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An Illustrated History of Cardiganshire

 

By W J Lewis, 1970

The text and map/drawings are bilingual, the general format of the book is that the text is illustrated with an accompanying map/drawing of the county.
This database was compiled by Gareth Hicks 2000/3 from some of these map/diagrams

 

Chapter headings

This is a listing of chapter headings, in the order they appear in the book , plus an indication of what any accompanying diagrams relate to;

  • Primitive Times [ diagram showing where various relics [mainly Bronze Age onwards] discovered, and where cromlechs and maenhirs found]
  • The Hill Forts [ diagram showing where these were sited]
  • The Romans [ diagram showing Roman roads, towns, forts, mines]
  • Cunedda [diagram showing lands conquered by Cunedda]
  • The Celtic Saints [ diagrams showing where Celtic churches were sited, and where settlements were founded by Celtic Saints]
  • Inscribed Christian Stones
  • The Castles [ diagram showing castles, earth or stone, Norman and Welsh]
  • The Middle Ages [diagram showing hundreds, commotes, churches, chapels, abbey, nunnery, priory, castle etc in Middle Ages]
  • The Lord Rhys
  • Strata Florida [diagram showing the various lands owned by Ystrad Fflur in 1282]
  • The Statute of Rhuddlan 1284 [  diagrams showing how Wales was divided by this Statute following the death of Llewelyn ap Gruffydd in 1282. Also the lands of the Lord Rhys]
  • The Early Gentry [diagram showing the houses of the Early Gentry, and the ones where Henry Tudor stayed]
  • Cardigan Shyre 1610--Speed's Map
  • The Church in the Early C18 [diagram showing where parish churches situated c 1750]
  • Nonconformity [diagrams showing where chapels sited in periods 1650-1738 and 1739-1820]
  • Education I. Up to 1800 [diagram showing where schools were situated in period 1674-1777]
  • Education II. After 1800 [diagram showing where schools were situated in 1847]
  • Sea Trade to 1700 [diagram showing details of Cardiganshire's sea trade 1601-1709]
  • The Port of Aberystwyth [diagram showing details of Aberystwyth's sea trade in 1851, by product and destination/source]
  • The Lime Trade
  • Roads and Railways [diagrams showing the road system in 1844, 1720 and 1954. Also the railway lines and when they opened]
  • The Fairs [diagram showing where fairs held, and what main products were sold at each one]
  • The Drovers [digram showing the main drovers routes,  key villages/places and land over 800 ft]
  • Industries and Crafts [diagram showing which craft , out of about 30 different ones, was sited where. Also an extract of various trades from the 1831 census giving total numbers employed in each type]
  • Lead Mining [diagrams showing the situation, and some names, of the lead mines of north Cardiganshire in the periods 1580-1800 and 1800-1930]
  • The Woollen Industry [diagram showing where woollen factories and fulling mills situated 1860-1920, not named as such]
  • Land Enclosures [plan showing strip cultivation in Llan-non parish; scattered strips in Llanddewibrefi; and a scattered farm , Brynhownant, Tregaron. Also diagrams showing land  open in 1794 and land enclosed in the C19]
  • One-Night Houses[Tai Unnos]: The Squatters [diagram showing some of the various Tai Unnos on Mynydd Llanddewibrefi, these place names have been extracted and are shown below]
  • Land Use [plans showing how the uses of part of the Gogerddan Estate changed from 1788+]
  • The Population
  • Emigration to the United States [small poster advertising departure of the Brig Credo of Aberystwyth in 1848, John Humphrys, Master, bound for " Quebec direct".
  • The Parishes [plan of Aberteifi in 1610]
  • The Growth of the Towns [plans of Cardigan 1834, Aberaeron 1845, Aberystwyth 1740, 1795, 1832]
  • Cardiganshire 1969

Photographs

This is a list of the photographs, not in alphabetical order ;

  • Bronze Age Shield
  • Pen-dinas hill fort from the air
  • Wern Newydd, Llannarth
  • Hafod Mansion
  • Heir to Crosswood comes of age [1883 ?]
  • Gogerddan Meet
  • Ancient Mwnt Church
  • Daniel Rowland, Llangeitho
  • Chantry's memorial at Hafod Church
  • Alltyblaca Unitarian Chapel
  • John Williams " Yr Hen Syr"--Ystrad Meurig--Headmaster, 1777-1818.
  • Neuaddlwyd--The Academy
  • The College, Aberystwyth c 1880
  • Ffos-y-ffin , Sunday School, 1896
  • Ida Alice--an Aberystwyth ship
  • Aberystwyth shipbuilding
  • Aberystwyth lifeboat
  • Borth, old seamen
  • Aberstrincell, Llan-non, lime kilns
  • Old stone-breaker
  • The Gloucester to Aberystwyth Coach, 1843
  • Penglais, Llanbadarn Road--Turnpike tollgates, 1889
  • Penparcau tollhouse
  • Travel, early this century
  • Turnpike gate tickets [Rhydyfuwch Upper & Lower Gates, Cardigan North Gate, Ysbytty Cynfyn Gate, Aberayron North Gate, Lampeter West Gate]
  • Building the third Devil's Bridge
  • Hafan , Railway
  • Dalis Fair, Lampeter
  • Abermarlais, Henfynyw--Pig killing c 1900
  • Two pound note--Banc y Ddafad Ddu [Aberystwith & Tregaron Bank]
  • The 'Cardi' cart  [John Davies's weekly service  from Dowlais to Aberystwyth]
  • Teifi--coracles
  • Tre'rddol--clogmaker and clog soles
  • Llanio--blacksmiths
  • Wheelwrights
  • Aberaeron--making lobster pots
  • Cwmerfin, Lead mine
  • Basket-maker
  • Glog-fawr--lead miners, 1912
  • Melinau Gwlar [Woollen Mills];
    • Maes-llyn
    • Capel Dewi
    • Lanrhystud
    • Tal-y-bont
  • Esgair Moel--fulling blankets
  • Tal-y-bont--weavers
  • Llangwyryfon,1920--hay harvest
  • Lampeter, boot factory--cobblers
  • Washing sheep
  • Teulu beirdd y Cilie--Cwmtydu c 1900--a family of farmer poets
  • Cwmystwyth school, 1904, now closed
  • Ystumtuen--ruins of miners houses
  • 'Cardis' selling milk in London
  • London Cardis Society visit 'Churt'
  • Pentwr, Aberaeron, 1910
  • Porthladd--Aberaeron--harbour
  • Cardigan Bridge, c 1830
  • Cardigan Bridge, c 1910
  • New Quay--unloading coal
  • New Quay--1969
  • Aberystwyth c 1790
  • Aberystwyth, The Pier, 1874
  • Old Tregaron, 1819
  • Tregaron, 1845
  • 'College', Aberaeron--typical old cottage
  • Lampeter Board of Guardians, 1901
  • Llandyssul, choir going to an eisteddfod
  • Mrs Gwynne, Monachty--opening the Aberaeron railway station in 1911
  • Peasant houses in Cardiganshire;
    • Ffos-y-ffin, Llangeitho
    • Pen-y-gaer, Nantcwnlle
    • Pen-y-bont, Llangorwen
    • Neuadd, Llanddewibrefi
  • Pen-lon, Talsarn--sitting in the ingle nook
  • Rhiwgraidd, Lledrod--old type fireplace with ingle nook
  • Old Welsh kitchen in Montgomeryshire
  • A Bill  for  coal , lime and bricks total £33.1s.4d.dated 1888, from William Morgan[Coal, Lime, Brick and Manure Merchant], Garn House, Bow Street to Mr I J Rees, Brincaero
  • Tregaron--peat cutting
  • Old wooden Cardiganshire plough
  • Aberystwyth Silver Coins, 1638-42.
  • Aberayron Motor Service [C H Dierks Aberayron], c 1910 ?
  • Building the Lampeter, Aberaeron and New Quay railway, 1910
  • Llan-non, c 1912--corn harvest
  • Borth, c 1920--bread van
  • Aberystwyth, c 1920--steam lorry
  • Old dresser, the work of a mid Cardiganshire craftsman of the C18.
  • Poster advertising berths to America on the sailing ship 'Triton' of Cardigan [ David Rees, Master] departing from Cardigan for Quebec on 9th April 1842.
  • Llanbedr [Lampeter], plan, 1845
  • Llandysul village, plan, 1845
  • Poster advertising coach service  of James Hayward and Co from Aberystwyth to London , via Kington, dated 4 th June 1916.
  • Cwmystwyth Toll Gate , tolls list
  • Poster advertising Stage Coach to and from  Albion Tavern,Cardigan and Ivy Bush,Carmarthen, dated 27th Sept 1831

Tai Unnos

Some of the Tai Unnos (One Night Houses) on Mynydd Llanddewibrefi from a map/diagram on page 68;

The group on the Avon Camddwr, north to south;

  • Ffrwd-ar-gamddwr
  • Rhyd -y-meirch
  • Nant y gronw
  • Brithdir Bach
  • Brithdir
  • Rhydtalog

The group on the Avon Doethie;

  • Doethie Fach
  • Brobwll
  • Nant y benglog
  • Pen-lan
  • Tir-bach
  • Maes y betws
  • Nant y gwyddel
  • Nant y cae
  • Foel
  • Cnwc-gwyn
  • Gyrnos
  • Cnwceithinog
  • Cnwc-glas
  • Troed y cynnull

The group on the Avon Pysgotwr fawr/fach

  • Bryn Owen
  • Esgair-maen
  • Dol-las
  • Pysgotwr
  • Hafodunos

 

The Middle Ages, names of commotes, and explanation, from the book's map/diagram

In accordance with the Laws of Hywel Dda, there were originally 4 hundreds (not those we now know about---see below) in Ceredigion. Their names have been lost apart from one, Penweddig which stretched from the river Ystwyth to the Dyfi; as population increased they were in any event divided up into two or more commotes, the commote, or cwmwd being the unit of local government in the Middle Ages.  The commote was governed by a lord who was responsible to the chief lord or local king/prince. The commote system continued after the Norman Conquest, although a Norman lord replaced the Welsh lord .

On page 16 of the book is a map/diagram showing these commotes and the names/site of churches, chapels (as in chapelries), and other religious houses within their boundaries; the details are in the table below; there are 4 boroughs listed at the end which are assumed not to be part of the commotes as such but I may be wrong. The second column denotes which hundred  the commotes became a part of subsequently, the boundaries of which more or less correspond to those of the grouped commotes.

 

Commote

Hundred

Parish church

Chapel

Other

Genau'r Glyn

Genau'r-Glyn

 

Llanfihangel Castell Gwallter

 

Perfedd

Genau'r-Glyn

 

  • Llangorwen
  • Ysbyty Cynfyn

Llanbadarn (Priory)

 

Creuddyn

Ilar

Llanfihangel y Creuddyn

 

 

Mefenydd

Ilar

  • Carrog
  • Llanrhystud
  • Llanilar
  • Rhostie
  • Lledrod
  • Ystrad Meurig

Llanychaearn

 

Anhuniog

Ilar

  • Llansantffraid
  • Llanddewi Aber-arth
  • Llanbadarn Trefeglwys
  • Trefilan
  • Llan-non
  • Henfynyw

 

Pennardd

Penarth

  • Llanbadarn Odwyn
  • Nantcwnlle
  • Caron
  • Llanddewi Brefi
  • Blaenpennal
  • Llangeitho

 

Ystrad Fflur (Abbey)

Mabwynion

Moyddyn

  • Silian
  • Betws Bledrws
  • Llangybi
  • Cellan
  • Betws Leucu
  • Ciliau Aeron
  • Llanfihangel Ystrad
  • Llanfair Clydogau

Llanllyr (Nunnery)

Caerwedros

Moyddyn

  • Llannarth
  • Dihewyd
  • Llanllwchaearn
  • Llandysiliogogo
  • Capel Crist
  • Llanina
  • Carriog

 

 

Iscoed

Troed yr aur

  • Ferwig
  • Llandygwydd
  • Troed yr aur
  • Penbryn
  • Llangoedmor
  • Llechryd
  • Llangynllo

 

  • Twr-gwyn
  • Tremain
  • Cenarth
  • Aberporth
  • Blaenporth
  • Brithdir
  • Capel Gwnda
  • Henllan

 

Gwinionydd

Moyddyn

  • Llandyfrio
  • Llandysul
  • Llanwnnen
  • Llanwenog
  • Bangor
  • Llansilfed
  • Capel Ffraid
  • Capel Dewi
  • Llanfechan
  • Y Faerdref
  • Bryn-yr-eglwys
  • Rhuddlan

 

.

 

 

 

 

Adpar (Borough)

 

 

 

 

Aberteifi
(Parish church, Priory
 and Borough)

 

 

 

 

Llanbadarn Pont Steffan
(Parish church and Borough)

 

 

 

 

Aberystwyth (Borough)

 

 

 

 

 

Houses of the Early Gentry in Tudor times

This list of house names belonging to the gentry of Tudor times is extracted from the map/diagram on page 24, and listed in alphabetical order (names are given their old form) ;

  • Aberllolwyn
  • Abermad
  • Abermagwr
  • Abernant Bychan
  • Blaen Cerdin
  • Blwch Bychan
  • Bronwydd
  • Bryn-elen
  • Bwlch Mawr
  • Camnant
  • Carrog
  • Castell Hywel
  • Cefn Melgoed
  • Cil-fforch
  • Cilgwyn
  • Ciliau Aeron
  • Cil-rhug
  • Coedmor
  • Crug Bychan
  • Crug Mawr
  • Crynfryn
  • Cwm Hawen
  • Cwm Tydi
  • Cwrtnewydd
  • Dinas Cerdin
  • Dolwlff
  • Dol-y-gors
  • Dyffryn
  • Esgair Wen
  • Ffos Esgob
  • Ffos-helig
  • Ffos-y-bleiddiaid
  • Ffynnonbedr
  • Gelli Fraith
  • Gernos
  • Gilfach Wen
  • Glan Leri
  • Glanfred
  • Glasgrug
  • Gogerddan
  • Gwastad Gwrda
  • Gwernan
  • Hafod Uchtryd
  • Henbant
  • Llan-borth
  • Llanfair Clydogau
  • Llan-fechan
  • Llangybi
  • Llangynfelyn
  • Llanllyr
  • Llechwedd Ddyrys
  • Llwyd Siac
  • Llwyn Cadfor
  • Llwyn Iorwerth
  • Llwyn Newidion
  • Llwyndafydd
  • Llwyndyrys
  • Llynod
  • Mabws
  • Maes-y-felin
  • Moel Ifor
  • Morfa Bychan
  • Morfa Mawr
  • Mynachty
  • Nant-du
  • Nanteos
  • Neuadd Drefawr
  • Neuadd
  • Pant Streimon
  • Pant-yr-lys
  • Pant-yr-odyn
  • Parc Rhydderch
  • Penbryn
  • Plas Newydd
  • Porth Ffynnon
  • Prys Gogo
  • Rhandir
  • Rhiwarthen
  • Rhiwbren
  • Rhos Cellan
  • Tal-sarn
  • Towyn
  • Tregibi
  • Tyglyn
  • Uwch Aeron
  • Wern Newydd
  • Y Faerdref
  • Y Foelallt
  • Y Priordy
  • Ystrad Fflur
  • Ystrad Teilo

Growth of Non-conformity

On page 30 is a map/diagram showing the comparative coverage of nonconformist meeting places and chapels between the two periods 1650-1738 and 1739-1820. The names of the places and stated denominations have been extracted below. Please note that some places changed denomination over the years.
Where I've been able to ascertain it I have superimposed the name of the parish in which a place was, unless already obvious from the name.

 

Independent/Congregational

Baptist

  • Abermeurig (Gartheli)
  • Aberteifi (Cardigan)
  • Blaenpennal
  • Caeronnen (Cellan)
  • Cilgwyn (Llangybi)
  • Ciliau Aeron
  • Crug-y-maen
  • Dihewyd
  • Llanbedr Pont Steffan (Lampeter)
  • Llanddeibrefi
  • Llandysiliogogo
  • Llanfair Trelygen
  • Llannarth
  • Llechryd
  • Llwynpiod (Llanbadarn Odwyn)
  • Llwynrhydowen (Llandysul)
  • Llwyn-rhys
  • Pantycreuddyn
  • Tir-llwyd
  • Tre-wen (Brongwyn)
  • Tynygwndwn (Llanfihangel Ystrad)
  • Wern ? (not Llanina)
  • Ciliau Aeron
  • Coedgleision
  • Lan-dwr
  • Rhos-goch

22

4

 

1739-1820

Independent/Congregational

Baptist

Calvinistic Methodist

Unitarian

Wesleyan Methodist

  • Abermeurig(Gartheli)
  • Aberporth
  • Aberteifi (Cardigan)
  • Aberystwyth
  • Alltyblaca (Llanwenog)
  • Blaenpennal
  • Caeronnen (Cellan)
  • Carmel (Llandysul)
  • Cellan
  • Cilcennin
  • Cilgwyn (Llangybi)
  • Ciliau Aeron
  • Clarach
  • Crug -y- maen
  • Crygiau
  • Cwrtnewydd (Llanwenog)
  • Drefach (Llanwenog)
  • Glynarthen (Penbryn)
  • Goginan
  • Hawen (Troedyraur)
  • Horeb (Llandysul)
  • Llanbadarn
  • Llandysul
  • Llangybi
  • Llanwenog
  • Llechryd
  • Llwynrhydowen (Llandysul)
  • Llwyn-rhys
  • Mydroilyn (Llanarth)
  • Nebo (Llansantffraid)
  • Neuadd-lwyd (Henfynyw)
  • Pantycreuddyn
  • Penrhiwgaled (Llanllwchaearn)
  • Pentre
  • Tal-y-bont (Llanfihangel Genau'r-glyn)
  • Tre-wen (Brongwyn)
  • Troed-y-rhiw (Dihewyd)
  • Tynygwndwn (Llanfihangel Ystrad)
  • Aberteifi (Cardigan)
  • Aberystwyth
  • Argoed (Tregaron)
  • Capel Gwndwn
  • Coedgleision
  • Ddeiniol
  • Ferwig (Verwick)
  • Llandysul
  • Llwyndafydd (Llandysiliogogo)
  • Penrhyn-coch (Llanbadarn Fawr)
  • Penyparc (Llangoedmor)
  • Rhos-goch
  • Tal-y-bont (Llanfihangel Genau'r-glyn)
  • Aberaeron
  • Aber-arth
  • Aberbanc (Capel Drindod, Henllan)
  • Aber-ffrwd (Llanbadarn Fawr)
  • Aberteifi (Cardigan)
  • Aberystwyth
  • Bethania (Llanbadarn Trefeglwys)
  • Blaenannerch
  • Blaen-cefn (Verwick)
  • Blaen-plwyf (Llanychaearn)
  • Borth (Llanfihangel Genau'r-glyn)
  • Brongest (Troed-yr-aur)
  • Capel Dewi (Llanbadarn Fawr)
  • Capel Trisant (Llanfihangel-y-
    creuddyn)
  • Capel-y-wig
    (Llangrannog)
  • Ceinewydd(New Quay, Llan
    llwchaearn)
  • Craig-wen
  • Cwmystwyth (Llanfihangel-y-
    creuddyn)
  • Ffos-y-ffin (Henfynyw)
  • Furnace (Llanfihangel Genau'r-glyn)
  • Llanafan
  • Llanbedr (Lampeter)
  • Llanddewibrefi
  • Llandysul
  • Llangeitho
  • Llangwyryfon
  • Llangybi
  • Llanilar
  • Llan-non
  • Llanrhystyd
  • Llechryd
  • Lledrod
  • Llwynpiod (Llanbadarn Odwyn)
  • Pen-llwyn (Llanbadarn Fawr)
  • Penmorfa (Penbryn)
  • Pennant (Llanbadarn Trefeglwys)
  • Pen-sarn (Llandysiliogogo)
  • Pen-y-garn (Llanfihangel Genau'r-glyn)
  • Ponterwyd (Llanbadarn Fawr)
  • Pontrhydfendigaid
    (Gwnnws)
  • Rhydyfelin
    (Llanbadarn Fawr)
  • Salem (Troed-yr-aur)
  • Sarnau (Penbryn)
  • Swyddffynnon
    ( Lledrod)
  • Tregaron
  • Tre'r-ddol (Llangynfelyn)
  • Twr-gwyn (Troed-yr-aur)
  • Waunifor (Llandysul)
  • Ysbyty Ystwyth
  • Bwlch-y-fadfa
    (Llandysiliogogo)
  • Capel-y-groes (Llanwnnen)
  • Cribyn (Llanfihangel Ystrad)
  • Lloyd Jac
  • Pantydefaid (Llandysul)
  • Rhyd-y-gwin (Llanfihangel Ystrad)
  • Aberteifi
  • Aberystwyth
  • Borth
  • Ceinewydd
    (New Quay, Llan
    llwchaearn)
  • Cilcennin
  • Eglwys-fach
    (Llanfihangel Genau'r-glyn)
  • Llanbedr
  • Llandysul
  • Llangwyryfon
  • Llannarth
  • Mynydd-bach
    (Llanfihangel-y-
    creuddyn)
  • Pontrhydfendigaid
    (Gwnnws)
  • Pont-rhyd-y-groes
    (Ysbyty Ystwyth)
  • Tre'r-ddol
    (Llangynfelyn) 

 38

 13

 49

 6

 14

Occupations in Cardiganshire from the 1831 census

On page 56 there is an analysis of occupations from  the 1831 census for Cardiganshire, here is a summary;

  • Ale-brewers, 3
  • Auctioneers, 6
  • Bakers (bread and cakes), 29
  • Basket makers, 6
  • Blacksmiths, 275
  • Brassworkers, 1
  • Brickmakers, 1
  • Builders, 4
  • Butchers, 50
  • Cabinet makers, 27
  • Candle-makers, 9
  • Carpenters, 523
  • Carriage owners, drivers, ostlers, 11
  • Chemists, 10
  • Chimney-sweeps, 7
  • Clock and watch makers, 17
  • Clogmakers, 3
  • Cloth merchants, 38
  • Clothiers, 29
  • Coal merchants, 8
  • Cobblers, 422
  • Corn merchants,1
  • Dyers , 8
  • Farmers and agricultural workers, 8686
  • Foundrymen, 3
  • Furriers, 1
  • Glove-makers, 8
  • Grocers, green grocers, 13
  • Hairdressers and hairsellers, 7
  • Harness makers, 6
  • Horse dealers, 1
  • House Painters, 21
  • Innkeepers, 149
  • Ironmongers,
  • Lapidaries, 2
  • Lath makers, 2
  • Lead smelters, 4
  • Leather workers, 23
  • Lime-burners, 25
  • Maltsters, 29
  • Masons, 334
  • Milkmen, 1
  • Millers, 99 
  • Milliners, 151
  • Monumental masons, 3
  • Pedlars, 9
  • Plasterers, 18
  • Plumbers, glaziers, 15
  • Porters, carters, 74
  • Potters, 4
  • Publishers and book-binders, 12
  • Rag-and-bone-men 1
  • Ropemakers, 13
  • Saddlers, 28
  • Sailmakers, 5
  • Sawyers, 20
  • Shipbuilders, 43
  • Shopkeepers selling general merchandise, 113
  • Sieve-makers, 2
  • Silk-mercer, 3
  • Skinners, curriers, 12
  • Stationers, 2
  • Tailors, 399
  • Tanners, 24
  • Tea merchants, 1
  • Thatchers, 8
  • Tinkers, 15
  • Veterinary surgeons, 8
  • Wheelwrights and millwrights, 33
  • Whip-makers, 1
  • Wine and spirit merchants, 4
  • Wood turners, 17
  • Woollen workers, 240

 

(Gareth Hicks  11 November 2003)