hospital, which occupies a commanding site on the high ground to the S of the Grassmarket - formerly known as the High Riggs - and is worthy of its fine position, sprang from a bequest of George Heriot, the royal goldsmith of the time of James VI. Founded in 1628, but not completed till 1650, it was first used by Cromwell as an hospital for his sick and wounded soldiers after the battle of Dunbar, and did not become available for its proper purpose till 1659. The building is, alike in general effect and in details, so beautiful, that it is matter of regret that the architect is unknown. The design was long attributed to Inigo Jones, but this must certainly be a mistake, for although the names of several of the ` master masons' connected with the work are duly recorded, in no single document is the name of Jones mentioned. Among the portraits preserved in the hospital is that of William Aytoun, a cadet of the house of Inchdairnie, in Fife, and the first master of works was William Wallace, so that it is probable that to one or other of these, possibly partly to both, the honour of being the `maker' is to be assigned; for on the death of the latter, the governors recorded their high appreciation of the `extraordinary panes and grait cair he had in that wark baith by his advyce and in the building of the same;' and in a later contract, dated in 1632, Aytoun was bound 'to devyse, plott and set down what he sail think meittest for the decorement of the said wark and pattern thereof alreddie begun, when any defect is found, and to make with his awin handis the haill mowlds, alsweil of tymber as of stane belanging generally to the said wark, and generally the said William Aytoun binds and obliges him to do all and quhatsumevir umquihle William Wallace, last Maister Maissone at the said wark, aither did or intended to be done at the same.' One curious entry in connection with the payments causes one to wonder whether such things could be in the year of grace 1639. It records the prices paid for `six shakellis for the hands of ye six wemin yt drew ye cairt wit ye chainyeis to same, 14 lokis for yair waists and yair handis' and 'ane qwhip for ye gentlwemen in ye cairt' !

Designed in the peculiar Renaissance style that obtained in Scotland in the early part of the seventeenth century, the structure is the best example in the country of the beauty that resulted from what would at first seem an incongruous mixture of styles. 'We know,' says Telford, `of no other instance in the work of a man of acknowledged talents where the operation of changing styles is so evident. In the chapel windows the general outlines are fine Gothic, the mouldings are Roman. In the entrance archways, although the principal members are Roman, the pinnacles, trusses, and minute sculptures partake of the Gothic.' The windows and dormers in particular show such an infinite variety of detail that no two of the two hundred and thirteen - with one exception - are alike. The buildings, which form a square, with a side of 162 feet, and are surrounded by a terrace and balustrade, are ranged round an interior quadrangle with a side of 94 feet. At the corners are massive square towers, four storeys high, with ornamental bartisans and circular corbelled corner turrets with curved roofs. The centre of the N side, which contains the entrance arch-way, flanked with Doric columns, is surmounted by a square dome-capped tower rising to the height of 100 feet, while in the centre of each of the other sides is a semi-octagonal projection rising above the side walls as a complete octagon, and terminating in a curved roof. All the other portions of the elevation have a height of three storeys, and the enclosed court, which is paved, has an arcade on its N and E sides, and is pierced on the S side by a Corinthian doorway leading to the Chapel, the interior of which was fitted up after designs by Gillespie Graham about 1840. Over the northern gateway are the armorial bearings of Heriot and some emblematic sculptures, and in a carved niche is placed a statue of the founder from the chisel of Robert Mylne, already mentioned in connection with Holyrood. This it used to be the custom every year to decorate with flowers on `founder's day,' the first Monday of June - a pleasing and appropriate sign of gratitude, which was practically ended by the stupidity of the Endowed School (Scotland) Commission when the Hospital was put on its present footing. The old and ordinary access to the grounds was from the Grassmarket, but there is now also an entrance archway and lodge on the S side in Lauriston. The annual income was at first so limited as to maintain and educate only 18 boys, but this number was increased till in 1885 there were about 220, of whom 120 were resident in thebuilding. In the year just mentioned the whole arrangements were altered under a scheme prepared by the Endowed Schools Commission. The Hospital was discontinued, and in its place there was established George Heriot's Hospital School, open to fee-paying as well as free pupils, in which mathematics, science, modern languages, drawing, and technical instruction take the place held by classics in secondary schools of the ordinary type; while certain proportions of the funds were ordered to be applied for the endowment of the Heriot-Watt College, for the foundation of bursaries and fellowships in connection with the University, and for establishing bursaries for the higher education of girls, and in making a grant to any institution which maybe founded or opened in Edinburgh for the higher education of women. The number of foundations of £20 a year each `for poor orphans or fatherless children of burgesses in Edinburgh' was fixed at 120; while 60 free scholarships are annually awarded to `the most meritorious pupils not being foundationers,' and there are 40 school bursaries of the annual value of £10, with free education, a certain proportion of which are open for competition among the pupils every year. These changes involved considerable alterations in the internal arrangements of the buildings and the addition of a technical department. These were carried out in 1886-88, accommodation for the latter being provided in a building on the site of the former Heriot Bridge School on the N side of the grounds, where there are now large laboratories and workshops as well as a gymnasium. Under an Act of Parliament obtained in 1836 twelve free elementary schools were established in different parts of the town for the education of children of poor but industrious persons, but owing to the change that has come over the conditions of education in recent years, these, having become unnecessary, have been discontinued. The governors were formerly the magistrates, town councillors, and parish ministers of Edinburgh, but under the new scheme the number of trustees is fixed at 21, of whom eleven are elected by the magistrates and town council, three by the school board, two by the city ministers, one by the magistrates and council from ministers other than those of the Established Church, two by the senatus of the University, one by the Royal Society, and one by the Chamber of Commerce. The amount of the original bequest `for the mainetenance, reliefe, bringing upp and education of poore fatherlesse boyes, freemen's sonnes of the towne of Edinburgh' was about £24,000; but so well has this been invested, and so prudently has it been managed, that the present capital value of the trust property is over £700,000, and the income - exclusive of fees and grants from the school and the Heriot-Watt College - about £30,000, while the total ordinary income is over £34,000.

Donaldson's Hospital, to the NW of Haymarket, on the N side of the Corstorphine Road, from which the grounds extend northward to the Water of Leith, was built and endowed from a bequest of about £210,000 by James Donaldson of Broughton Hall, proprietor and printer of the Edinburgh Advertiser, who died in 1830. Erected in 1842-51 at a cost of about £100,000, after designs by W. H. Playfair, the buildings, which are an excellent and rich example of the Tudor style as adapted to modern requirements, are arranged round an open quadrangle, measuring 258 by 207 feet on the outside, and 176 by 164 in the interior. In the centre of the main front, flanking the principal entrance, are four octagonal towers of five storeys, with domed roofs and lanterns rising to a, height of 120 feet; while at each corner are four square towers of four storeys with ogee roofs, rising to a height of about 100 feet. The other parts of the elevations are two storeys high, with mullioned windows with buttresses between. There is a beautiful little chapel projecting from the N side. The hospital was erected and endowed for maintaining and educating, `(1) Poor children of the name of Donaldson or Marshall, if appearing to the governors to be deserving; (2) such poor children as shall appear to be in the most destitute circumstances and the most deserving of admission.' It has accommodation for 150 boys and 150 girls, and about half the inmates are deaf and dumb. The age for admission is from 6 to 9, and for leaving 14, and no child is admitted whose parents are able to maintain it. The instruction given is such a plain English education as will fit the boys for trades and the girls for domestic service.

The Orphan Hospital at Dean was projected by Andrew Gairdner, merchant in Edinburgh, in 1727, and began its career of usefulness in 1733 in a house rented for the purpose. Two years later it was removed to a building erected for it and situated at the E end of the Nor' Loch Valley. Here it remained till 1833, when, in consequence of the unhealthiness of the site, a fresh change was made to the present building. This, erected in 1831-33 at a cost of £16,000, after designs by Thomas Hamilton, is a plain two-storey structure with a central portico, with seven Tuscan columns, and over the wings two square open arched towers. Over the portico is a small clock turret, which contains the clock from the tower of the old Netherbow Port. The institution, which has accommodation for 200 children, has, from lack of funds, only about 100 inmates, who are either orphans or fatherless children maintained by the charity, or similar boarders from any part of Scotland, who are admitted at a charge of £16 a year for boys and £14 for girls. The age for admission is between 7 and 10, and they now receive their education at one of the neighbouring board schools. The institution is partly maintained from the interest on donations that have been allowed to accumulate, but mainly from voluntary contributions and legacies.

John Watson's Hospital, near the Orphan Hospital, was founded and endowed by John Watson, W. S., who in 1759 bequeathed his estate to trustees for `such pious and charitable uses within the city of Edinburgh as they shall think proper.' The original bequest was about £5000, but this was carefully nursed by the trustees, who are the Keepers and Commissioners of the Signet, and in 1822 an Act of Parliament was obtained authorising the erection and endowment of a hospital for destitute children. The building is a large plain edifice with a Doric portico, erected in 1825-28, after designs by W. Burn. The inmates, who number about 100, and are admitted between 7 and 9 and leave at 14, are fatherless children of the better classes, such as clergymen, officers in the army and navy, legal and medical practitioners, and the like.

The Trades' Maiden Hospital, founded in 1704, and incorporated in 1707, owes its existence to a fund formed from donations given by the Freemen of the Incorporated Trades, and by Mrs Mary Erskine, whose name has been already mentioned in connection with the Merchant Maiden Hospital. Long housed in a plain building in Argyle Square, dating from 1740, it was, in 1859, when the site was acquired for the Industrial Museum, removed to a building at Rillbank, on the S side of the Meadows. This having been in 1892, as already noticed, purchased by the directors of the Sick Children's Hospital, the Institution was again moved to the mansion-house of Ashfield, on the S side of the city, at the corner of Blackford Avenue and Grange Loan. The inmates, who number about 50, must receive presentation to the benefits of the foundation from some of the trade incorporations, and must be daughters, granddaughters, or great-granddaughters of freemen craftsmen, whom failing, any girl, qualified by age or otherwise, who may be presented by the incorporation or society. They are admitted between 7 and 11 years of age, and may remain till they are seventeen. They now receive their education at George Watson's College for Ladies.

There is a College for Daughters of Ministers of the Church of Scotland and Professors in the Scottish Universities, in Kilgraston Road, in the Grange district ; but neither this, nor any of the other private higher class schools of Edinburgh, requires detailed notice.


Board Schools.-The City School Board consists of 15 members, and was constituted in 1872 by the Education Act passed in that year. When the first board came into office, it was found that there were then within the limits 169 primary schools, with accommodation for 45,492 scholars ; but that 7 of these, for 1218 scholars, were to be discontinued, so that to provide for all children of school age it would be necessary to provide 4160 additional places. To meet this deficiency, it was resolved to erect 7 new schools for 4200 children ; and by 1874 buildings had been acquired, or temporary provision made, for the wants of the district, in 17 day and 13 evening schools. A deficiency in places still existed, and in 1893, many of the lesser and temporary premises having been abandoned, the board had under its management 24 schools, with accommodation for 24,423 pupils - 10 square feet being allowed for juveniles, and 8 for infants - the average number on the rolls for 1892 having been 24,657, and the average attendance 20,397. The schools vary in architectural features, but some of them are very handsome buildings ; and in this connection Sciennes School, on the S side of the Meadows, and the one last erected, may be particularly noted. Designed in Queen Anne style, by Mr Robert Wilson, and erected at a cost of about £28,000 (inclusive of the price of the site), it has all the ordinary school fittings, and is besides provided with a cookery department, a large swimming-bath, and a gymnasium. There were in 1892 one elementary, 6 continuation, and 5 advanced evening schools, attended by 1222 pupils. The staff in 1892 numbered 606, of whom 231 were assistants and 239 pupil-teachers. The salaries of the head-masters vary from £320 to £420, of first assistants - from £130 to £200, and of ordinary assistants from £65 to £120. The following table gives details, taken from the Report of the Committee of Council on Education in Scotland for 1894-95, for the various schools:-





Average Attendance.






£803 15 6





798 14 6





855 5 2


Castle Hill,



907 2 6





673 15 6





1607 9 4


Davie Street



495 12 6





562 2 8


Leith Walk,



1630 14 7


London Street



1594 10 10


Lothian Road,



995 4 6


Milton House,



1042 16 2


New Street,



459 3 0


North Canongate



961 12 0


North Merchiston



1021 7 4


Regent Road



914 3 0


St Bernard's



1162 11 0


St Leonard's



1162 3 0





1458 4 6


South Bridge



1263 14 0





873 12 6


Torphichen Street



991 1 0


Warrender Park



1056 8 0


West Fountainbridge



915 4 2


The income of the Board amounts to nearly £90,000, of which about £50,000 is derived from the rates, including the proportions (a little over £3000) received from the parishes of North and South Leith, Duddingston, and Liberton. Nearly £36,000 is derived from grants, including those of the Science and Art Department, and the grant in relief of fees ; while fees them-selves produce now only a little over £1000. Of the outlay over £45,000 is spent on teachers' salaries, and £20,000 in payment of interest and instalments of loans. The total amount of loans received up to May, 1892, was over £326,000, of which over £72,000 had been at the same date repaid ; while over £90,000 had been paid on account of interest. The Board Offices are in a handsome block of buildings at the corner of Castle Terrace and Cornwall Street, erected in 1888, after designs by Mr Wilson, at a cost of £10,000. Plain Italian in style, they have a corner-tower with a dome.

Among the miscellaneous schools may be noted a School of Cookery, and a ragged school.

Parishes and Parochial Affairs. -Edinburgh has within itself the quoad civilia parishes of City (603 acres) and Canongate (678 acres), and covers also portions of St Cuthbert's, North Leith, South Leith, Duddingston, and Liberton. St Cuthbert's, which contains more than half the population of the city, extends beyond the municipal boundaries as far as Slateford, Corstorphine Hill, Trinity, and North Leith. Its greatest length is 5 miles, and the greatest breadth 3.75 miles, while the area is 6675 acres, of which 14 are foreshore and 13.5 water. The portion of the parish beyond the parliamentary boundary is joined to the district of Dean for school purposes, under the St Cuthbert's and Dean School Board. For poor-law purposes St Cuthbert's and Canongate are combined as St Cuthbert's Combination. The poor-house belonging to it was formerly a group of buildings to the W of St Cuthbert's Church, but when these were sold to the Caledonian Railway Company, and removed in 1866, they were replaced by the present handsome poor-house, which stands in an open and airy situation amid extensive grounds, to the W of Fettes College. Additions were made to it in 1880. The average number of inmates is a little over 400, and of poor belonging to the parish over 3000. The income and expenditure of the combination are about £36,000. The offices of the Board are in a handsome building at the corner of Castle Terrace and Cambridge Street, erected in 1888, after designs by M'Gibbon and Ross, at a cost of £12,000. Late Scottish baronial in style, it has an angular corner tower. The old poor-house for the City parish stood on the W side of Forrest Road, but was sold in 1871, and the in-mates removed to a new building at Craiglockhart, on the SW of the city, erected in 1867-70. Scottish baronial in style, it has a corbelled octagonal tower in the centre, 105 feet high, and comprises besides the poor-house proper an infirmary and a lunatic asylum. The average number of inmates is about 450, and of the poor belonging to the parish about 1700. The income and expenditure are over£26,000. The offices are in a plain building between Bristo and Forrest Road, occupying part of the site of the old Darien House.

Registration. -For registration purposes Edinburgh is divided into five districts. These, with their populations in 1891, are:-St George's, 69,154 ; St Andrew's, 56,360 ; Canongate, 38,252; St Giles', 31,779; Newington, 65,680. The registrars are appointed by the town-council.

Ecclesiastical Affairs.-Established Churches.-For ecclesiastical purposes the City parish is now broken up into Abbey (part), Greenside, St Giles', Lady Yester's, New Greyfriars, New North, or West St Giles, Old Church, Old Greyfriars, St Andrew's, St George's, St John's, St Leonard's (part), St Luke's, St Mary's, St Stephen's, Toihooth, Trinity College (part), and Tron parishes. Canongate has been broken into Canongate and Trinity College (part) parishes. St Cuthbert's has been divided into Buccleuch, Dean (part), Granton (part), Lady Glenorchy's, Mayfield (part), Morningside, Newington, Robertson Memorial, St Aidan's, St Bernard's, St Cuthbert's, St David's, St Leonard's (part), St Margaret's, St Michael's, and West Coates parishes. There are also a Gaelic charge, a deaf and dumb congregation, and four mission stations. The number of communicants is over 36,000.

The stipends of all the city ministers were, prior to 1860, derived mainly from a tax, known as the annuity-tax, on houses and shops within the royalty ; and rose from £200 each in 1802, to £625 in 1850. By the Annuity-tax Abolition Act of 1860, they were fixed at £600 for the existing incumbents, the funds being raised by means of seat-rents and a general tax, and power being retained for future reduction of the incomes to £550. Under an amending Act of 1870, the annuity payable by the city was finally redeemed for £56,500. The patronage of all the charges was held by the town council till the Abolition Act of 1860, and from that date till the abolition of patronage in 1875, by the ecclesiastical commissioners appointed under the Act by various public bodies. This commission still administers all the temporal affairs of the city charges.

St Giles' Church.-There seems to have been a church on the site of the modern St Giles' before the year 854, but by whom or under what circumstances it was built, or why dedicated to St Giles, is not known. A new church in lieu of the original one was erected in the early part of the twelfth century by Alexander I. It stood on the north-western part of the ground occupied by the present building, and had a choir and nave, with small side aisles and a central tower, but it was almost entirely demolished in 1385, when Richard II. burnt the city. One of the doorways on the N side, where is now the third window from the west, long survived, but was unfortunately destroyed when the fabric was being repaired in 1797 or 1798. Nothing else seems to have been left except, probably, the three octagonal pillars on each side of the W end of the choir with their arches, and the wall about the entrance to the Royal Pew. Rebuilding on a larger scale, however, proceeded apace, large grants being made from the municipal funds for this purpose as early as 1387, when a contract was entered into for the construction of five vaulted chapels on the S side of the nave. These remained intact till 1829, when the two to the W were demolished; the others form the present south aisle. Between 1387 and 1416 these chapels had been finished, and the Albany Aisle on the north-west of the nave added. This received its name from the Duke of Albany, who, always careful to keep on good terms with the church, made a number of gifts for the building of `the fabric of the parochial church of the burgh of Edinburgh.' The chapel of St Eloi,to theW of the N transept, was probably also added about the same time. About 1460 still further extensions took place. One of these was the enlargement of the choir to the E, and the other its extension on the S side, in what is known as the Preston Aisle. The first seems to have been carried out in accordance with the royal desire, and probably partly at the royal expense, for the capital of one of the pillars, called the King's Pillar, bears shields on which are the arms of King James II., of his wife Mary of Gueldres, and of his son Prince James. The second receives its name from William Preston of Gortoun, who `had with diligent labour and great expense, and aided by a high and mighty prince, the King of France, and many other Lords of France, succeeded in obtaining possession of the arm-bone of St Giles, and this inestimable relique had been freely bequeathed by him "to oure mother kirk of SantGell of Edynburgh withouten any condition." The provost, bailies, and community of Edinburgh, deeply impressed with the importance of such an acquisition, voluntarily undertook to commence within one year [after January 1455], and to complete in the space of six or seven years, an aisle "furth fra our Lady Isle, where the said William lyis," to erect there his monument with a brass tablet, with his arms and an inscription specifying his having brought that relique to Scotland; his arms also to be put in hewn stone in three other parts of the aisle; also an altar, and to endow a chaplain to sing for him from that time forth, and granting to his nearest relations the privilege of carrying the relique in all public processions.' And so the aisle remains to this day, but the precious arm-bone, which was kept in a richly jewelled case, can no longer be carried in public processions, for it has disappeared from mortal ken since 1560.

In 1466 St Giles' was, by a charter granted by James III, converted into a collegiate foundation, with a provost, a dean, sixteen prebendaries, a master of the choir, four choristers, a sacristan, and a beadle, together with a number of chaplains to attend to the thirty-six altars of the church; and just before the death of James IV it received the last pre-Reformation addition to the building. This was a chapel off the SW corner of the Preston Aisle, founded by Walter Chepman for the prosperity of the King and Queen and the benefit of his own soul; and in the vault beneath the 'Scottis Caxton' was buried. Then came all the troubles of the Reformation, when the walls rang with the fervid eloquence of Knox, or echoed the sad tribute he paid to `the good Lord James' when he was borne to his last rest in the Moray Aisle, and the preacher `moved three thousand persons to shed tears for the loss of such a good and godlie governor;' or again, when he preached his last sermon at the installation of his successor `on the dutie of a minister and the dutie of the flock,' and then, tottering feebly out, passed along the High Street home to die.

After the Reformation the building was, from 1633 to 1638, the cathedral of the short-lived episcopal diocese of Edinburgh, which came to such an abrupt end after Jenny Geddes had thrown her stool at the head of poor Dean Hannay as he read the service book, and the Bishop himself narrowly escaped being stoned to death by `a number of the meaner sort of people, most of them waiting maids and women who use for to keep places for the better sort.' Partitioned off ultimately into four churches --the High Church in the choir, the Tolbooth Church in the SW, the Old Church in the middle and part of the S side, and the Little Kirk in the NW - in which condition it remained till our own day, St Giles' suffered for a time even greater degradation, for part of it was used for a time as a prison, and as a police-office. Surrounded till 1817 by the shops called the Krames, which were placed against its walls, and hemmed in by the Luckenbooths on the N, the Old Tolbooth on the W, and shops and tall tenements on all the other sides, it was practically lost to view; and it might have been better had it remained so, for, after all these obstructions had been removed, the exterior of the building was discovered to have a ragged appearance (as well it might), and plans for its renovation by Mr Burn were approved of, and the alterations carried out, with the aid of a government grant of about £20,000, in 1829-32. The result can be seen and lamented any day, and no more barbarous and tasteless piece of work than the outside change has ever been accomplished in the nineteenth century. The inside and the tower fortunately almost entirely escaped, for, though alterations were made, they were of such a nature that it was possible to undo them. The complete restoration of the interior was first proposed by William Chambers, the publisher, when he was Lord Provost in 1867, but not till 1871 was a Restoration Committee appointed, with Mr Chambers as chairman. St Giles' at this time contained the High Church in the E end, the New North or West St Giles' Church in the W, and Trinity College Church in the south. By the middle of 1872 the subscriptions obtained had reached a sum sufficient to warrant a commencement being made, and, under the direction of Mr W. Hay, the choir was, at a cost of £4500, brought into nearly its original state; and in its renovated form was opened for public worship in 1873. By the removal of the Trinity College Church to a new building, in 1878, the southern and centre parts of the church, including the Preston Aisle and the transepts, became available, and in 1879-80 these portions were treated as the choir had been, the galleries and partitions removed, and the walls cleared of plaster and cleaned; the whole cost, which amounted to some£3000, being borne by Mr Chambers. Finally a sum of money sufficient to erect a new church for the West St Giles' congregation having been raised by public subscription, Mr Chambers undertook, at his own expense, the restoration of the nave, the operations in connection with which were finished in 1883, when, thanks to this act of munificence on the part of a private citizen, St Giles' became once more, as far as was possible, worthy of its historical associations, and `so long as these stones remain one upon another will men remember the deed which William Chambers did, and tell of it to their children.' The total length inside the walls is 194 feet from E to W, and 124 across the transepts; while the width of nave, choir, and transepts is about 23 feet. The height of the arches varies from 35 feet beneath the tower to 26 feet in the choir, and the height from the floor to the roof of the choir is 51 feet. The western entrance, which dates from 1883, is entirely new, and has a double doorway, over which is a seated figure of St Giles with his hind. In the double row of canopied niches are placed statuettes of the leading royal and ecclesiastical personages associated with the history of the building. The steeple, rebuilt in 1648, on the model of a previous one of fifteenth century work, which had become dilapidated and required to be taken down, consists of a tower 30 feet square, terminating in a balustrade and surmounted by an open octagonal lantern in the shape of an imperial crown. It is about 150 feet high, and standing as it does on elevated ground is seen from a great distance, and forms a characteristic feature in all views of Edinburgh. `From whatever point of view the city is looked at, the picturesque crown of the steeple is seen sharply outlined against the sky. Soaring aloft unlike every other spire in its neighbourhood, it seems like the spirit of old Scottish history, keeping watch over the city that has grown up through the long years beneath its shadow. Edinburgh would not be Edinburgh without it.'

The building, as now existing, consists of nave and choir, with side aisles and transepts. Beyond the north side-aisle of the nave are the Albany Aisle at the W end, the session-house (erected in 1883), and St Eloi's or the Hammermen's Chapel, and to the E of the transept the Chambers Memorial Chapel. To the S of the south side-aisle of the nave are the three remaining chapels of the five erected in 1387, and now called the South Aisle, the vestry, erected in 1883, and the Moray Aisle, while to the S of the south side aisle of the choir is the Preston Aisle and the Chepman Aisle. The Chambers Memorial Chapel, dedicated to the memory of the modern benefactor, and containing memorial windows and a brass tablet setting forth the history of the renovation, was formed in 1891, by opening up and connecting with the main building, by a wide arch, a little side room, in the corner between the north transept and the choir, dating probably from the Reformation. In the Moray Aisle the Good Regent was buried in 1570, and in it is now placed the monument erected to him in 1864, by the twelfth earl of the line, which bears the brass plate from the old monument erected in the year of his death, with Buchanan's beautiful inscription-Jacobo Stovarto Moraviae Comiti Seotiae Proregi viro aetatis suae longe optimo ab inimicis omnis memnoriae deterrimis ex insidiis ext ncto cex patri communi patria moerens posuit. The window above was erected by the fourteenth earl, and represents the assassination at Linlithgow, and the scene in St Giles' during Knox's sermon at the funeral. From this recess a doorway and staircase lead down to a small vault beneath the Chepman Aisle, where the remains of the Marquess of Montrose were buried with such ceremony in 1661, and in the aisle itself overhead is the memorial erected by the Grahams to their great kinsman in 1888 - the finest mural monument that has been executed in Scotland for the last two hundred years. Designed by Dr Rowand Anderson in the Renaissance style of the middle of the seventeenth century (the time of the Marquess' death), and carved in coloured marble and alabaster, with elaborate gilding, by Messrs John and Birnie Rhind, it has at the base a semicircular arch, deeply recessed, and with a sarcophagus and black marble bier, on which is a recumbent figure of Montrose. The window beside is filled with stained glass, showing the armorial bearings of the distinguished relatives, companions-in-arms, and associates of the Marquess. In the Aisle is also a brass plate, inscribed by Dr William Chambers to Chepman's memory. Beside the Moray Aisle is a tablet in honour of Jenny Geddes, and on one of the pillars another commemorating Dean Hannay. There are a number of stained glass memorial windows, those in the choir showing incidents in the life of Christ. The great west window has figures of the prophets, and in the clerestory are representations of the arms of the various crafts of Edinburgh. Ranged along the pillars are old stands of colours that have been carried by various Scottish regiments - many of them placed here with considerable ceremonial in 1883 - and in different parts of the church are interesting military memorials. In the S transept, formerly known as St Anthony's Aisle, is a very fine organ, erected in 1884-91. It consists of four full manuals, of compass CC to A (fifty-eight notes), and a pedal organ, CCC to F. The great organ has 16 stops, 6 composition pedals, and 1218 pipes; the swell organ 16 stops, 4 composition pedals, and 1160 pipes; the choir organ 11 stops, 3 composition pedals, and 628 pipes; the solo organ 6 stops and 348 pipes; and the pedal organ 11 stops, 4 composition pedals, and 390 pipes. There are besides 11 couplers, which bring up the whole number of knobs at the organist's disposal to 71. In the Preston Aisle is the Royal Pew, erected in 1885, and elaborately carved in oak, after the style of the old stalls in Dunblane Cathedral; and at the E end of the choir are stalls for the Deans of the Chapel Royal and the chaplains of the Queen. There is a special royal entrance at the E end of the aisle, formed in 1885. The only old bell in the steeple is the vesper or ave bell, which bears the inscription, 0 mater Dei, memento mei: Anno 1504. That on which the clock strikes the hours was recast in 1844. There are also two bells on which the quarters are struck, dated 1700 and 1728, and eight chime bells erected in 1858. On a frame beneath the open arches of the crown there remained till 1890 a set of 23 small musical bells, dating from 1698 (when they were cast by Meikle on the Castlehill); but, as they had suffered a good deal from the attacks of age and time, they were in the year just mentioned replaced by a set of 13 tubular bells in the key of A flat, the largest having a length of 9 feet 3 inches and a diameter of 4.25 inches, and the smallest a length of 5 feet and a diameter of 3 inches. The clock belonged originally to Lindores Abbey, after the dissolution of which, in 1585, it was bought for £55 by the town council, and was the same year repaired and set up 'in the hie steeple'-curiously enough by a smith from Blantyre.

The Victoria Hall, the meeting-place of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and the parochial church of the Tolbooth parish, at the corner of Castle Hill and Johnstone Terrace, was erected in 1842-44, at a cost of about £16, 000, after designs by Gillespie Graham, in the Decorated Gothic style. At each corner is a richly adorned pinnacle, and at the E end is a massive tower containing the chief entrance. The buttresses at the corners of the tower terminate in pinnacles, and from its top springs a handsome octagonal spire, which rises to a height of 241 feet, and forms a very prominent object in many of the views of Edinburgh. Prior to the opening of the Victoria Hall - which receives this name from the Queen, who laid the foundation stone on the occasion of her first visit to Scotland - the Assembly met in St Andrew's parish church. St Cuthbert's, or the West Church, seems to occupy the site of a very early church or cell, dedicated to the great northern saint, the ` kirk­town' of which is mentioned in the time of David I., when it became the property of the monks of Holyrood. The oldest church of which any account remains was a large cruciform edifice with a massive square tower, which suffered very severely during the siege of the Castle in 1689. Taken down at last in 1775, it was replaced by a very ugly building, in the interior of which gallery was piled above gallery, so that accommodation was provided for about 3000 people. The steeple was added in 1787-90, built by public subscription, to render less unsightly the church which the economical heritors had built in so plain a fashion. This gave place again in 1892-93 to the present church, a very plain building, with square-headed windows with architraves below, and circular-headed windows with pilasters above. There are transepts with plain pediments, and a semicircular projection at the E end, on each side of which is a square tower. The old steeple has been preserved. The church is surrounded by a large burying ground, in which is the grave of De Quincey. The congregational halls to the S were erected in 1893.

Trinity College Church, which stood on the W side of Leith Wynd, was founded in 1462 by Mary of Gueldres, consort of James II., as a collegiate church, but was removed in 1848 in connection with the clearances for the Waverley Station. It consisted of choir, transepts, and central tower, and was a rich and beautiful example of Middle Pointed. The E end was pierced by three lofty and richly-traceried windows, and on the S side was a very fine doorway beneath a beautiful porch with groined roof. In an aisle on the N side was the tomb of the foundress, whose remains were, on the demolition of the building, removed and re-interred in the royal vault at Holyrood. The stones of the old church were all carefully numbered and preserved with a view to reconstruction on another site, but after a long lawsuit the project was abandoned, and in 1872 a new church, bearing the same name and in the same style as the old, was begun in Jeffrey Street, many of the details being exact reproductions of the corresponding features of the original building. To the S of the church is the congregational hall, which is a reconstruction of the apse and eastern portion of the fifteenth century structure, from the old stones. The Tron Church, at the corner of High Street and South Bridge, was founded in 1637, opened in 1647, and completed in 1663. Consecrated to Christ and the Church, it received its name from being situated opposite a public weighing-beam or tron, called the Salt Tron. The present spire was built in 1828 to replace the curious lead-covered wooden one destroyed by the great fire of 1824. The Greyfriars' Churches, Old and New, off Candlemaker Row, near the W end of Chambers Street, take their name from a monastery of the Greyfriars, founded here by James I. An edifice of considerable size and importance, it was, in 1449, the temporary home of Mary of Gueldres, and, a few years afterwards, the asylum of Henry VI. of England; and it was finally demolished about 1559, when the gardens were granted by Queen Mary to the magistrates for use as a public burying ground, `being somewhat distant from the town.' The Old Church was built in 1612, and had originally a steeple at the W end, but this was destroyed in 1718 by the accidental explosion of some gunpowder which had been stored in it by the city authorities. The whole building was destroyed by fire in 1845, and underwent restoration so slowly that it was not again ready for use till 1857. It was the first Presbyterian church that had stained glass windows or contained an organ. It has had many famous ministers, among whom may be mentioned Principals Rollock, Carstares, and Robertson, and Doctors John Erskine, John Inglis, Guthrie, and Robert Lee, of the last of whom a medallion, by Hutchison, was placed inside the church in 1870. The Solemn League and Covenant of 1638 was partly signed within the walls and partly on a tombstone in the churchyard. Old Greyfriars figures in Scott's Guy Mannering, and is also interesting in connection with his firstlove affair, he having here made the acquaintance of Miss Margaret Stuart Belsches, the early object of his affections, by offering her the use of his umbrella as the congregation was dispersing. New Greyfriars' Church was built in 1721, adjoining the W end of the Old Church, and is a very plain, not to say ugly, structure. It was injured in the fire of 1845, but not to any great extent. Round these churches is the large graveyard in which are the resting-places of many famous men. At a spot near the NE corner lie the remains of many of the martyrs of the Covenant who were executed in the Grassmarket, and among other tombs may be noted those of George Buchanan (with a stone erected by David Laing on the traditional site of the grave), George Heriot (father of the goldsmith), Alexander Henderson, Sir George Mackenzie, Sir James Stewart, Principal Carstares, Sir John de Medina, Jameson, the painter; Robert Mylne, Principal Robertson, Dr Pitcairn, Allan Ramsay, Colin Maclaurin, Dr Joseph Black, Dr Hugh Blair, Dr M `Crie, Lord President Forbes, Lord President Blair, Boswell of Auchinleck, the two Professors Munro, Kay, the caricaturist; Henry Mackenzie, Sir Walter Scott's father, Dr Carson, Patrick Fraser Tytler, and Duncan Ban Macintyre. The position of the grave of the Regent Morton, who was buried here, is not exactly known. Ruddiman has a monument in the New Church. In the southern portion of the ground the Covenanters captured at Bothwell Bridge were confined, exposed to the weather for five months. Canongate Church was built in 1688, to make provision for the parishioners who were turned out of Holyrood Chapel when James VII. appropriated it for service after the Roman Catholic rites. It is a very plain structure, and has the front gable adorned with a deer's head with a cross, representing the crest of the ancient burgh. In the churchyard are the graves of Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Dr Gregory, Provost Drummond, and the poet Fergusson - the last with the stone erected by Burns. A space on the N side of the ground has been used since 1692 as a garrison burying ground, and is marked by a granite pillar erected in 1880. St George's Church, in the centre of the W side of Charlotte Square, was erected in 1811-14, at a cost of £33,000, after designs by Robert Reid. Massive Graeco-Italian in style, it has a lofty Ionic portico with four columns and two pilasters, and is surmounted by a handsome dome, which rises to a height of 150 feet, and forms an important feature in all views of the city from the north and west. St Andrew's Church, on the N side of George Street, opposite the Commercial Bank, is a very plain structure, built in 1785, but has a graceful tetrastyle Corinthian portico and steeple, 168 feet high, erected in 1787. The tower contains a fine chime of eight bells, which were placed in position in 1789. The church, the interior of which was altered and improved in 1862, was in 1843 the meeting place of the General Assembly at which the Disruption took place. St Stephen's Church, in St Vincent Street, facing the Howe Street line, was erected in 1826-28, at a cost of £21,000, after designs by W. H. Playfair, and has a massive square tower 163 feet high. Lady Yester's Church, a very plain building on the N side of Infirmary Street, erected in 1803, took the place of an older church a little to the east. The latter was built and partly endowed from a gift of 15,000 merks made in 1647 by Dame Margaret Kerr, Lady Yester, for the purpose. Lady Glenorchy's Church, in Roxburgh Place, was built in 1809 as a chapel of ease to St Cuthbert's. The original building was on the ground now occupied by the Waverley Station, and owed its existence to the beneficence of the widow of Viscount Glenorchy, who erected it in 1774. St Mary's Church, in Bellevue Crescent, dating from 1824, has a good spire 186 feet high; and in the burying ground attached to Buccleuch Church, in Buccleuch Street, are the graves of Dr Adam, the once famous rector of the High School, and Dr Blacklock. Of more recent churches many are excellent specimens of modern ecclesiastical architecture, but none of them calls for special notice.

The Established Church Presbytery of Edinburgh includes all the parishes mentioned above, as well as those of Colinton, Corstorphine, Cramond, Currie, Duddingston, Gilmerton, Granton, Kirknewton, five charges in Leith, Liberton, Mid-Calder, West Calder, Portobello, and Ratho; and the mission stations at Craiglockhart, Juniper Green, Gogar, Portobello, Leith, Oakbank, and Addiewell. There are about 54,000 members within the bounds.

Free Churches.-St George's Church, in Shandwick Place, superseded a previous building in Lothian Road, removed to make way for the Caledonian Railway Station, and was erected in 1866-69 at a cost, including site, of £31,000, after designs by David Bryce. Palladian in style, it is by no means beautiful. The campanile, with its curious candle-extinguisher top, which reaches a height of 185 feet, was added in 1882, and contains a clock with a set of bells which ring the Westminster chimes, and which were placed in position in 1891. Barclay Church, on the western verge of Bruntsfield Links, was erected in 1862-63, after designs by F. T. Pilkington, at a cost of £10,000, the funds being gifted by a lady named Barclay. It is a curiously intricate example of the Venetian Gothic style, with an elegant tower and spire rising to the height of 250 feet. The congregational hall was added in 1891-92. The M `Crie Church in Davie Street formerly belonged to the Original Secession, and is notable for the ministry in it of Dr M `Crie, the biographer of Knox and Melville. St John's Church, in Johnston Terrace, is notable for the ministry of Dr Guthrie and Dr Hanna. None of the other Free Churches calls for particular notice.

The Free Church Presbytery of Edinburgh includes the churches of Corstorphine, Cramond, 41 charges in Edinburgh, Gorgie, Juniper Green, 5 charges in Leith, Liberton, Newhaven, Portobello, Ratho, and West Calder. There are about 29, 000 members or adherents within the bounds.

The U. P. Presbytery of Edinburgh includes the charges of Aberlady, Balerno, Bathgate, Broxburn, 2 charges at Dalkeith, Dunbar, East Calder, East Linton, 27 charges in Edinburgh, Fala, Ford, Gorebridge, 2 charges in Haddington, Howgate, Lasswade, 7 charges in Leith, Mid Calder, 2 charges in Musselburgh, Newlands, North Berwick, 2 charges in Peebles, Penicuik, 2 charges in Portobello, Queensferry, Slateford, Tranent, Wardie, West Calder, West Linton, and Whitburn. The number of members within the bounds is about 29,000. Broughton Place Church was the scene of the labours of the well-known Rev Dr John Brown ; and Nicolson Street Church had for one of its ministers Jamieson of Scottish Dictionary fame. None of the other churches in Edinburgh calls for particular notice.

Episcopal Churches.-St Mary's Cathedral Church for the diocese of Edinburgh, on the E side of Palmerston Place, originated in a bequest by the Misses Walker, who owned the estate of Coates, comprising the sites of Coates Crescent, Walker Street, Melville Street, and several other thoroughfares in the West End. This, which yielded a revenue of £20,000, they bequeathed for erecting and endowing a cathedral, and for purposes connected with it, so far as the funds would allow. The proceeds became available in 1870, and the work, begun in 1874 in accordance with designs by Sir George Gilbert Scott, was after his death, in March 1878, carried on and completed by his son, Mr John Oldrid Scott. The church was consecrated and opened in Oct. 1879. The cathedral is cruciform in plan, with lofty central tower and spire, the nave, choir, and transepts having respectively seven, four, and two bays. Each of the four arms has aisles on both sides, and by the arrangement of the reredos the choir aisles are connected at the E end. The style is Early Pointed, and recalls Jedburgh Abbey, and Dunblane and Glasgow Cathedrals. The choir, crossings, and aisles are groined in stone, the nave and transepts in wood. The E end has three lancet windows, above which is a range of niches containing figures about life size, and over these is a seated figure of our Lord in glory, with angels grouped around. The fronts of the N and S transepts have wheel windows, and the W front has a great arch, within which are four lancet windows of equal size and design, with a beautiful rose window above. In this front is the main entrance, with recessed arch and elaborate carving, the doorway being divided by a central pier, on which rests a sculptured tympanum. The total external length is 262 feet; width across transepts, 132.5 feet; across nave and aisles, 75 feet; and height of ridge of roof externally, 84 feet. There are towers at each corner of the W end, and at the intersection of the choir, nave, and transepts, is a verymassive tower and spire, 42 feet across, and rising to a height of 295 feet. The chapter house to the N was added in 1891, the necessary funds having been provided from a bequest by Mr Rollo, W. S. Internally the whole is elaborately finished, the pavement of the choir being of Sicilian marble and tiles, and the wooden fittings, stalls, bishop's throne, etc., of walnut. In 1880 there was added a reredos of reddish-veined alabaster with enrichments of variously coloured marbles, and sculptures in white Carrara; the most important of the latter being a relievo of the Crucifixion by Miss Grant. It has a central elevation and two receding wings, one of which has a statue of St Margaret, and the other, one of St Columba bearing the crozier of St Fillan. The song school was elaborately decorated in fresco in 1890-92 by Mrs Traquhair-a labour of love. The cost of the whole building was over £100,000.

St Paul's Church, at the E end of York Place, formerly the bishop's church or pro-cathedral, was erected in 1816-18 at a cost of about £12,000, after designs by Archibald Elliot, and is a somewhat heavy edifice in the later Pointed style, with intermixture of Tudor. The interior was greatly improved, and a chancel was added, in 1891-92. The organ was originally built in 1774 by Schnetzler for the church which preceded the present, and underwent, from time to time, such improvements as won for it the reputation of being the finest in Scotland. Further improvements were made in 1870, and it has now forty stops, besides eight couplers. One of the ministers was the Rev Archibald Alison, author of Essays on Taste, and father of the historian.


St John's Church, at the corner of Princes Street and Lothian Road, was erected in 1818 at a cost of £15,000, after designs by W. Burn, and is an oblong edifice, with nave and aisles, Perpendicular Gothic in style, with details copied from St George's Chapel at Windsor. At the W end is a square tower, 120 feet high, with corner pinnacles. At the E end is a chancel, added in 1882, and a large low vestry. Underneath are burial vaults, and these and the little burying ground contain the remains of Sir Henry Raeburn, Sir William Hamilton, and Macvey Napier. One of the ministers of St John's was the Rev Dean Ramsay, the genial author of Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character. Christ Church, in Morningside, a very beautiful building, in the French Gothic style of the thirteenth century, was erected in 1876 at a cost of £11,000, after designs by Mr H. J. Blanc.

The Episcopal Diocese of Edinburgh contains 14 charges and 7 mission stations in Edinburgh, charges at Alloa, Armadale, Biel, Colinton, Dalkeith, Dalmahoy, Dunbar, Dunmore, Duns, Falkirk, Galashiels, Haddington, Hawick, Jedburgh, Kelso Lasswade, Leith, Melrose, Musselburgh, North Berwick, Peebles, Portobello, Selkirk, Stirling (2), Trinity, and West Linton, and mission stations at Balerno, Bo'ness, Eyemouth, Chirnside, Gargunnock, Gilmerton, Penicuik, and South Queensferry. The number of members within the bounds is about 25,000.

Other Churches.-There are also in Edinburgh one church connected with the United Original Seceders, 8 Congregational churches, 4 Evangelical Union churches, 5 Baptist churches, a Wesleyan Methodist church, an English Episcopal church, a Unitarian church, a Catholic Apostolic church, a Jewish Synagogue, and 6 Roman Catholic churches.

The Catholic Apostolic Church, at the N end of Broughton Street, is a very handsome building, erected in 1874-76 at a cost of £17,000, after designs by Dr Rowand Anderson. The Roman Catholic pro-cathedral at the S end of the same street, close to the Theatre Royal, is a plain building, erected in 1813, at a cost of £8000, after designs by Gillespie Graham. It was greatly enlarged and improved in 1891. Connected with the Roman Catholic Church there is a convent (St Catherine's) in Lauriston, and another (St Margaret's) in Whitehouse Loan, near Bruntsfield Links. The former was built in 1861, and the latter, dating from 1835, was the first religious house established in Scotland after the Reformation. It has a beautiful little Norman chapel, designed by Gillespie Graham, in the vaults of which lie the remains of Mr and Mrs Hope-Scott of Abbotsford.

Social Condition and Industries.-As the principal seat of the administration of justice, the meeting-place of the supreme courts of the principal religious denominations, a fountain-head of scientific and literary activity, the seat of a great university, and the home of many good schools, Edinburgh contains always a large body of inhabitants who belong to the cultured classes either by education or occupation, or who are attracted thither by the beauty of the place and the excellence and cheapness of the education they are able to procure for their families. The city, too, is truly national ; and unquestionably, London excepted, `fulfils the idea of a capital more than any other city in the United Kingdom, and every Scotsman finds in it a common centre for his sympathies.' Edinburgh, remarks Alexander Smith, `is not only in point of beauty the first of British cities, but, considering its population, the tone of its society is more intellectual than that of any other. In no other city will you find so general an appreciation of books, art, music, and objects of antiquarian interest. It is Weimar without a Goethe - a Boston without its nasal twang.' Edinburgh, he says elsewhere, 'is a patrician amongst British cities, " a penniless lass wi' a lang pedigree." She has wit if she lacks wealth ; she counts great men against millionaires. . The success of the actor is insecure until thereunto Edinburgh has set her seal ; the poet trembles before the Edinburgh critics; the singer respects the delicacy of the Edinburgh ear; coarse London may roar with applause, but fastidious Edinburgh sniffs disdain, and sneers reputations away.'

Though the city derives considerable commercial importance from the presence in it of so many head offices of banks and insurance companies, employing a large amount of capital, and though it has a considerable amount of trade, and is probably the greatest retail shopkeeping centre out of London, it can be said to have but few industries of widespread importance. The making of linen, at one time of considerable consequence, has long been extinct, as has also the weaving of rich shawls and plaids in imitation of Indian work, which was begun in 1805, and for a time promised well. Silk manufacture, begun in 1841 in a large factory at Fountainbridge, had soon to be abandoned, and in 1855 the buildings passed into the hands of the North British Rubber Company, who succeeded in establishing in them, and in the extensive enlargements that have from time to time become necessary, a thriving and very important business in all kinds of india-rubber goods. There is also an extensive manufacture of vulcanite and other rubber products in an adjacent work. Other branches of general industry that maybe mentioned are brewing and distilling - which are largely carried on, the city having been long famous for its ales, and the Caledonian Distillery being one of the largest in the world - cabinetmaking, coach-building, tanning, the manufacture of jewellery, and of machinery for paper mills - of which there are a number in the neighbourhood - type founding, printing, and publishing. The two last demand rather more than mere passing notice, for literature and the arts connected with its production may be said to hold the most prominent place among the productive industries of Edinburgh. About 1507, some thirty years after Caxton set up his press in Westminster Abbey, the first printing press in Scotland was established in the Cowgate, at the foot of Blackfriars Wynd. Scotland's first printer was Walter Chepman, with whom was associated Andro Myllar, and though it may at first seem strange that the art should have been so long in coming to Scotland when we recollect that Blind Harry, Fordun, Henryson, Hector Boece, and other Scotsmen of literary note, lived and wrote prior to this date, yet an art like printing could not easily take root in a country so torn by faction as Scotland had long been. There still exists among the public records the patent dated 15th September, 1507, granted by King James IV to Chepman and Myllar, burgesses of Edinburgh, 'in which it is set forth that they, "at his Majesty's request, for his pleasure, and the honour and profit of his realm and lieges, had taken upon them to bring hame ane print, with all stuff belonging thereto, and expert men to use the same, for imprinting within the realm of the books of the laws, Acts of Parliament, chronicles, mass-books, and portuus after the use of the realm, with additions and legends of Scottish saints, now gathered to be eked thereto, and all other books that shall be necessary, and to sell the same for competent prices by his Majesty's advice and discretion, their labours and expenses being considered." To what extent Chepman and Myllar made use of this privilege we cannot determine, but as Chepman lived till 1530 we may reasonably conclude that a great number of works issued from their press ; of these only two are now known - the first, a volume of metrical tales and ballads, such as were popular in those times; and the second, the Breviarium Aberdonense. It was not till 1788 that any earlier production of Chepman and Myllar's press than the Aberdeen Breviary was known to exist, but in that year there was presented by a Mr Alston of Glasgow to the Advocates Library the volume of ballads already referred to, and of which that prince of re-printers the late Mr David Laing of the Signet Library, in the preface to his facsimile reprint of this volume, published in 1827, says:-" This neglected and long forgotten volume proved to be a collection of those tracts which had been published in or about the year 1508 ; and which, mutilated and defective as it was, possessed an almost inestimable value, and contained various compositions nowhere else preserved, as being a book completely unique, and as exhibiting unquestionably the earliest productions of the Scottish press."' It is known that Chepman was a burgess of Edinburgh, and that, besides being a printer, he was in a good position as a merchant in the city. He settled a chaplainry at the altar of St John the Evangelist, in the aisle which he had built in St Giles' Church, and endowed it with an annual rent of twenty-three merks.

The first printers were followed by Thomas Davidson (about 1536), John Skot (about 1539-60, who got into some trouble with the Privy Council `for his demerits and faultes' - seemingly in printing books without licence), Robert Leyprevick (about the same date), and Bassendyne. For the benefit of the last, the Privy Council in 1574 levied from each parish in the kingdom the sum of £5, to enable him to print an edition of the Bible, of which he undertook to deliver copies ' weel and sufficiently bund in paste or timmer' for £4 13s 4d; but he was unable to finish his contract within the specified time, and he had to deliver up his office and the printed sheets to Alexander Arbuthnot, by whom the edition was completed and issued. Printing as a large trade was, however, of but slow growth, for before the middle of the eighteenth century there were only four offices, a number which had, however, by 1780 increased to twenty-seven, and which in the subsequent brilliant period of Edinburgh's literary history - when Scott, Mackenzie, Jeffrey, Christopher North, Sir William Hamilton, the Ettrick Shepherd, Leonard Horner, and Lockhart, made the literary set of the city world-famous - became larger at a still more rapid rate. Among the earlier publishers was Allan Ramsay, who issued as well as sold his own songs and his pastoral play of the Gentle Shepherd, and was among the first to establish a circulating library. Later came Creech, Bell, Donaldson (father of the founder of Donaldson's Hospital), Constable - the first publisher of the Waverley Novels and the Edinburgh Review - Blackwood, Cadell, Black, Chambers, and Nelson. The start and success of the Edinburgh Review and Blackwood's Magazine need only be referred to, and though Tait's Edinburgh Magazine proved ultimately a failure, Chambers's Journal, which was established in 1832, still holds on in its triumphant career, maintaining all the vigour of its youth and its popularity, in spite of the keen competition and many magazines of recent days. The greatest work ever issued from the Edinburgh press is undoubtedly the Encyclopcedia Britannica (first published in 1771, and the ninth edition in 1875-90); but important as that work was in even its early form, it was but an imperfect indication of the literary activity soon to follow, and which had so important an effect upon the city's prosperity. The far-reaching speculations of Constable, with his popular Miscellany and other works; the many productions of the Ballantyne Press, with its ever-flowing stream of novels from the pen of the author of Waverley, gave ample proof to the world that Edinburgh was rapidly becoming a centre of literature. Since then the progress has continued, and now the city may be said to produce a larger proportional quantity of standard works than any other with the exception of London. It ought besides not to be forgotten that the process of stereotyping, now so important an aid to the cheap production of literature, was the invention of an Edinburgh silversmith, John Ged, specimens of whose work - the plates of an edition of Sallust - are still to be seen in the Advocates' Library and in the Industrial Museum. The literary prestige which the northern capital attained in the days of Waverley and the Edinburgh Review has been well maintained, even though in these latter days the great metropolis attracts and absorbs the principal literary talent of the nation.

Newspapers. -Although there was a Scots Intelligencer as early as 1643, and this was followed by other papers, the inhabitants had no regular news-letter till a printer named James Watson started the Edinburgh Gazette in 1690, and followed it up in 1750 by the Edinburgh Courant, which lasted long enough for 55 numbers to be issued. The Scots Courant, also published by Watson, came next in 1706, and it again was succeeded by the Edinburgh Flying Post and the Scots Postman, but these papers were all short-lived. In 1718, a printer named James M`Ewan obtained from the town council, for a news-paper which he and two other proprietors had established, the exclusive privilege of using the title of Edinburgh Evening Courant, on condition that before publication he was 'to give ane copy of his print to the magistrates,' and this was the first Scottish paper that gave its readers foreign intelligence direct from foreign parts. It was published tri-weekly, and continued to be so issued till 1860, when it became a Conservative morning daily, with the name changed to The Edinburgh Courant. It ceased to be issued in 1886. The Caledonian Mercury, published first as a tri-weekly in 1720, by James Rolland (but always trying to establish a longer history by tracing its lineage back to the Mercurius Caledonias of 1660), was curious on account of its political changes. The entrance of Prince Charles Edward into Edinburgh altered its sentiments from the soundest Hanoverianism to the most rabid Jacobitism. while the retreat from Derby was the signal for a demonstrative rejoicing at the overthrow of the `rebellion.' Afterwards representing moderate Liberal views, it latterly became fiercely Radical. About 1867 it was finally merged in the Weekly Scotsman. The Edinburgh Advertiser, established in 1764, was a Tory organ, and was so successful a venture that the profits from it and from the bookwork printing business with which it was combined, enabled the proprietor, James Donaldson, at his death in 1830, to leave £200,000 for the erection and endowment of the princely hospital that bears his name. The Scotsman, founded in 1817, in the Whig interest, fought the battles of Reform and Free Trade with indefatigable vigour, and under the editorship of Charles M`Laren, J. R. M'Culloch, Alexander Russell, and Mr Cooper, has distanced all competitors, and attained a circulation greater than that of any paper in Britain out of London. It was the first paper to establish special telegraphic wires to London, to run special trains to different parts of the country for the transmission of early editions, and to introduce the Walter Press in the provinces. The Daily Review, founded in 1861, took the place of the old Witness as the leading Free Church paper. It was discontinued in 1886. The papers at present issued in Edinburgh are, the Catholic Herald (Friday), Edinburgh Evening Despatch (daily, 1886, Liberal), Edinburgh Evening News (daily, 1873, Independent), Edinburgh Gazette (Tuesday and Friday, 1690, neutral), Educational News (Saturday, 1876, neutral), Farming World (Friday, 1885, Independent), North British Advertiser and Ladies' Journal (Saturday, 1826, neutral), North British Agriculturist (Wednesday, 1843, neutral), Scotsman (1817, daily 1855, Liberal), Weekly Scotsman (Saturday), and the Scottish Guardian (Friday, 1870, Independent, the organ of the Scottish Episcopal Church).

Municipal Affairs - The Corporation. - Edinburgh was a royal burgh as early at least as the time of David I., who refers to it in one of his charters, dated about the middle of the twelfth century, as ` meo burgo de Edwinesburgh;' but the oldest direct burghal charter is that in which Robert I., in 1329, gives to the burgesses of Edinburgh `the aforesaid Burgh of Edinburgh with the Port of Leith, mills, and other appurtenances, to be held of the King and his successors, with all the franchises it possessed in the time of King Alexander III.' for payment of fifty-two merks yearly. Other possessions and privileges were added by the Jameses, and the city is now mainly dependent for its prerogatives on the Golden Charter of James VI. (1603), which made it a Free Royal Burgh, and the subsequent grant of Charles I., in 1636, which erected it into a Royal City. The first official civic head was probably the royal bailiff or rent-gatherer, but in 1296 we find the chief magistrate termed `alderman,' and in 1377 `John of Quhitress ' is mentioned as the first provost of Edinburgh. The official title of Lord Provost seems to date from the end of the fifteenth century. The city has, since about the same time, formed a county by itself, and the Lord Provost - who is entitled to have the Right Honourable prefixed to his personal name - is also Lord Lieutenant of the County of the City, and Lord High Admiral of the Firth of Forth, High Sheriff of the royalty, one of the Commissioners for Northern Lighthouses, a member of the Board of Supervision, a member of the University Court, chairman of the different statutory trusts connected with civic affairs, and has precedence of all other subjects within his jurisdiction. From 1583 to 1856 the city was governed by a council - practically a close corporation - of 17 merchants, 6 deacons, and two trades representatives, from whom were chosen a lord provost, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and four bailies. Since 1856 the affairs have been, in terms of a special Act, managed by 39 popularly elected councillors, from whom are chosen a lord provost, a treasurer, and six bailies, while the dean of guild, as elected by the guild-brethren, and the convener of the trades, as elected by the free craftsmen, claim seats as magistrates and office-bearers. For municipal purposes Edinburgh is divided into the 13 wards of Calton, Broughton, St Bernard's, St George's, St Stephen's, St Luke's, St Andrew's, Canongate, St Giles', St Cuthbert's, George Square, St Leonard's, and Newington, each of which returns three representatives, one-third of the whole council retiring from office every year. To the above 13 wards there have been added by the Amalgamation Act of 1896 the three wards into which Portobello has been divided. The lord provost serves for three years from the date of his election, but the other magistrates hold office for one year only. The council also act as Police Commissioners and governors of Trinity Hospital, and have a share in the management of the Water Trust, the Gas Commission, and the Water of Leith Sewerage Commission, as well as in the government of Heriot's Hospital. The committees of the town council. are the lord provost's (including watching and coal weighing, and public library), Trinity Hospital, education, markets (including slaughter-houses), plans and works (including fire-engines and policehouse department), treasurer's, law, cleaning and lighting (including workshops), streets and buildings (including drainage), public health, public parks, police appeals, and electric lighting. The municipal constituency, which in 1862 was 8883, rose after the extension of the franchise, till in 1871 it reached 23,935; in 1881, 28,894; and in 1895, for the extended city, over 49,000, of whom nearly one-fourth were women.

The corporation revenue is derived principally from landed property, feu-duties, and market-dues. In 1788 it amounted to about £10,000, but in spite of increase the total revenue became in the first part of the 19th century - owing to improvident management, over-sanguine expectations of increasing revenue, profuse expenditure for entertainments, and extravagant outlay on public buildings and works - insufficient to meet the expenditure; and in 1833, when the value of the whole heritable and movable property (exclusive of ecclesiastical rights, the High School, the council chambers, and the court-rooms) was £271,657, the corporation, which had long lain under heavy embarrassment, was at last declared insolvent. The total debts, which in 1723 had stood at £78,164, then amounted to £635,555, of which one of £228,374, due to government, had been contracted within the preceding years for the works at Leith docks. An Act of Parliament authorising a settlement was obtained in 1838. This relieved the corporation from all responsibility in connection with the docks, fixed a certain annual payment to be made from the dock revenues in aid of Edinburgh, and provided that the public creditors of the city should receive in payment of their debt transferable, redeemable bonds, bearing 3 per cent. of perpetual annuity. The number of bonds issued was 3126, representing £385,035, 16s. 8d., and of these, between 1838 and 30 January 1895, bonds representing £89,732, 10s. of debt had been cancelled, reducing the debt to £295,303, 6s. 8d., and the annuities in respect thereof to £8859, 2s. These annuities were wholly redeemed on 1 February 1895, under the provisions of `The Edinburgh Corporation Stock Act, 1894.' During this period also, liabilities amounting to over £600,000, arising in connection with the Cattle Market Act, the Corn Market Act, the Slaughter House Act, the Annuity-tax Abolition Act, the Market and Customs Act, and the City Improvement Trust Act, had been entirely discharged. The gross amount of municipal revenue for the year ended 1 August, 1895, was:-Proper municipal (or common good) account, £236,800; town clerk's fee fund, £4856; registration of births, deaths, and marriages, £1775; valuation of lands, &c., £2596; registration of voters, &c., £3095; slaughter houses, £4176; Dick's trust (for veterinary college), £2539; Trinity College Hospital, £6565; Alexander mortification, £6368; and these, together with minor sums, yielded a total revenue of £295,800, against which there was a total expenditure of £364,784. These amounts included capital sums, as follows :-In revenue, £230,972; in expenditure, £299,633, principally in connection with the redemption of the old city debt annuities before referred to. The balances in favour of the different city accounts (exclusive of the value of heritable properties and of arrears) at the same date (1 August, 1895) amounted to £210,200; and against accounts, £121,834.

The arms of Edinburgh are, according to Nisbet, in his Heraldry, connected with its `impregnable castle, 'where the honourable virgins, the daughters of our sovereigns and of our nobility, were kept from the insults of the enemy in time of war. The city,' he adds, `has that castle represented for their arms, sometimes black on a white field, and at other times white on a black field; but I shall blazon them as I find them most frequently painted, viz.:-Argent, a castle, triple-towered and embattled sable, massoned of the first and topped with three fans, gules; windows and portcullis shut of the last; situated on a rock proper; supported on the dexter by a maid richly attired, with her hair hanging down on her shoulders, and on the left by a stag or deer proper. Motto, Nisi Dominus frustra.' This agrees with the patent of the Lord Lyon prepared in 1732, and registered in 1774, except that the sinister supporter is there called a `doe proper,' and it is added, that `on a wreath of the colours is set for the crest an anchor wreathed with a cable all proper.' The crest seems to refer to the Lord Provost's admiralty jurisdiction, and the deer probably represents the hind of St Giles. Return to top.

Police.-After the battle of Flodden, the citizens began voluntarily to perform, by rotations of four, the duty of watching and warding the city; and though in 1648 a paid guard of 60 men, with a captain and two lieutenants, was appointed for the purpose, it proved distasteful to the inhabitants, and the voluntary system was resumed. About 1689 there was raised, under authority of an Act of Parliament, another paid body, 126 in number, which received the name of the town-guard, and had its rendezvous in the lower portion of the Old Tolbooth. The train-bands, contemporaneous with these, and consisting of 16 companies of 100 men each, with the Lord Provost as colonel, were called out only on great occasions. A new system, inaugurated in 1805, and improved in 1812, 1822, and 1848, showed all the leading features of the best modern police organization. The management, originally vested in commissioners, partly appointed by public bodies and partly elected by the ratepayers, passed in 1856 into the hands of the town-council. The force now consists of a chief-constable, three superintendents, a detective inspector, five lieutenants, six inspectors, and over 500 men, the total cost of these being about £49,000. Under the police is now also a sanitary department, which deals with cleansing and public health. The leading officers connected with both are a chief-constable, a court prosecutor, a police clerk, a medical officer of health, a public analyst, a burgh engineer, a road surveyor, an inspector of lighting and cleaning, an inspector of markets, a superintendent of parks and gardens, and a fire-master. The details of management do not differ in a marked degree from those of any other large city. One recent improvement in the sanitation of the city has been the purification of the Water of Leith, by the construction of a great intercepting sewer, formed in 1889-93, at a cost of about £200,000. It extends far beyond the municipal boundaries, reaching as far as Balerno, in order to carry off the discharges from the paper mills on the upper part of the stream. The internal drainage of Edinburgh may now be said to be fairly complete. The solid refuse - ashes, street sweepings, &c.- is now consumed by fire in destructors, which are erected in different parts of the town.

The total revenue for the year ending 15th May, 1895, was, for general police purposes (including watching, lighting, cleaning, fire-brigade, public parks, baths, &c.), £138,001; streets and public safety, £48,876; tramways, £13,827; general improvements, £18,801; sewers and drains, £19,760; public health, £21,133; dwelling-house improvement, £1483; electric lighting, £2248; police force pension fund, £13,600;-total of police, &c., purposes revenue (including £24,632 of capital receipts), £302,364; against which there was an expenditure of £460,753 (including £202,386 of capital expenditure). The total balances in favour of the different departments amounted to £36,825, those against to £628,764, of which over £600,000 was due on account of the tram-ways, general improvements, sewers, public health, dwelling-house improvement, and electric lighting.

Water.-In 1621 the magistrates obtained parliamentary authority to cast 'seuchs and ditches' in the lands between the city and the Pentlands, for the purpose of bringing in a water supply, but operations were not begun till more than half a century later, when, in 1674, a contract was entered into with a Dutchman, Peter Brauss, who undertook, for the sum of £2950, to lay down a leaden pipe 3 inches in diameter from Comiston to a reservoir on Castle Hill, whence the water was distributed to the various public wells. The springs are 44 feet above the level at Castle Hill, and provided a supply of about 135,000 gallons a day. Other springs were taken in from time to time, and in 1722 the main was increased to 42 inches; but as there was still a scarcity of water (especially in times of drought) an additional supply was, in 1760, introduced by wooden pipes from Swanston; and in 1787-90, the lead and wooden pipes were replaced by iron mains of 5 and 7 inches diameter, and two reservoirs were about the same time constructed at Bonally. It seems, however, to be the destiny of the Edinburgh citizens ever to suffer from chronic periodic scarcity of water; for no sooner has the supply at any time been increased, than a few years brings again a fresh demand for `more.' The new source did not come up to expectation as to either quantity or quality, and it became evident, not only that an additional supply must be provided,* but that all further extension must be based on compulsory powers of assessment. A company, in which the town council, as representing the citizens, held a large number of shares, was accordingly formed in 1810, and a bill introduced into Parliament in 1815, providing for the acquisition of the Crawley springs. It was, however, withdrawn, and only after the incorporation of the company in 1819 was the Crawley water introduced (1819-22), the quantity then becoming available being 7.85 gallons per head. Previous to this the supply as obtained at the public wells had been intermittent, and the upper classes had had their wants supplied by `caddies,' who carried round small casks, from which they filled the vessels of their customers; while many of the humbler citizens, after forming part of the long lines that stood for hours wearily waiting their turn at the wells, had often to turn away with their `stoups' empty, and without their `rake.' Now, however, service-pipes were introduced, and in 1826, power having been obtained to provide for the wants of Leith, the Black Springs were added to the Crawley supply. About 1842 (especially during the excessive drought of that summer, when the reservoir was empty), the new sources were again found inadequate; and in 1843-53 large reservoirs were constructed along the N side of the Pentlands at Bavelaw, Listonshiels, Loganlee, Bonally, Clubbiedean, and Torduff, with extensive filter beds at Torduff and Glencorse; while in 1856-60 springs at Colzium were added, and another reservoir formed at Harperrig. The result of this was that the average quantity available per head of the population, which in 1844 had fallen to 11.95 gallons, was by 1863 increased to 31.12. Again, however, there came the inevitable tale of scarcity; and by 1869, when the works were transferred to a Trust selected from or by the Edinburgh, Leith, and Portobello town councils, the question of addition had once more to be faced. Two rival schemes, which divided the city into factions as vehemently opposed as were ever the supporters of the Montagues and the Capulets, were brought forward; and, after a long and severe parliamentary contest, the advocates of St Mary's Loch were defeated, and those of the Moorfoot Hills gained the day. Large works were accordingly carried out in that district in 1875-85, by which 25 gallons a head additional was provided, bringing the total available quantity up to over 40 gallons per head per day. There is a large settling pond and filter-beds at Alnwick Hill, near Liberton, and in 1892-93 regulating cisterns for reducing the pressure on the lower part of the town (the main spring of the Pentlands sources being about 700 feet above sea-level) were constructed at Craiglockhart, Regent Road, Queen Street Gardens, and Stockbridge. In 1890 there was again a scarcity, the works being able to supply at most 15,000,000 gallons a day, and in dry weather only 13,000,000 or less, while with the increased population within the district the consumption was, in the year mentioned, 14,794,000 gallons, of which 11,412,890 were for domestic purposes. There is of course a good deal of waste, and efforts have been made to check this by the use of Deacon meters. In 1895 it was decided to still further increase the water supply, and the Talla water scheme was inaugurated towards the end of that year, the new works being begun under auspicious circumstances. The old cistern at Comiston, which had a capacity of only 5000 gallons, was in 1888 replaced by one holding 80,000 gallons. The original reservoir on Castle Hill, NE of the Castle Esplanade, erected about 1674, was demolished in 1849, and replaced by a much larger one, which has a storage capacity of over 1,800,000 gallons. The income and expenditure of the Trust is now over £98,000 per annum.

Lighting.- The gas-works formerly belonging to the Edinburgh Gas-light Company, formed in 1811, and incorporated in 1818, as well as the works in Leith belonging to the Edinburgh and Leith Gas-light Company, formed in 1839, passed in 1888 into the management of a commission, chosen from, or by, the corporations of Edinburgh and Leith. The total cost has been over £490, 000, and the annual income and expenditure of the commissioners are nearly £300,000. By an Act passed in 1891 the Edinburgh corporation undertook to introduce the electric light within three years. Princes Street was lighted by the new illuminant on 11th April, 1895, and a supply or current equal to the requirements of 40,000 incandescent lamps was provided. The demand, however, increased so rapidly that within seven months the equivalent of upwards of 45,000 such lamps had been installed, and the rapidly growing demand rendered it necessary to greatly extend the plant for supply of current. The capital outlay up to 15th May, 1895, had been £102,899. The first lighting of a street by gas was in March, 1820, when High Street was so lighted. The lighting of streets at night had so early an origin as 1554, when we learn from the Council Register that, 'owing to the frequent robberies and assaults committed in the streets of Edinburgh at night, the Council ordered "lanterns or bowets to be hung out in the streets and closes, by such persons and in such places as the magistrates should appoint, to continue burning from five o'clock in the evening till nine."'

Sub-Municipal Bodies.-The Guildry Court comprises the Dean of Guild, the dean of the previous period, ten councillors, a clerk and extractor, a master of works, a procurator-fiscal, and two officers; and the guildry council comprises the dean of guild, fifteen councillors, a secretary, a treasurer, and an officer. The jurisdiction of the court, at one time very extensive, and including mercantile and maritime causes, is now confined to sanctioning the erection of new buildings (none of which can be begun without its permission), to seeing that these neither encroach on private property nor on the streets, and to enforcing the demolition of any dangerous structure. From the Guildry sprang what is now a much more important body, The Merchant Company, which came into existence `amidst some of the most distressing things in our national history - hangings of the poor " hill folk " in the Grassmarket, trying of the patriot Argyll for taking the test oath with an explanation, and so forth;' and its nativity `was further heralded by sundry other things of a troublous kind affecting merchandise and its practitioners.' Constituted by royal charter in 1681, under the title of The Company of Merchants of the City of Edinburgh, from 'the then haill present merchants, burgesses, and gild brethren of the burgh of Edinburgh who were importers or sellers of cloths, stuffs, or other merchandise for the apparel or wear of the bodies of men or women, for themselves and successors in their said trade in all time coming,' the incorporation received the right of preventing anyone not a member from trading as a merchant in the city, and of impounding all goods exposed for sale in contravention of their bye-laws - a privilege which, in 1688, brought in a contribution to the funds of £36, 13s. Scots. The badge of the members was a stock of broom, 'a modest shrub, but with a great tendency to increase. As such they regarded their society and plan of charity, and ever since " the stock of broom" has been the first toast at all the convivial meetings of the company.' The Episcopalian Dean of Edinburgh, who composed a prayer to be said at the meetings, was in 1686 rewarded with 'six ells of fine black cloth for a gown, at twenty shillings sterling the ell, if paid within twelve months, and if not, the price was to be augmented till paid, at the discretion of the company.' In 1691 the Company purchased a hall in the Cowgate (on a site now occupied by one of the piers of George IV. Bridge) for £670, and adorned it with a hundred and nineteen skins of gold leather on a black ground, at an expense of 253 pounds Scots. A piece of waste land behind the building was at first a source of great concern, but was ultimately converted into a bowling-green for the use of both the members of the company and the general public. `Many years afterwards we find Allan Ramsay making Horatian allusions to this place of recreation, telling us that now in winter douce folk were no longer seen using the biassed bowls on Thomson's Green - Thomson being a subsequent tenant, It is not unworthy of notice that from the low state of the arts in Scotland, the bowls required for this green had to be brought from abroad. It is gravely reported to the company on the 6th of March, 1693, that the bowls are "upon the sea homeward." Ten pairs cost £6, 4s. 3d. Scots.' The present hall is in Hanover Street. The Company received ratification of its constitution by Act of Parliament in 1693, and thereafter obtained a second charter ratified by two other Acts. The latest, in 1827, provided for the admission of all persons `being merchants, burgesses, and guild brethren, or entitled to be chosen merchant-councillors or magistrates of the city of Edinburgh.' The schools under the care of the Merchant Company, and their enlightened management, have been already noticed. The original entry money was ten shillings, and the annual contribution two shillings, but these have been largely increased. Admission now costs £63, and the company possesses property and funds yielding over £1200 a year, devoted to aiding widows and decayed members. The management is in the hands of a master and twelve assistants, with executive officers. The Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce and Manufactures, an offshoot from the Merchant Company, incorporated in 1786, with a chairman, 26 directors, and other officers, has taken a prominent part in promoting the trade and commerce of the city. The Trades Corporations, which formerly wielded so much influence in the community, number 13, under a convenery and represented by the convener in the town council, and 2 standing apart. The first group contains the waulkers (constituted by seal of cause in 1500), skinners (seals of cause 1586 and 1630), furriers (acts of council 1593 and 1665), goldsmiths (seal of cause in 1581 and crown charters in 1586 and 1687), hammermen (seal of cause in 1483), wrights (act of council in 1475), masons (act of council in 1475), tailors (seals of cause in 1500, 1531, and 1584, and royal charters in 1531 and 1594), baxters or bakers (before 1522), fleshers (seal of cause in 1488), cordiners (seals of cause in 1440 and 1479, and crown charter in 1598), websters (seals of cause in 1475 and 1520), and bonnetmakers (seals of cause in 1530 and 1684). The two others are candlemakers (constituted by deeds of 1517, 1597, and 1695) and barbers (deed of 1722). The High Constables, instituted in 1611, form a numerous body, available for aid in preserving the public peace in cases of emergency. They are governed by a moderator and 13 captains-one for each of the municipal wards.

Parliamentary Representation. -Down to 1885 Edinburgh was represented by two members, but by the Redistribution of Seats Act of that year the number was increased to four, and the city is now for parliamentary purposes divided into four parts, each of which returns a member. These are:-(1) The East Division, including the municipal wards of Broughton, Calton, and Canongate, and so much of St Leonards as lies to the N of a line drawn along the centres of East and West Richmond Streets. Constituency (1892), 9059. (2) The West Division, containing the municipal wards of St Andrew's, St Stephen's, St Bernard's, and St Luke's. Constituency (1892), 8278. (3) The Central Division, containing the municipal wards cf St Giles', George Square, and St Leonard's, except the part included in the East Division. Constituency (1892), 7651. (4) The South Division, containing the municipal wards of St George's, St Cuthbert's, and Newington. Constituency (1892), 11,281.

Edinburgh gives the title of Duke in the peerage of the United Kingdom to Prince Alfred Ernest Albert, second son of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, who was, in 1866, created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Kent, and Earl of Ulster.

Population, &c.-The rental of the city in 1855 was £761,863; in 1860, £844,542; in 1865, £1,003,793; in 1870, £1,214,046; in 1875, £1,419,043; in 1880, £1,727,740; in 1885, £1,931,942 ; in 1890, £2,106,395; and in 1895, £2,218;697.

The population of the parliamentary burgh was in 1801, including Canongate and other suburbs, 66,544 ; (1831), 136,294; (1841), 140,241; (1851), 160,302; (1861), 168,121; (1871), 196,988; (1881), 212,916 - or including the inhabitants within the enlarged boundary of 1885, 234,402 - (1891), 261,225, or including the suburban portions outside the parliamentary boundary (1881), 236,002; (1891), 263,646. Of the population of 261,225 in 1891, 119,255 were males and 141,970 were females; while 15 persons spoke Gaelic only, and 4715 both Gaelic and English. At the same date there were within the parliamentary boundaries 69,997 separate families, 50,979 houses inhabited, 3230 uninhabited, and 607 building; and the number of rooms with one or more windows was 212,916. One family of four lived in a room without a window, 32,549 families in houses of 1 or 2 rooms with windows, 9708 in houses of 3 rooms with windows, 9019 in houses of 4 or 5 rooms with windows, and the rest in abodes of larger size. Of the males 41,280 were under 15 years of age, 12,688 between 15 and 20, 38,818 between 20 and 40, 19,869 between 40 and 60, and the remainder over 60; of the females 40,510 were under 15, 15,195 between 15 and 20, 48, 515 between 20 and 40, 26,192 between 40 and 60, and the rest over 60. Of the 77,975 males over 15 years of age 37,337 were bachelors, 36,881 husbands, and 3757 widowers; and of the 101,460 females over 15, 50,977 were spinsters, 37,908 wives, and 12,575 widows; while of the whole population 236,069 had been born in Scotland, of which 132,612 were natives of Edinburgh itself. Of the total population 28,018 were under 5 years of age, and 63,772 between 5 and 15, and of the latter number 42,848 were at school. The population of the different wards in 1891 was:-1st, 23,801; 2d, 11,852; 3d, 13,824; 4th, 21,528; 5th, 12,316; 6th, 14,592; 7th, 12,834; 8th, 20,368; 9th, 22,438; 10th, 29,122; 11th, 26,626; 12th, 20,238; 13th, 31,687. The estimated population to the middle of 1893 was 267, 762.

In 1863 the death-rate was 26 per 1000, but after 1867 the half-million spent by the Improvement Trust and the removal of 3000 unwholesome houses, caused a decrease, the total in 1892 being 17 per 1000. The figures for the New Town districts were 14.7, for the Old Town 23.2, and for the Southern districts 13.1. Of the total deaths 36.7 were of children under 5 years of age, 13.9 of persons between 5 and 30, 24.7 of persons between 30 and 60, and 24.7 of persons above sixty. St Giles' ward had in 1892 the highest mortality, 28.6 per 1000, and St Bernard's the lowest, 12.2; while the others were Calton 17.4, Broughton 13.7, St George's 16.9, St Stephen's 13.7, St Luke's 13.2, St Andrew's 17 -9, Canongate 25.0, St Cuthbert's 16.1, George Square 20.2, St Leonard's 19.2, and Newington 13.4. The mortality in houses with a rental of under £5 was 25.5 per 1000; between £5 and £10, 21.7; between £10 and £15, 17.2; between £15 and £20, 12.9; between £20 and £30, 14.6; between £30 and £40, 13.3; between £40 and £50, 11.5; and over £50, 13.0.

And so we may take leave of the royal city. `Seated,' says Mrs Oliphant, `on the rocks which are more old than any history, though those precipices are now veiled with verdure and softness; and the iron way of triumphant' modern science runs at their feet; with her crown of sacred architecture hanging over her among the mists, and the little primeval shrine mounted upon her highest ridge; with her palace, all too small for the requirements of an enlarged and splendid royalty, and the great crouched and dormant sentinel of nature watching over her through all the centuries; with her partner, sober and ample, like a comely matron, attended by all the modern arts and comforts, seated at the old mother's feet - Edinburgh can never be less than royal, one of the crowned and queenly cities of the world. It does not need for this distinction that there should be millions of inhabitants within her walls, or all the great threads of industry and wealth gathered in her hands. The pathos of much that is past and over for ever, the awe of many tragedies, a recollection, almost more true than any reality of the present, of ages and glories gone-add a charm which the wealthiest and greatest interests of today cannot give, to the city, always living, always stirring, where she stands amid traditionary smoke and mist, the grey metropolis of the North, the Edinburgh of a thousand fond associations, Our Own Romantic Town.'

See also among other authorities, Maitland, History of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1753); Arnot, History of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1788); Craufurd, History of the University of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1808); Bower, History of the University of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1817); Sir A. Grant, Story of the University of Edinburgh (London, 1884); Storer, Views in Edinburgh (Edinb.1820); History of the Abbey,Palace, and Chapel-Royal of Holyrood House (Edinb. 1821); Reception at Edinburgh of the Kings and Queens of Scotland (Edinb. 1822); Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis (Bannatyne Club, Edinb. 1840); Chronicon ccenobii Sanctce Crucis Edinburgensis (in Anglia Sacra, vol. i. ; and Stephenson's Church Historians of England, vol. iv.); Lairig, Historical Description of the Altar piece of the Reign of James III. of Scotland in the Palace of Holyrood (Edinb. 1857); Pennecuik, Historical Sketch of the Municipal Constitution of Edinburgh, with an Account of the Blue Blanket (Ediub. 1826); R. Chambers, Traditions of Edinburgh (1st ed. Edinb. 1824), Fires in Edinburgh since the beginning of the Eighteenth Century (Edinb. 1824), Walks in Edinburgh (Edinb. 1825), Minor Antiquities of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1833), Ancient Domestic Architecture of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1856); Historical and Descriptive Account of George Heriot's Hospital (Edinb. 1827); Steven, History of George Heriot's Hospital (Edinb. 1859); Sime, History of the Church and Parish of St Cuthbert or West Kirk of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1829); Shepherd, Views illustrating Public Buildings, &c. (Edinb. 1832); Kay, Portraits and Caricature Etchings (Edinb. 1842; new ed. Edinb. 1885); Wilson, Memorials of Old Edinburgh (Edinb.1848; author's new ed.1890); W. Steven, History of the High School of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1849); Anderson, History of Edinburgh to 1850 (Edinb. 1856) ; Registrum Cartarum Ecelesie Sancti Egidiide Edinburgh, 1344-1567 (Bannatyne Club, Edinb. 1859); W. Chambers, Story of St Giles' Cathedral Church (Edinb. 1879); Dr Cameron Lees, St Giles' Edinburgh-Church, College, and Cathedral (Edinb. 1888); A brief Account of the Rise, Progress, and Present Position of the Chamber of Commerce (Edinb. 1861); Grant, Memorials of the Castle of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1862); Kirk Mackie, Historical Notes regarding the Merchant Company of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1862); Hugh Miller, Edinburgh and its Neighbourhood (Edinb. 1864) ; Precedence of Edinburgh and Dublin (Edinb. 1865); Edinburgh, its Houses and its Noted Inhabitants (Edinb. 1865); Brown, Epitaphs and Monumental Inscriptions in Greyfriars' Churchyard (Edinb. 1867); Wood, Historical Sketch of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1867); Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of Edinburgh, 1407-1557 (2 vols. Burgh Records Society, Edinb. 1869-71); Charters and other Documents relating to the City of Edinburgh (Burgh Records Society, Edinb. 1871); Charters and Documents relating to the Collegiate Church and Hospital of the Holy Trinity (Edinb. 1871); Seton, Convent of St Catharine of Sienna near Edinburgh (Edinb. 1871); Mackay, History of the Burgh of Canongate (Edinb. 1879); Findlay, The Tron Kirk (Edinb. 1879); History of the Erection of the Cathedral Church of St Mary (Edinb. 1879); Grant's, Old and New Edinburgh (3 vols., Lond. 1880-82); Arnold, History of the Mereat Cross of Edinburgh (Edinb. 1885); Cumberland Hill, Historic Memorials and Reminiscences of Stockbridge, the Dean, and the Water of Leith (Edinb. 1887); Dunlop, The Book of Old Edinburgh (Edinb. 1886), and Anent Old Edinburgh (Edinb. 1890); R. L. Stevenson, Edinburgh, Picturesque Notes (Loud. 1890); Oliphant, Royal Edinburgh (Loud. 1890) ; Warrender, Walks near Edinburgh (Edinb. 1890); Hutton, Literary Landmarks of Edinburgh (Lond. 1891); and D. Masson, Edinburgh Sketches and Memories (1892).