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The Fed

A history of the South Wales Miners in the twentieth century

By Hywel Francis & David Smith
Published by Lawrence and Wishart, 1980
Extracts by Gareth Hicks, May 2004

Contents headings

  • The Union and its Society
  • 1926
  • Blind Alleys and Some Exits
  • The 'Scab' Union
  • The Fate of 'Little Moscow'
  • Starting Out in the Thirties
  • Taff-Merthyr; the Crucible
  • Marching Out and Staying Down
  • The Ishmaelites of South Wales
  • From Tonypandy to Madrid
  • Ends and Beginnings
  • The Dawn of a New Era ?

Appendices

  • SWMF Lodges in January 1926
  • 'Dictated Terms' in 1926
  • SWMF Report on conditions in their various Districts following the 1926 lockout
  • Annual Manpower and Saleable Ouput of the South Wales Coalfield 1890-1979
  • Colliery Closures - South Wales, Forest of Dean and Somerset Coalfields, 1947-79
  • Chief Officials of the South Wales Miners 1898-1979
  • NUM (South Wales Area) Lodges in January 1979

Introduction from dust jacket

"From its foundation in 1898 'The Fed' has remained the popular name for the South Wales Miners' Federation (SWMF), which in 1945 became the South Wales Area of the National Union of Mineworkers.

The core of this full-length history is the momentous period from the General Strike of 1926 to the nationalization of the mines in January 1947, including the bitter intervening period of struggle in the twenties and thirties against unemployment at home and fascism abroad. To the treatment of the post Second World War period the authors have added a final chapter assessing the achievements and the problems of the nationalized industry, as well as the role of the miners in the upsurge of industrial militancy that characterized the sixties and seventies,

Native Welsh themselves, both from the South Wales mining area, the authors show how 'The Fed' has derived its particular strength from being an organic part of the life of individual South Wales communities, and they vividly record the rich variety of working-class (especially rank-and-file) response to Union as well as governmental attitudes and actions."

Illustrations

PLATES

Between pages 108 and 109

  • Caenewydd miners (Swansea), about 1895
  • Pontypool hauliers, 1906
  • Cwmfelinfach miners rat-catching, about 1913
  • Hand-ball at Nelson, about 1914
  • Tonypandy before the First World War
  • Six Bells (Abertillery), about 1920
  • Troops at Pontypridd, 1910
  • Cambrian Coal Trust, about 1914
  • Nantyffyllon boot repairers, 1926 lockout
  • A Pontypridd comic band, 1926 lockout
  • Mardy miners and their Soviet banner, 1926
  • Mardy 'riot' defendants, 1932
  • South Wales Hunger Marchers, Bristol, 1931
  • Park stay-down strikers, 1935
  • Taff-Merthyr demonstration, 1936
  • Treharris welcome home, 1936
  • Welsh International Brigaders in Spanish Civil War, 1938
  • Lewis Jones and Arthur Griffiths, 1938
  • South Wales Miners' Federation Executive Council, Talygarn, 1923
  • Ocean Combine Committee, 1935
  • South Wales Miners' Federation 'Rank and File' Executive Council in 1936
  • National Union of Mineworkers (South Wales Area) Rank and File Executive Council, 1972

Between pages 332 and 333

  • Oakdale Library, 1945
  • Pare and Dare Hall, 1976
  • Gwaun-cae-Gurwen Silver Band, 1902
  • Tredegar Institute Billiard Team, 1934-5
  • Ystradgynlais miner, about 1940
  • Seven Sisters Colliery, 1943
  • Rhondda Fawr, about 1945
  • Gwendraeth Valley miners at Cardiff demonstration, 1953
  • Cardiff demonstration, 1953
  • Ton Phillip Rescue Team, about 1920
  • The Miner magazine and Six Bells disaster, 1960-1
  • Markham bandsman in 1957 Gala
  • Area Banner and front of 1959 Gala parade
  • Cwmbach choir and Paul Robeson, 1960
  • Campaign against pit closures, 1963
  • Last day at Abercrave Colliery, 1967
  • Pickets in 1972 strike
  • Campaign in London against closure of Deep Duffryn, 1979
  • Markham Colliery, 1977

TEXT ILLUSTRATIONS       

  • Emblem of South Wales Miners' Federation         ii
  • Albion (Cilfynydd) miners docket, 1901           6
  • Western Mail cartoon, 1906              9
  • Threat of pit closure, 1921 (poster)               29
  • Badges, emblems and tokens               68
  • Price list for Cambrian collieries, 1927                    77
  • Religious memorial card, 1932              80
  • Rhondda demonstration, 1927 (poster)              100
  • Garw valley non-unionist campaign, 1929 (poster)                  134
  • The South Wales Miner (Rank and File newspaper), 1935               246
  • Rhondda Labour Party newspaper, 1935                   249
  • Pit paper, 1936             296
  • A Bedwas leaflet, 1936              325
  • South Wales Miners' Federation poster appeal for the Spanish Republic, 1938                361
  • South Wales Miners' Federation poster on 1937 Wages Agreement              378
  • A Taff Merthyr leaflet, 1936                380
  • An early Eisteddfod at a Monmouthshire Institute                   430
  • Official journal of the union, 1946                 432
  • Werntarw leaflet warning against pit closures, 1951                  443
  • South Wales Area poster prior to the 1970 strike                      467
  • South Wales Area leaflet during 1974 strike                  478
  • Deep Duffryn leaflet warning against pit closures, 1979              483

MAPS   

  • The South Wales coalfield in 1913                     43 
  • The Coal Industry in South Wales, 1979                484

APPENDIX I

SWMF Lodges in January 1926

Anthracite District

Pontyberem, Great Mountain, Seven Sisters, Onllwyn, Emlyn, Trimsaran, Pentremawr, Rhos, Ammanford No, 2, Park, Crynant, Hendreladis, Brynhenllys, Gellyceidrim, Pwllbach, Ponthenry, Blaenywaun, International, Cross Hands, Dillwyn, Cawdor, Abercrave, Caerbryn, Gwaunclawdd, Gwauncaegurwen, Tirydail, Tirbach, Gwendraeth, New Cwmgors, Llwynon, Gurnos, Gilwen, New Cwmmawr, Ystradfawr, Carway, Diamond, Black Mountain, Pantyffynnon, Brynteg, Llandebie, Wernos, Maesmarchog, Tarreni, Amman Valley, Lamb, Ynysgeinon, Dulais, Cwmllynfell, Raven, Ynysdawela, New Dynant, Gwys, Rhosamman, Blaenhirwaun, Saundersfoot, Coedamman, Pontyclerc, Rock, Hook, Sylen, New Brook, Duke, Ystalyfera, Rhiw, Cwmnantmoel, Brynderi, Cwmtawe, Lower Cwmtawe, Mynydd Bach, Glantwrch, Gorsgoch,

Aberdare District

Aberaman, Blaenant, Blaengwawr, Bwllfa, British Rhondda, Bwllfa No, 3, Cwmaman, Cwmneol, Dyllas, Enginemen Stokers and Craftsmen, Fforchaman, Lower Duffryn, Llwynhelyg, Nantmelyn, River Level, Tower, Tirherbert, Windber, Werfa Dare,

Afan Valley District

Corrwg Vale, Cwmmawr, Merthyr Llantwit, Duffryn Rhondda Pits, Glenavon, North Rhondda, Glyncymmer, Glyncorrwg, Abergwynfi, Argoed, Oakwood, North End, Oakland, Nantewlaeth, Blaenmawr, Ynyslas, Craiglyn, Maesmelyn, Llwynffynnon, Glyncastle, Court Herbert, Aberpergwm, Gored Merthyr, Brynderwen, Empire, Villiers, Glyn Merthyr, Bryncoch, Cilfrew, Neath E, and S,, Craignedd, Clyne Merthyr, Premier Merthyr, Rhydygau, Dulais Mountain, Glyn Neath Enginemen, Blaengwrach,

Blaina District

Beynon Lodge, Clydach Lodge, Red Ash, Dyffryn Lodge, Lion Slope, East Red Ash,

Dowlais District

Taff-Merthyr, Nantwen (Dowlais), Nantwen (Bedlinog), Brithdir Levels,

East Glamorgan District

Llanbradach, Senghenydd, Abertridwr, Penallta, Bedwas, Blackbrook, Bedwas Mechanical,

Eastern Valleys District

Varteg United, Rose of Cwmsychan, Llanerch, Tirpentwys, Blaendare, Cwmbran, Glyn Pontypool, Elled, Blaenserchan, Gwenallt, Oldside Blaenavon, New Side Blaenavon, Pwlldu, Lanelly Hill, Talywain Red Ash, Crumlin Valley, Eastern Valley, Baldwins, Glyn Tillery, Llanerch Craftsmen, Blaenavon Craftsmen, Blaenavon By-Product,

Ebbw Vale District

Red Ash, No, 1 Marine, No, 2 Marine, Marine Surface, Cwm Enginemen, Ebbw Vale Enginemen, Clay Level, Prince of Wales, No, 1 Waun Lwyd, No, 2 Waun Lwyd, By-Product, Tradesmen's,

Garw District

International, Garw Ocean, Ffaldau, Ton Phillip, Aberbaiden, Cribbwr Fawr, Coytrahen, Nanthir, Raglan, Meiros, Llanelay, Llest No, 1, Wern Tarw, Tynywaun, Maendy, Bryncae,

Maesteg District

Avon Ocean, Caerau, Coegnant, Maesteg Deep, Maesteg Merthyr, Garth, Llangynwyd, Bryn, Cefn-y-Bryn, Cwmdu, Tondu Artizans, Bryn Mercantile, Cwmduffryn, Cwmgwynen, Glenhafod, Llynfi Sundries,

Merthyr District

South Pit No, 2, South Pit No, 1, Graig Pit and Levels, Castle Pit and Levels, Thomas Merthyr, Mechanical, Dowlais Paying Station,

Monmouth Western Valleys District

Celynen South, Llanhilleth, Cwmtillery, Abercarn, Rose Heyworth, Arrail Griffin Joint, Vivian, Tillery, Gray, Crumlin Navigation, North Celynen, Cwmcarn, Aberbeeg, Cwm, Aberbeeg South, Kendon, Arail, Twyn Gwyn, Llandawel, Penyfan, Llanhilleth H, C,, New Havod Van,

Ogmore and Gilfach District

Nantymoel, Dinas Main, Britannic, Wyndham, Lower Gilfach, Penllwyngwent, Rhondda Main, Trane, South Rhondda, Mechanical Section, G, Mechanical Section, Brynniau Gwynion, R, M, Mechanical Section,

Pontypridd District

Pentre, Maritime, Lady Windsor, Rockwood, Abercynon, Hafod, Coedcae, Great Western, Mynachdy, Llanharry, Nantgarw, Cwm Llantwit, Pwllgwaun, Abercynon Mechanical, Darranddu,

Rhondda No, I District

Hendrewen, Bute Merthyr, Cilely, Mardy, Fernhill, Naval, Tylorstown, Coedely, Gelli, Parc and Dare, National, Tynybedw, Maindy and Eastern, Abergorky, Ferndale, Llwynypia, Albion, Ynysfaio, Standard, Blaenclydach, Cymmer, Lewis Merthyr, Cambrian, Tydraw, Lady Lewis,

Rhymney Valley District

Elliots, Bedwas, New Tredegar, Gilfach, Abertysswg, Bargoed Steam, Bargoed H,C,, Pengam, Maesycwmmer, Groesfaen, Britannia, Mardy, Ogilvie, Barracks Level, Rhymney Engine, Gelly Haf, Rhymney Convenience,

Taff and Cynon District

Deep Dyffryn, Navigation, Cwm Cynon, Mechanical Workers, Penrhiwceiber, Merthyr Vale, Troedyrhiw, Aberfan, Treharris, Trelewis, Graig, Nelson, Bedlinog,

Tredegar Valley District

Tredegar Combine, Markham, Abernant, Llanover, Oakdale, Rock, Gelli, Nine Mile Point, Risca, St David's, Argoed, Sirhowy,

Western District

Primrose, Clydach Merthyr, Cae Duke, Killan, Mynydd Newydd, Broadoak, Birchrock, Copper Pit, Birchgrove, Glynea, Morlais, Trebanos, Burry Port, Tirdonkin, Berthlwyd, Torygraig, Mountain, Garngoch No, 3, Hills, Bryn Lliw, New Pool, Acorn, Samlet, Pentre, Garngoch No, 1, Mooretown, Glais, Beili Glas, Marchhywel, Western, Llan Morlais, Ashburnam, Lon Las, Moody, Elms, Cefn Caeau, Talyclun,

Source: SWMF, Directory for 1926,

APPENDIX V

Colliery Closures -South Wales, Forest of Dean and Somerset Coalfields, 1947-79

1947

Blaenclydach, Charmborough, Cynon, Erskine, Llanerch, Llanmarch, North Rhondda No, 2, Penrhys, Rhiwcolbren No,3                               9

1948

Broad Oak, Cwmhneol, Glanamman, Hook, Islwyn, Mardy, Maindy, Nantewlaeth, New Gellihir, Pwllgwaun, West Blaina                                  11

1949

Blaendare, Brithdir, Coalpit Heath, Cwm Cynon, Eryl Bryn, Glynogwr, Marsh Lane, Pontyberem, Tareni, Werfa Dare, Wen Fawr                               11

1950

Camerton, Cilely, Rhiw Colbren No, 2                                 3

1951

NIL                                                  -

1952

Garngoch No, 1, Talyclun                                     2

1953

Oaklands, Pidwellt, Pwll, Rhas                               4

1954

Brynteg, Radstock, Trimsaran                                 3

1955

Brynhenllys, Lucy Thomas, Mynydd Maen, Ynysarwed, Mynydd Newydd                                5

1956

Bedlinog, Crynant, Deakins Red Ash, Pengam, Saron                                  5

1957

Deakins Slope, Gelliceidrim, Rock (Mon,), Ystalyfera                                      4

1958

Glenhafod, Llandybie, Naval, Pensford, Tirherbert                                        5

1959

Aberbaiden, Arthur and Edward, Cwmllynfell, Eastern United, Ferndale No, 5, Garth Merthyr, Glengarw, Mount, Pentre, Steer, Ty Trist, Tydraw                                         12

1960

Britannic, Cannop, Hendy Merthyr, North Rhondda, Tylorstown No, 9, Carway, Rock (Glam,)                       7

1961

Clydach Merthyr, Graig Fawr, Llanbradach, Maritime                       4

1962-3

Aberaman, Blaenhirwaun, East, Gelli, Great Mountain, Llanharan, New Cross Hands, Onllwyn No, 3, Princess Royal      9

1963-4

Cwmgwrach, Bryn, Ffaldydre, Harry Stoke, New Rockwood, Seven Sisters                             6

1964-5

Cwmgorse, Daren, Garth Tonmawr, Nine Mile Point, Norchard, Onllwyn No, 1, Pochin, Rhigos, Varteg, Wern Tarw      10

1965-6

Glyncastle, Fforchaman, Felinfran, Wernos, Aberbeeg South, Northern United, Garngoch No, 3, Parc, Pwllbach, Norton Hill                               10

1966-7

Dillwyn, Old Mills, Cambrian, Glenrhondda, Albion, Risca, Duffryn Rhondda, Abercrave                               8

1967-8

Elliot, Abergorki, Crumlin, Wyllie, Pentreclwydau, International, Newlands, Ynyscedwyn                                8

1968-9

Cwmcarn, Groesfaen, Llanhilleth, New Rock, Cefn Coed, National, Pantyffynon, Penllwyngwent                          8

1969-70

Tirpentwys, Waterloo, Avon, Mountain                           4

1970-1

Glyncorrwg                            1

1971-2

NIL

1972-3

NIL

1973-4

Coed Cae, Kilmersdon                           2

1974-5

Ogilvie                       1

1975-6

Beynon, Glyntillery                            2

1976-7

Ammanford No, 2                        1

1977-8

Bargoed                             1

1978-9

Graig Merthyr, Caerau                       2

Source: National Coal Board, South Wales Public Relations Department,

APPENDIX VI

Chief Officials of the South Wales Miners 1898-1979

Presidents

  • William Abraham 1898 to 1912
  • William Brace   1912 to 1915
  • James Winstone  1915 to 1922
  • Vernon Hartshorn  1922 to 1924
  • Enoch Morrell   1924 to 1934
  • James Griffiths 1934 to 1936
  • Arthur L, Homer 1936 to 1946
  • Alf Davies    1946 to 1951
  • William Paynter 1951 to 1959
  • William Whitehead  1959 to 1966
  • Glyn Williams   1966 to 1973
  • Emlyn Williams  1973 to date

General Secretaries

  • Thomas Richards 1898 to 1931
  • Oliver Harris 1931 to 1941
  • Evan Williams 1941 to 1943
  • W, J, Saddler* 1943 to 1946
  • Evan Williams 1946 to 1947
  • William Arthur 1947 to 1951
  • W, H, Crews 1951 to 1958
  • D, D, Evans 1958 to 1963
  • David Francis 1963 to 1976
  • George Rees  1976 to date

* Acting General Secretary (appointed by the EC during Evan Williams' absence)

APPENDIX VII

NUM (South Wales Area) Lodges in January 1979

Swansea District

Abernant, Amman Valley and Rhiwfawr (licensed mine), Betws, Blaenant, Blaengwrach, Brynlliw, Cwmgwili, Cynheidre, Dulais (licensed mine), Graig Merthyr, Morlais, Pantyffynnon, Resolven (licensed mine), Swansea Valley (licensed mine), Treforgan, Vale of Neath (Aberpergwm), Winding Enginemen (West Wales),

Maesteg District

Coedely, Coegnant, Cwm, Garw Valley, Lynfi Sundries, Ogmore Valley, St John's, Tondu Artisans,

Aberdare, Rhondda and Merthyr District

Abercynon, Bedlinog (Trelewis Drift), Deep Duffryn, Deep Navigation, Fernhill, Lady Windsor, Lewis Merthyr, Mardy, Merthyr Vale, Mountain Ash Mechanical, Nantgarw, Penrhiwceiber, Taff Merthyr, Tower, Tymawr, Winding Enginemen (East Wales),

Rhymney District

Bargoed Surface, Bedwas, Britannia, Markham, Oakdale, Penallta, Tredegar Combine,

Monmouthshire District

Six Bells (Arrael Griffin), Blaenavon, Blaenserchan, Celynen North, Celvnen South, Cwmtillery, Marine, Roseheyworth, Crumlin (licensed mine),

Source: NUM (South Wales Area) Directory, 1979,

Name Index

  • Ablett, Noah,
    'leadership', 20; SWMF, EC, 22; The Miners' Next Step, 45-6; Unofficial Reform Committee, 47; bitter attacks, 48; suspension and disgrace', 66, 237; at Mardy, 158-9; 1931 dispute, 176; Taff Merthyr, 216
  • Abraham, William (Mabon), 2, 4, 16, 22, 39
  • Abrahams, Phil, 263-7 passim, 302
  • Aeron-Thomas, G, E,, 437
  • Ambatielos, Tony, 429
  • Andrews, Tom, 119-20
  • Arnot, R, Page, 369
  • Arthur, Will, 400
  • Barker, George, 21, 22, 48
  • Beamish, Dick, 12, 45, 240, 299-300, 368
  • Bennetta, Richard, 288-9
  • Berry, H, Seymour, 86, 138
  • Bevan, Aneurin,
    295; Sunday School, 10; celibacy and the unemployed, 33; Lock-out, 1926, 58; on police, 1929, 132-3; Tredegar Workers' Freedom Group, 192-8; International Brigades, 198; Hunger March, 1934, 253; Means Test protests, 1935, 253, 258, 271; Popular Front, 273, 368-9; Spanish Civil War, 368-9; expulsion, 399; Minister of Health and Housing, 433-4
  • Blewett, Charlie, 468-9
  • Borodin, Michael, 30
  • Bosanquet, Victor, 117-18
  • Bowman, James, 448
  • Boyce, Max, 454
  • Brace, William, 2, 20, 39, 426
  • Bradshaw, Rev, William, 33
  • Brown, Ceridwen, 260
  • Brown, George, 266
  • Campbell, J, R,, 153, 270
  • Candler, E, M,, 433
  • Canniff, Dannie, 465-6
  • Chappell, David, 60-1
  • Chataway, Christopher, 445
  • Churchill, Winston, 117, 409, 434, 444
  • Citrine, Walter, 262
  • Coldrick, William, 64
  • Collins, Enoch, 154
  • Cook, A, J,
    and The Miners' Next Step,14; RILU, 30; leadership, 39; Unofficial Reform Committee, 47; attacks on, 48; and 1926 Soviet banner, 53; on Communist Party, 67; as MFGB secretary, 69; death, 98; Hunger March, 99-103 passim, 171; on 'scab union', 113; criticism of MFGB, 149; on Tom Richards, 149; attacked by Communist Party, 150-2, 171; and Mardy, 163, 170; and Horner, 172; on non-unionism, 212; echoes of, 481
  • Coombes, B, L,, 48, 307, 405-6, 411, 415-16
  • Cooper, Ted, 427
  • Copeman, Fred, 360
  • Cornelius, Dick, 72
  • Court, W, H, B,, 395
  • Cox, Idris, 105, 147, 149, 174, 191, 239, 272-3,303,419
  • Crews, W, H,, 141, 216-17, 219, 226, 293,322,340
  • Cripps, Stafford, 202, 210, 368
  • Daggar, George, 262, 265, 300
  • Daly, Lawrence, 473
  • Daniel, Brin, 463
  • Davies, Rev, Alban, 267-8, 302
  • Davies, Alf, 239, 276, 293, 295, 311,385-6
  • Davies, David (later Lord Davies of Llandinam), 40, 90, 220-30 passim, 241-2,287,290
  • Davies, D, C,, 73, 442, 490
  • Davies, Ald, D, D,, 297
  • Davies, D, J,, 46
  • Davies, Dai Lloyd, 53, 154, 158-9, 162-3,169
  • Davies, D, R,, 322
  • Davies, Elfed, 453
  • Davies, Evan, 79
  • Davies, Idris, 55, 425
  • Davies, Jack, 231, 240, 322, 385-6
  • Davies, John 'Saer', 445
  • Davies, Morris, 354, 372
  • Davies, Rhys 'Trotsky', 306, 420-1
  • Davies, S, O,
    101, 148-9; RILU, 30; ICWPA, 52; Lock-out, 1926, 67; Hunger March, 1927, 101; MFGB EC, 148-9; Miners' Agent, 211; Mardy expulsion, 165: attack by Horner, 170; campaigns for Horner, 1932, 183; organiser, 187, 201-3; 'United Army', 71, 192; and 'scab union', 93, 212-14, 226; on Bedlinog sentences, 1936, 295: as MP, 309, 453, 479
  • Dobson, Harry, 353-4, 372 Dolling, George, 45 Dorgan, Jack, 425 Dunn, William, 187 Dunning, Sir Leonard, 64
  • Eadie, Joseph, 62
  • Edwards (Sir) Charles, 17
  •  Edwards, H, W, J,, 157
  • Edwards, Ness, 34, 216, 219, 223, 226,233,243,293,297,315,317,322-3,335,345,434
  • Edwards, W, J,, 25, 300
  • Elias, Sid, 105, 231
  • Evans, Alf, 159
  • Evans, Arfon, 494
  • Evans, Dai Dan,
    1926, 73: Seniority Rule, 108: NCLC, 248; syndicalism, 299: Bedwas, 322-3, 345; Spanish Civil War, 350; merger of 'scab union', 420; COSA, 426; pneumoconiosis survey, 440: union education, 446-7; nationalisation, 487
  • Evans, Edgar, 111, 216-17, 231, 233, 238-40,269,295,300,303,306
  • Evans, Evan J, (lanto), 201, 225, 239,299
  • Evans, Gomer, 435 Evans, Jim, 70
  • Evans, Peter, 491, 494
  • Evans, Tom, 444
  • Eyles, Arthur, 251
  • Finch, Harold, 35, 280, 424
  • Fletcher, Charles, 441
  • Foot, Michael, 479
  • Francis, Dai, 423, 465, 477, 480, 486
  • Frankenberg, Ronald, 447
  • Gaitskell, Hugh, 441-2
  • Gale, Tom, 23
  • Geddes, Alec, 64
  • Gibb, Robert, 63
  • Gibbon, C, L,, 45
  • Goldberg, Max, 46, 47
  • Goodwin-Austen, Lt,-Gen, Sir A,, 437
  • Greening, Edwin, 104
  • Gregory, William, 90, 110, 115-25 passim, 133, 140, 200-1, 221, 225,234,321-2,334,344,347-49,381-3,420
  • Grenfell, D, R,, 182, 396-7, 405, 439
  • Griffin, Mike, 481, 494
  • Griffiths, Arthur, 272
  • Griffiths, James:
    Miners' lock-out, 1926, 56-7; SWMF, president, 108, 199-200; vice-president, 187, 191; 'scab union', 219, 230; Bridgeman Award, 1934, 227; NCLC, 248; Means Test, 1935, 257; 'stay-down' strikes, 280-98 passim; MP, 309-11; Bedwas, 319; Popular Front, 368; World War Two, 405; Minister of National Insurance, 433-4
  • Griffiths, W, J,, 48, 371
  • Hall, George, 182, 218, 255-7, 300
  • Hann, E, L,, 89, 220, 228, 230, 379, 408,423
  • Hannington, Wal, 99-102, 171, 192, 309
  • Harcombe, Mark, 16, 25 5-6
  • Hardie, Keir, 309
  • Harrington, Tim, 272
  • Harris, Oliver:
    SWMF, full-time official,74, 311; 'scab union', 94-5, 221, 225,236, 383, 388,420-1; SWMF, reform,183: and 'stay-down' strikes, 281, 287; unofficial strikes, 294, 307; Llanelli by election, 310; and Bedwas, 335, 343: International Brigades, 358; retirement, 424
  • Hartshorn, Vernon, 4, 20-1, 22, 32, 39, 48,98,126-8,141-3
  • Hartwell, Dane, 492-3
  • Hay, W, F,, 22,45
  • Hayward, Don, 489
  • Hayward, Frank, 442
  • Heath, Edward, 477
  • Hill, Len, 263, 266
  • Hodges, Frank, 4, 21, 27-8, 39, 48, 69,119,140
  • Hopkins, Thomas, 64
  • Horner, Arthur:
    in Ireland, 23; Mardy checkweigher, 23, 157-8; negotiating strategy, 40-1; Lock-out, 1926, 59, 67: joins Communist Party, 158; MMM, 83, 145-52 passim; Hunger March, 1927, 100; SWMF president,108, 208, 225, 311-12, 405, 424; 'scab union', 127, 231, 239, 311-12, 322: MFGB, EC, 145-6, 148; attacks 'reformist' leaders, 149-5 1; General Election, 1929, 152; differences with Communist Party, 153-4; gaol, 1919, 158;1921,163: 1931-2,180-3,189; in Russia, 162, 170: Mardy expulsion, 165-70 passim; 'Hornerism', 167, 170, 179-80, 184, 204; on Hartshorn,171; 1931 strike, 176-80; 1933 Rhondda East by-election, 190; election as Gwendraeth agent, 191, 210, 299; 1928, 1934 SWMF conferences, 199; and Bevan, 193-4, 198; unemployment, 253; on 1935, 270, 308: Bedlinog sentences, 1936, 295; and Llanelli by-election, 1936, 310; Bedwas, Ch, 9 passim, 376-88 passim; 'Spanish Aid', 357-68 passim; on unofficial strikes, 377; TaffMerthyr, 386-8; World War Two, 394,398 17 passim; Youth, 416-17; founding of NUM, 417-19; Stakhanovites, 1945, 431; general secretary, NUM, 434; National Coal Production Officer, 1945, 435-6; Miners' Charter, 1946, 438, 488; echoes of, 469
  • Hyndley, Lord, of Meads, 437
  • Instone, Sir Samuel, Ch, 9 passim
  • James, Archie, 276-7, 440
  • James, Lyndon R,, 440, 459
  • James, Trevor, 465
  • Jenkins, Arthur, 64, 117, 199, 219, 287,309-11
  • Jenkins, Emlyn, 463
  • Jenkins (Sir) William, 21, 50, 75, 225-6,294
  • Jevons, H, S,, 5, 19-20
  • John, Evan, 436, 444,463, 489-90
  • John, Will, 256, 368
  • Jones, Charlie (Coch), 181
  • Jones, D, B, see South Wales Boilermen and Engine Winders' Union
  • Jones, Rev, D, M,, 67
  • Jones, Griff, 260, 301
  • Jones, Jack (Abertillery), 169
  • Jones, Jack (Clydach Vale), 108, 111,247, 299, 355
  • Jones, Jack (novelist), 205-7
  • Jones, Lewis, 305, 307; and Mardy, 157,165: on 'reformism', 173; on Means Test protests, 1935, 257-8, 303; Hunger March, 1936, 271-2; We Live, 281, 292; and Spain, 354-5
  • Jones, Morgan, (Bedlinog), 293
  • Jones, Morgan (Caerphilly), 67
  • Jones, Oliver, 194
  • Jones, Penry, 442
  • Jones, Sydney, 280-1, 419
  • Jones, Thomas (Tom), 39
  • Jones, Tom (Rhos), 368
  • Jones, Tom Howell, 354, 372
  • Lee, Jenny, 462
  • Lenin, 31, 53, 56
  • Lewis, Edgar, 219, 239
  • Lindsay, Capt, Lionel, 138, 182, 242, 252,294-7,383
  • Llewellyn, D, R,, 272, 353, 400
  • Llewellyn, Mavis, 269, 283-4
  • Lloyd, Clarence, 263, 266
  • Lloyd, Eddie, 444
  • Lloyd, Harold, 263, 266
  • Lloyd, Will, 354
  • Lloyd George, David, 22
  • Lush, Archie, 197
  • Mabon see William Abraham
  • Macdonald, James Ramsay, 267
  • Mainwaring, W, H,
    45: 1926 defeat, 76:Hunger March, 1927, 99-100: and Mardy, 163, 165-6; 'resignation', 173: 1933 by-election, 190, 193-4: and 'scab union', 219, 240, 288: unemployment protests, 1935, 256, 301: 'stay-down' strikes, 304-5: General Election, 1945, 433
  • Mann, Tom, 103, 252-3
  • Mantle, Tom, 426
  • Mardy-Jones, T, 1,, 159, 345
  • Marsden, Jack, 279-80
  • Marx, Karl, 54
  • Maslin, George, 174
  • Matthews, Haydn, 493
  • Matthews, Wayne, 493
  • May, W, H,, 196, 289, 291
  • Milsom, W, J,, 313, 316, 317, 319, 341, 346
  • Mitchell, Billy, 279-80
  • Morgan, J, E,, 72, 359, 436
  • Morgan, Morien, 72, 372
  • Morgan, Robert, 454-5, 485
  • Morrell, Enoch, SWMF president, 74: on 'scab unions', 96; Garw strike, 1929, 136; retirement, 199
  • Morris, Sam, 372
  • Mosley, Oswald, 193
  • Nicholas, Nun, 248, 299
  • Nicholas, Tommy, 46, 73
  • Nind, W, J,, 313, 343-4, 346
  • Onions, Alfred, 17
  • Owen, D, R,, 248
  • Owen, Frank, 354, 372
  • Palfreman, Alf, 64
  • Parfitt, William, 64
  • Parry, Cyril, 109
  • Paynter, Will,
    47: 1932 Hunger March, 106: expulsion from Cymmer Lodge, 174: on 'Hornerism', 204: International Brigades, 272, 353-5, 362, 370: and 'red scare', 1935, 292: 'Spanish Aid', 365, 374: on 'staydown' strikes, 419: 1937 wages agreement, 420; SWMF, president, 444: unofficial strikes, 444-5, 489: union education, 446-7: recession, 1958, 448: closures, 1960s, 450: The Miner (NUM journal), 489
  • Pollitt, Harry, 153, 193, 252-3, 400, 433, 489
  • Powell, Oliver, 70, 78
  • Price, Leo, 345, 347-8, 354
  • Pritt, D, N,, 252, 266
  • Prosser, John, 279
  • Rees, D, M,, 449
  • Rees, George, 463, 494
  • Richards, Gwilym, 108
  • Richards, Thomas:
    coalfield leader, 39: on MFGB EC, 2,1,148: as SWMF general secretary, 2, 74, 85, 31 1: on SWMF, reform, 89: on Lock-out, 1926, 72; post-Lock-out, 1926, 94-6: as MP, 107-8; and 'scab union', 130-1, 135; 'Mond-Turner' talks, 149: and Ablett, 237: death, 98
  • Robens, Alfred (Lord), 452, 457, 467-9
  • Roberts, Bryn, 88
  • Roberts, Jack (also known as 'Jack
  • Russia'), 54, 82
  • Robeson, Paul, 429
  • Rogers, Lance, 370
  • Saddler, W, J,:
    on contributions, 108, 185; vice-president, 311: Bedwas, 335; unofficial strikes, 376; general secretary, 424: Bournemouth, 433: NCB appointment, 435
  • Saint, Ron, 463
  • Shinwell, Emmanuel, 435-6
  • Smith, Herbert, 145, 148
  • Spencer, George, 118-24 passim, 224, 383
  • Spendlove, Superintendent, 131
  • Stanley, Oliver, 261
  • Stanton, C, B,, 4, 22
  • Strachey, John, 101, 193
  • Strangward, Jim, 356, 374
  • Swift,, Mr Justice, 64
  • Tanner, Jack, 416
  • Thomas, Alun, 489
  • Thomas, Anne, 72, 306
  • Thomas, Connie, 433
  • Thomas, D, A, (later Lord Rhondda), 20
  • Thomas, D, Emlyn, 383
  • Thomas, D, Lleufer, 50-1, 65
  • Thomas, George (Treherbert), 268, 276
  • Thomas, Gwyn, 274, 427-8, 486
  • Thomas, Iorwerth (Iorrie), 63-4, 288-91,306, 376-7,419
  • Thomas, Jack, 30
  • Thomas, John (Afan Valley), 75
  • Thomas, Mel, 71
  • Thomas, T, George (later MP), 302, 492
  • Thomas, Tom, 30
  • Thomas, W, H,, 446
  • Thomas, W, P,, 90, 131, 288
  • True, Cliff, 464
  • Urwin, Margaret, 433
  • Vale, Jim, 45
  • Watkins, Nat, 83, 150
  • Watts-Morgan, David, 8, 21, 182
  • Webb, Beatrice, 20
  • Whitehead, Will, 306
  • Williams, Bryn, 463
  • Williams, D, J,: Combines, 86-7, 185; NCLC, 248: Spain, 367: career, 374
  • Williams, Edward (Ted), 60, 95, 135-6,143, 170, 219
  • Wilhams, Emlyn, 481, 487, 494
  • Williams (Sir) Evan, 81, 89-90, 1 17,, 377, 379, 407
  • Williams, Evan (SWMF), 187, 413, 424
  • Wilhams, Garfield, 313
  • Williams, Glyn, 71, 73, 464-6
  • Willams, Iestyn, 124, 348, 383
  • Williams, J, S,, 30, 260, 269, 272, 354, 374
  • Williams, John, 427
  • Williams, Maria, 45
  • Williams, W, A,, 91, 114, 238
  • Wilson, Alistair, 72
  • Wilson, Harold, 452, 491
  • Wilson, Havelock, 118
  • Wilson, J, R,, 73
  • Zamora, Frank, 356

Place/Subject Index

  • Abercarn, 56
  • Abercrave, 11-13,45
  • Aberdare, 23, 72,271
  • Aberdare (Cynon) Valley:
    Combine committees, 24-5: Lock-out, 1926, 58: opposition to Means Test, 257-9: Porter Award, 1944, 412: 1952 strike, 444: Hirwaun gas tanks, 479: Deep Duffryn campaign, 1979, 482-5, 494
  • Aberfan, Disaster, 1966, 458, 460-1
  • Abersychan, 56
  • Abertillery,
    103-4, 256, 262-67 passim accidents, disasters and explosions, 80, 199: Marine (Cwm), 1927, 79-81: Six Bells, 1960, 458-9: Cambrian, 1965, 458-9: Aberfan, 1966, 458, 460-1: Cynheidre, 1972, 476
  • Afan Valley, 59, 60-2, 352, 457-8, 463-4
  • Afan Valley District, SWMF, 75
  • Amalgamated Engineering Union (AEU),185,205
  • Amman Valley, 71, 439, 455-6
  • Ammanford, 54, 453
  • Anthracite coalfield, 52, 247-8, 352, 445
  • Anthracite District, SWMF, 17, 75, 76,187, 191, 358
  • Anti-fascism
    (see also InternationalBrigades, Spanish Civil War andWorld War Two), 192-8 passim, 322 Anti-semitism, 322, 326, 347
  • Anti-war Movements, 22-3
  • Appalachian coalfields (USA), 454
  • Basque refugee children, 358, 360, 362
  • Bedlinog, 308; General Strike, 55, 111:and Taff-Merthyr, 93-4, Ch, 7 passim :trial of inhabitants, 1935, 295
  • Bedwas, 56, 312-13
  • Bedwas and Machen UDC, 479
  • Bedwas Rebel, 313
  • Bedwellty Board of Guardians, 48
  • 'Bevin' boys, 422, 438
  • Bishops' Proposals, 1926, 58
  • blacklegging see Strikes and Lock-outs
  • Blackwood, 258, 430, 439
  • Blaenavon, 56, 272, 282
  • Blaengarw, 277
  • Blaenllechau, 160
  • Blaina, 262-7 passim
  • Board of Trade, 27, 37, 439
  • Bridgend, 60, 295
  • British Miners' Relief Fund, 1926, 53
  • British Union of Fascists, 363
  • Brynamman, 439-40
  • Brynmawr, 262-7 passim
  • Caerphilly, 41, 70
  • Cardiff, 271, 466: Trades and Labour Council, 362
  • Catholicism, 12, 34
  • Central Labour College, 10, 13, 25, 98,159, 299, 447
  • Chartism, 192-8 passim, 250, 299
  • Checkweighers, 34, 306
  • Chester-le-Street, 48
  • 'Cliveden Set', 125
  • Coal Combines or Trusts, 85-9:
    Cambrian, 8, 76, 85, 305; Powell Duffryn, 24, 38, 50, 85, 88, 91, Ch, 7 passim, 275-6, 354, 389-92, 406-8,412, 437, 445; Tredegar Iron and Coal Company, 78, 118, 276; Ocean, 78, 85, 90, 91, 120-2, 129-30, Ch, 7 passim, 276, 284-91; Amalgamated Anthracite, 87, 276; United Anthracite, 87: Welsh Associated Colheries, 275; Cory, 276, 406; Evans-Bevan, 412
  • Coal export trade, 38
  • Coal Industry Nationalisation Bill, 1946, 435
  • Coal Industry Social Welfare Organisation (CISWO), 429
  • Coal Mines Act, 82
  • Coal Production Council, 396
  • Coity, 59
  • Collieries (see also Lodges):
    Aberbaiden, 141, 443, 449: Abercynon, 407; Abergelli, 436; Abergorki, 412; Abernant, 461: Albion, 346, 407: Bedlinog, 211; Bedwas, 116, 144, 221, 280, 292-3, Ch, 9 passim, 354, 376-7, 419; Blaenavon, 471; Blaenant, 461: Blaenserchan, 117: Britannia, 117: Brynhenllys, 280, 446; Brynlliw, 461, 492; Bute, 334, 346; Caerau, 471: Cambrian, 458-9: Cefn Coed, 449, 455: Celynen North, 285-6: Celynen South, 67, 285-6: Cilely, 443, 451: Clydach Merthyr, 436: Coedely, 443, 451; Coegnant, 461, 471: Cwmcynon, 407; Cwmgwili, 471; Cwmllynfell, 299, 446: Cynheidre, 456, 461, 476; Dare, 116, 122, 200, 277, 286-91: Deep Duffryn, 440-1, 474,482-3, 491-2: Deep Navigation, 215, 461; Eastern United (Forest of Dean), 449; Elliot, 110, 440; Emlyn, 201, 210, 247: Ferndale, 29, 440: Fernhill, 240, 286, 334, 348, 419, 471; Ffaldau, 135, 210, 472; Gadlys, 82; Garw (Ocean), 120, 286, 471; Glamorgan, 179, 334; Glenavon, 277; Gwaun-cae-Gurwen (East and Steer), 440, 445-6, 449; Glyncymmer, 61; Great Mountain, 440: Gresford (N, Wales), 458; International (Abercrave), 11; International (Blaengarw), 144; Lady Windsor, 436: Lewis Merthyr, 474;Llanbradach, 452; Llanharan, 442; Mardy Ch, 5 passim, 208, 345, 390; Margam, 494: Markham, 118; Meiros, 133: Merthyr Vale, 460-1; Morlais, 81-2; Mount, 449; Nantewlaeth, 61; Nantwen, 211; National, 492; Newlands, 443; Nine Mile Point, 115-33 passim, 456:Oakdale, 118; Parc, 277, 288, 291, 334; Parc and Dare, 441; Penallta, 492, Penrhiwceiber, 406-8, 473-4; Pentre, 443, 449; Pwllbach, 446; Raglan, 90, 133, 215; Risca, 456; St John's, 471; Six Bells, 458-9; South Pit (Glyncorrwg), 352: Taff-Merthyr, 91-6 passim, 203, 278-86, 297, 305-6, 379,493; Tareni, 406: Tirbach, 439; Tirpentwys, 124: Tower, 238; Treforgan, 461; Trelewis Drift, 474; Tydraw, 449: United National, 277: Werntarw, 96, 442-3; Windber, 137; Windsor, 82; Wyndham, 286; Wyndham/Western, 472
  • Colliery closures, 509-11: 1921, 29; 1921-36,33,97,176;1951,442-3: 1959-69,448-58,463-4;1979,480, 482-3,485
  • Colliery Examiners Association, 47
  • Colliery Offices and Staffs Area (COSA, section of NUM), 426, 471
  • Colliery Workers' Magazine, 98
  • Combine Committees,
    24-5, 85-9, 191, 200, 389, 444-5; Amalgamated Anthracite, 87-8, 247, 276; Cambrian Combine, 85, 259-61, 353; Cory, 276-8, 389: Ocean Combine, 85, 276-90 passim, 389; Powell Duffryn, 222, 390-1, 393, 408; Tredegar, 276
  • Commission of Enquiry into Industrial Unrest, 44, 49-50, 85
  • Common Market, 480
  • Communist International, 28, 30, 52, 270
  • Communist Party of Great Britain:
    foundation, 28; RILU, 30-2: Mardy,53; Lock-out, 1926, 66-7; MMM,83, 98-9, 145-52; 'Third Period',145-54, 204; MFGB, 145-54; anti-fascism 193-8; Bedlinog, 216, 233,238-9; Abertillery and District, 262-7 passim; attack by religious ministers, 267-8; in mid-1930s, 268-70, 272-3, 292, 303, 309-10; and Spanish Civil War, Ch. 10 passim; World War Two, 400-1; General Election, 1945, 433; militancy in NUM, 1951-2, 444; 1969,462-6;1970,468-9
  • Community Development Project, 457-8
  • Conciliation Board: 1903, 2; 1926, 97, 289; 1929, 97; 1934, 229, 321; 1942, 394
  • Conferences:
    MFGB (Annual) 1922, 30;1939, 417; MFGB (Special) 1944,417-18; SWMF (Annual) 1912.16;1934,199;1935, 275;1936,311,1937.376;1938,366-7:1940,394,400; 1943, 403-5; SWMF (Special),1908,8;1912,16-19; 1917,24-6;1921,30;1927,89,96;1931,176-7;1933,317-18:1934,199-200,227;1935, 235-6,282-3,334;1937,364;,1938,385; 1940,400:,1944,412;NUM (Annual), 1970,468; 1971, 468,470; NUM, S. Wales Area (Annual),1952,437; 1969, 463; NUM, S. Wales Area (Special), 1952, 444; 1969,464-5;1972,471,475
  • Conservative Party,
    91, 110-11; Clubs,113, 160; Workmen's Association,381; Governments, 1951-9, 442, 444,448;1970-4,466,476-9
  • Co-operative Societies, 55, 63, 70
  • Craftsmen, 26, 31, 494
  • Cross Keys, 17, 56
  • Cumberland, 449
  • Cwmbran, 56, 272
  • Cwmfelinfach (see also Nine Mile Point Colliery), 56, 279-80
  • Cwmgiedd, 10
  • Cwmllynfell, 451
  • Cwmparc, 58
  • Cwmtillery Searchlight, 296
  • Cymmer (Afan Valley), 60-1
  • Cymmer (Rhondda), 58
  • Czechoslovakia, invasion of, 429: miners,399
  • Daily Worker, 183, 189, 268
  • Default Act, 1927, 48
  • Dowlais, 11-13
  • Dowlais District SWMF, 30, 93, 211
  • Dulais Valley, 63, 269, 412, 444, 457; Joint Lodges, 366-7
  • Durham, 54, 156
  • Ebbw Vale, 271
  • Economy cuts, 1931, 104, 106
  • Education (see also Central Labour College NCLC and Plebs), 416-17
  • Eight Hours Act, 1908, 7
  • Elliotstown, 59
  • Emergency Powers Regulations, 55, 396,474,477
  • Emigration, 38
  • Essential Works Order, 396
  • 'Fed' see South Wales Miners' Federation
  • Feeding of Necessitous Children Act,57
  • Ferndale, 160 Fochriw, 67
  • Forest of Dean, 426-7, 449
  • Garw District, SWMF, 96, 128-9,133-7, 144
  • Gelli, 58
  • Germany, 192, 195, 400, 404, 429
  • Gilfach Goch, 431
  • Glamorgan Standing Joint Committee,294-7
  • Glyncorrwg, 60-2, 72 Glyn-Neath: Soviet Level, 1926, 57
  • 'Great Unrest, 1910-14', 466
  • Gwaun-cae-Gurwen, 439-40, 445-6
  • Gwendraeth Valley, 191, 488
  • Hengoed, 439
  • holidays (with pay), 413, 475
  • Home Office, 64
  • Housing Finance Act, 1972, 479
  • Hungary, 280, 429
  • Hunger Marches,
    274: 1927, 99-102,171;1930,105:1931,105;1932,105-6; 1933 (Monmouthshire), 248, 250;1934,245,248, 250-3;1936,245, 271-2,353
  • Immigration, immigrants, 7, 10-13, 23,45, 156, 160, 211
  • Independent Labour Party (ILP), 7,20-1,23,252,261,363
  • India, 47
  • Industrial Democracy, 481-2
  • Industrial Relations Act, 1972, 479-80
  • Industrial Survey of South Wales; 1932,37,49;1937,49
  • Industrial Transference Boards, 37
  • Industrial Workers of the World, 47
  • International Brigades, 23, 73, 272; Spanish communities, 12; SWMF, Ch. l0 passim
  • International Class War Prisoners' Aid (ICWPA), 52-3, 73
  • International Federation of Trade Unions, 30-1
  • Ireland and Irish communities, 23
  • Jazz and comic bands, 58, 274. 427-8
  • Joint Coal Production Committee, 397
  • Kent miners, 493
  • Labour Party (see also Parliamentary Elections),
    10, 31, 202; Lock-out, 1926, 64, 66, 73; Parliamentary by-elections, 41; Communist Party criticism, 153; Mardy, 163, 165-6; anti-fascism, 196-7; Means Test, 250; United Front, 262; Communist Party, 268-70, 303, 377; Regional Council, 273; SWMF Parliamentary candidates, 308-11, 487; Spanish Civil War, Ch. 10 passim; World War Two, 400-5; Governments, 1929-3 1, 175;1945-50,426,433-5;1964-70, 452-3,462;1974-9,479-81; Annual Conference, 1968, 462
  • League of Nations, 30
  • Lenin School, 168
  • Liberalism, 23
  • Lib-Labism, 2, 7, 20-1
  • Llanelli, 41, 309-10
  • Llanharan, 60, 113
  • Llantrisant, 45
  • Lodges (see also Collieries):
    Abercrave, 45, 320, 352; Bedwas, Ch. 9 passim; Cambrian, 351, 353, 359, 428, 444; Cefn Coed, 366; Celynen South, 469; Clydach Merthyr, 436; Coedcae, 24; Coedely, 463, 493; Cwm, 463, 471, 493; Cwmaman, 24; Deep Duffryn, 485, 494; Deep Navigation, 493; Duffryn Rhondda, 428; Emlyn, 358; Ferndale, 47, 352; Fernhill, 367, 472, 493; Garngoch No. 1, 358-9; Gelliceidrim, 355; Great Mountain, 24; Lady Windsor, 359, 436, 493; Lewis Merthyr, 359; Maindy and Eastern, 356; Mardy (Rhondda), 23, 52,69,78,110,165-70,174,189-91, 208, 427, 493; Mardy (Rhymney Valley), 88; Markham, 118; Merthyr and District Unemployed, 353, 358; Morlais, 81-2; Nantgarw, 472; National, 359; Newlands, 421, 427; Nine Mile Point, 53, 56, 115-33 passim, 278-87, 304-5; Oakdale, 118, 465; Ocean Nantymoel, 359; Ogilvie, 88; Parc and Dare, 441; Penallta, 53, 428; Penrhiwceiber, 428, 469; Risca, 485; Seven Sisters, 444; South Pit (Glyncorrwg), 352; Taff - Merthyr, Ch. 7, 380-8, 493; Tower, 108, 428, 493; Tynybedw, 46; Werntarw, 442-3, 493; Windber, 137
  • Machen, 56
  • Maesteg, 23, 62, 126-7
  • Maesteg District, SWMF, 75
  • Manchester Guardian, 182
  • Mardy (see also Mardy Lodge)
    'Little Moscow' (and Communist Party), 53-4,103,157-65,173,174,181-3; General Strike and 1926 Lock-out, 55,163-4; Distress Committee, 102-3;development of, 154-62; in depression, 164-70; Council of Action, 180-3, 192; colliery closure,208
  • Means Test (see also Hunger Marches and Unemployment), 245-75 passim, 300,303-4
  • Merthyr Tydfil, 11, 23, 33, 41, 192, 221, 260-1;271-2,439,479
  • Millendraeth Holiday Village, 433
  • Miners' Charter, 1946, 438, 488
  • Miners' Federation of Great Britain,
    28, 41, 74, 202; and RILU, 30; Miners' Lock-out, 53, 57, 59; and MMM, 83-5; and Nationalisation. 90; Rules, 148-9; 1931 wage negotiations, 177; 1934 wage negotiations, 200; Porter Award, 1944, 410-11; and dust diseases, 439
  • Miners' International Federation, 368
  • Miners' Minority Movement, 52, 83-4, 145-51,164,167,170,178-9
  • Miners' Monthly, 200, 340-1
  • The Miners' Next Step, 10, 13-16, 186-7,305,419,444
  • Miners' Welfare:
    Commission, 429, 431; Movement, 429-31; Talygarn, 431-3; Bournemouth, 433; Halls and Institutes, 429-31, 448, 454-5; Porthcawl 'Rest Home', 486
  • Mines Department, 331, 333-4, 348-9
  • Ministry of Food, 397
  • Minority Movement: Lock-out, 1926, 59; post-Lock-out, 1926, 98; at Bedwas, 313
  • Monmouth Western Valleys District, SWMF, 75
  • Monmouthshire and South Wales Coalowners' Association, 89, 90; Non-unionist Agreement, 1916, 27; Settlement Agreement, 1926, 76; Garw strike, 135; Union organisation, 391-2
  • Monmouthshire County Council, 64
  • Monmouthshire Standing Joint Committee, 64, 117. 132
  • Mountain Ash, 58, 482
  • Munitions of War Act, 22
  • Nantyglo, 262-7 passim
  • Nantymoel. 283-4
  • National Association of Colliery Overmen Deputies and Shotfirers (NACODS), 426,462
  • National Coal Board (NCB) (see also Nationalisation):
    and capitalism, 418, 457; Divisional appointments, 1947, 435; Miners' Charter, 1946, 438; rationalisation, 442-3; Gwaun-caeGurwen dispute, 1956, 445; Closures policy, 448-56, 482-3; 'bureaucracy', 437; safety campaign, 459; Aberfan, 460; redevelopments, 461; Plan for Coal, 480; retirement, 480, 490; Tripartite Group Sub-Committee, 1979, 480, 494
  • National Council of Labour Colleges (NCLC), 54,247-8,447
  • National Industrial Board, 175-6, 199-200,227
  • National Injuries Act, 1948, 434
  • National Insurance Act, 1948, 434
  • National Tip Safety Committee, 461
  • National Unemployed Workers (Committee) Movement (NUW(C)M), 99-106, 164, 182, 250-75 passim
  • National Union of Mineworkers (NUM),
    42; and MMM, 83; founding of, 417-19, 425-6, 465; Nationalisation, 487: Election Manifesto, 1945, 434; integrated fuel policy, 438; Miners' Charter, 1946, 438; Strike rule, 468; 1972 strike, 470-7; 1974 strike, 477-9; policy on pneumoconiosis, 494
  • National Union of Mineworkers,
    South Wales Area, 426; in the community, 427-33, 455; Eisteddfod, 427-9, 486; Gala, 427-9, 462; Sponsored MPs, 433-4, 453, 487; Election Manifesto, 1945, 434-5; Compensation Department, 440; policy on pneumoconiosis, 441; unofficial strikes, 1951-2, 442-6; house-coal pooling scheme, 446; union education, 446-8, 490; The Miner, 447-8; Youth Advisory Committee, 446; opposition to closures, 450-1; Safety Department, 440, 458-60; Aberfan, 460; new militancy, 462-81, 492-4
  • National Union of Seamen, 118-19
  • Nationalisation (coal industry),
    90, 117,409, 413-14: and capitalism, 418,457; NUM pohcy on, 434-8; rank and-file attitude, 435-8; early criticism of, 436-8, 488-9; compensation, 437; Anthracite customs, 445
  • Neath Valley, 10
  • New Tredegar, 59
  • Newbrige, 67
  • Newport, 56
  • Non-political Union, 118, 381-2
  • Nonconformity, 7, 12, 33, 39, 50, 258-9
  • Nottinghamshire, 316-17
  • Ogmore and Gilfach District.. SWMF, 24
  • Onllwyn, 356-7, 366-7, 374, 425, 431
  • Orconero Iron Ore Company, 11
  • Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies, 55
  • Parliamentary Elections,
    308-11, 345: General Elections. 1929, 133; 1931, 66; 1945, 426, 433; By-elections, Rhondda East, 1933, 190; Merthyr, 1934. 192, 268-9, 309; Llanelli, 1936, 309-11; Pontypool, 1936, 309-11; Pontypridd, 1937, 345; Caerphilly, 1939, 345; 1968, 453; Carmarthen, 1966, 453; Rhondda West, 1967, 453
  • POUM, 363
  • Penclawdd, 21
  • Pencoed, 59, 60, 73
  • 'Pentonville Five' dockers, 1972, 480
  • People's Vigilance Movement, 401
  • Pit groups (and pit papers), 146, 171, 174, 313
  • Pit Production Committees, 399, 402-3, 405
  • Pit-head baths, 48
  • Plebs' League, 10, 13, 23, 24, 159
  • Plebs Magazine, 13
  • Pneumoconiosis (and dust suppression):
    Compensation 1943, 424; 1974, 479; Research Unit, Llandough, 433; Incidence and policy, 438-41; Rhondda Fach Survey, 440; Demonstration, 1952, 488; National report, 494
  • Police (see also Riots and Disturbances):
    Lock-out, 1926, 59-62, 65, 71;1927-8,117-18-.1929,131-3,143;1931,181-2;1933,318-19;Metropolitan, 1932-3, 106, 195; Taff-Merthyr, 217-18; 1934, 252; 1935,294-5, 305; and 'Spanish Aid',359-60
  • Pontycymmer, 135-6
  • Pontygwaith, 63
  • Pontymister, 56
  • Pontypool, 41, 56, 59, 271, 309
  • Pontypridd, 58, 102, 258, 301-2, 466
  • Poor Law Unions, 66, 72
  • Poplar, 48
  • Popular Front, 270-1, 273, 368-9,375-6,399
  • Population changes: 1890-1910, 7,32-3;1935-65,38
  • Port Talbot, 60-1
  • Proletarian internationalism, 12, 23, 28,30-2,47,52-4,161-2,192-8, Ch. 10 passim, 429
  • Quakers, 33, 103
  • 'Rank and file' movements (see also Miners' Minority Movement and Unofficial Reform Committee):
    1931, 178-9;1932-3,190-1;1933-5, 245-7;1951-2,442-5;1969,462-6
  • Red International of Labour Unions, 28, 30-1,48,53
  • Reid Report (on the coal industry), 1945, 436
  • Religious Revival, 7, 44
  • Rhondda:
    Borough Labour Party, 16, 146, 164. 256, 262; Lock-out, 1926, 57, 58; Population, 45: Ireland, 23; Nonconformity, 50; Unemployment protests, 1935, 256-62, 270-1, 273-4; Urban District Council, 272; Porter Award, 1944, 412
  • Rhondda Clarion, 249
  • Rhondda Leader, 356
  • Rhondda No. 1 District, SWMF 7-8, 26-7,30,76,99,101,164,172
  • The Rhondda Socialist, 46
  • Rhondda Socialist Society, 28
  • Rhymney Valley, 24, 76, 222, 226
  • Riots and Distrubances (including Trials),71;
    Merthyr, 1831, 260, 265; Newport, 1839, 192, 195, 250; Aberdare and Tonypandy, 1910-11, 10, 13, 360; Mardy, 1917, 159; 1926, 67; 1931, 180-3, 360; Abercwmboi, 1926, 65; Cymmer (Afan), 1926, 60-2; Glyncorrwg, 1926, 63; Newbridge, 1926, 67; Ogmore Vale, 1926, 65; Pontypool, 1926, 64; Cwmfelinfach, 1929, 131-3; Bedwas, 1933, 319, 346; Bedlinog, 1934, 241; 1935, 295-7; Abertillery and District, 1935, 262-7; Merthyr, 1935, 260-1; Tonypandy, 1936, 198, 354, 360
  • Risca, 56
  • Royal Commission on Coal: Sankey,1919, 28, 117, 436
  • Rugby football, 209-10, 307
  • Ruskin College, 10, 13, 25. 159
  • Russia, 22-3, 28, 47, 53-4, 161-2,399-400,429
  • Saltley Marsh Coal Depot (Birmingham),474,493
  • Salvation Army, 180-1, 259
  • School-children, 57, 60, 160, 173, 262-3
  • Scotch Cattle, 63, 107
  • Scottish miners, 31, 84-5, 148-9, 157,411,449
  • Seven Sisters, 58, 366
  • Shakespeare Hotel, Neath, 44
  • Social conditions (see also Unemployment),
    3, 49, Ch. 2 passim, 205.300,303-4,422,454-61
  • 'Social Religion', 48, 267-8
  • Somerset, 426-7
  • South Wales Boilermen and Engine Winders' Union ('D. B. Jones' union'),48,125-6,135-6,212,218,389.421,426
  • South Wales Coalfield (see also colliery closures)
    Regional Survey Report (1946), 49: Manpower, 396, 438;Rundown in 1960s, 450-4
  • South Wales Colliery Officials Union, 47
  • South Wales Daily News (later South Wales News), 69, 157, 163
  • South Wales (Joint) Council of Action (also known as South Wales and Monmouthshire Joint Council Against Unemployment), 259-62, 270-3
  • South Wales Miner, 191, 208, 233, 245-7,307,351-2
  • South Wales Miners' Federation (SWMF):
    foundation, 1898, 2; early structure, 4; early role of agents, 4-5; centralisation and reorganisation, pre1914,7-8;1914-18,25-6;1918-26, 32,74-5,83-8;1927-34,41,89, 183-9, 205-7; Labour Party, 10, 66, (see also MP's below); Anthracite District, 17, 56; World War One, 22-4; Rule changes, 24, 48, 424; Nonunionism show cards), 9, 26-8, 31, 200, 393, 421; and Lenin, 31; Membership, 31. 48, 138, 176, 244, 376, 389, 419; role in community, 34, 37, 41-2; effect of Lock-out, 1926, 76-82, 97-8; and 'scab union' Chs. 4, 7, 9; 383-8: Communist Party, criticism of, Ch. 5; Unemployed, 188-9, 244; Hunger Marches, 101, 253; 'stay-down' strikes, 278-307; Spanish Civil War, Ch. 10; PD survey, 389-92; 'closed-shop', 392-4, 426; World War Two, 394-416; Compensation Department, 413; MPs, 311,424
  • South Wales Miners' Industrial Union (SWMIU)
    (also known as 'company', 'scab' or 'Spencer union'), 40, 113-44 passim, 203, 244; origins and early development, 90-7; attitude of Communist Party, 147-8; at Mardy, 164; and 1931 strike, 176; Emlyn Colhery, 201; legal position, 201-2; Taff-Merthyr Colliery, Ch. 7 passim, 379-88; and stay-down strikes, 279-307 passim; Bedwas Colliery, Ch. 9 passim; and Communism, 381; 'merger' with SWMF, 383-8, 420
  • South Wales Socialist Society, 28, 158
  • Soviet Union see Russia
  • 'Spanish Aid', 352-65
  • Spanish (Asturian) miners, 351-2, 357, 368,370
  • Spanish Civil War, 1936-9 (see also International Brigades), 271-2, Ch. 10 passim
  • Spanish Communities (Dowlais and Abercrave), 11-13, 45, 352
  • Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), 12
  • Special Areas, 37
  • Stay-down strikes (also known in mid 1930s as Stay-in strikes), 279-98 passim, 304-5, 334
  • Strikes and Lock-outs:
    1898, 2; Cambrian Combine, 1910-11, 10, 13-14, 16, 85, 465; Aberdare, 1910-11, 13; 1915, 26; 1921, 28, 56, 163; Anthracite, 1925, 54, 87-8; 1926 Lock-out, 28, 5 2-73 passim, 75-6, 477, 500-7; General Strike, 1926, 32, 50, 52-5, 90; Maesteg, 1927, 126-7; Nine Mile Point, 1928-9, 129-33; Garw, 1929, 133-7; 1931, 170, 176-9, 215; Bedwas, 1933, 318-20; Taff Merthyr, 1934, 219-30; 'Stay-down' strikes, 1935, 278-98 passim, 304-5, 334, 377, 419, 493; Unofficial strikes, 376-7; World War Two, 398; Tareni, 1943, 406; Penrhiwceiber, 1943, 406-8, 423; 'Boys Strikes', 1942-3, 415-16; Porter Award, 1944, 410-13; 'Wern Tarw', 1951, 442-4; 1952, 444-5; 'Deep Duffryn', 1965, 462; 1979, 482-3, 485; Surfacemen, 1969, 462-6,492-3;1970,468;1972,34, 438,470-7;1974,38,477-9
  • Suez crisis, 1956, 448
  • Sunday Schools, 10, 270
  • Surfacemen, 463-4
  • Swansea Dry Steam District (later Area), SWMF, 60, 81, 412
  • Swansea Valley, 457
  • Syndicalism, 14, 22, 299, 370
  • Talygarn Miners' Convalescent Home (later Rehabilitation Centre ), 431-3
  • Third (Communist) International, 28
  • The Times, 35-7
  • Tonypandy, 13-14, 24, 103, 198, 271,274,439
  • Trades Union and Trades Disputes Act 1927,118
  • Trades Union Congress (TUC), 30, 101,105,118-19,163,188,357,362,366,398,476
  • Trading estates, 37
  • Transport and General Workers' Union (Wales Region), 480
  • Tredegar: Medical Aid Society, 434;Valley District, SWMF, 85; Workers' Freedom Group, 70, 192-8; Workmen's Institute, 431
  • Treharris, 295
  • Treherbert, 251, 272
  • Treorchy, 65, 439
  • Trials see Riots and Disturbances
  • Unemployment, 33, 48, 99-106, 185,199,276;1928,34-5,97; 1934, 199,244-75 passim
  • Unemployment (Insurance) Act, 1934-5,37,251,253-67,270-2,281
  • United Front, 191-8 passim, Ch. 8 passim, 281, 292, 302, 310-11
  • United Mineworkers of Scotland, 31,84-5,153,167
  • University of Wales, 50
  • University settlement movement, 39
  • Unofficial Reform Committee, 15-16, 28,30, 46, 162
  • UCS Work-in, 1972, 480
  • The Vanguard, 269
  • Victimisation (see also Strikes and Lockouts), 76-82 passim, 108, 238, 242, 500-7 passim
  • wages and hours,
    7, 204: 1926, 72, 97; 1929-31, 175-7; Schiller Award, 1931,176-7,198-9;1932-3,192; 1934, 198-200; Bridgeman Award, 1934,227,241;1935-6,308,345; 1937,377-8,420,427:1939,398-9; Greene Award, 1942, 399; Porter Award, 1944, 410-13; National Agreement, 1944,413; Five-day Week Agreement, 1947, 438, 441; 1950s, 438; Day Wage Structure Agreement, 1955-6,446; National Power Loading Agreement, 1966, 461-2, 476; Rest Days Agreement, 1968-9, 463; 1969-70,469;1972,470-6;1974, 477-9;1976,481;1978, Incentive Bonus Scheme. 480-1
  • Wales TUC, 480
  • War! and the Welsh Miner, 22
  • Wattstown, 160
  • Welsh language, 19, 46, 299
  • Welsh Nationalist Party (Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru, later Plaid Cymru), 300-1,453
  • Welsh Reconstruction Advisory Council, 414
  • Western Mail, 9, 65, 91, 113, 126, 128, 130,132,136,163,181-2,195,204, 223,227,269-70,292,468,478
  • Winding Enginemen's Association, 47
  • Women: and non-unionism,
    9,26; at home, 3, 33; domestic service, 33,48-9; Lock-out, 1926, 59, 65-6, 72;Garw strike, 1929, 135-6; 'stay-down'strikes, 1935, 283-4; in World War Two. 422
  • Workers' and Soldiers' Council, 22, 158
  • Workmen's Institutes and Libraries,8-10,160-1,429-31,447
  • Workers' International Relief, 52
  • World War One, 22-8 passim, 65
  • World War Two, 394-416,426
  • Ynysybwl, 57, 63, 436
  • Yorkshire miners, 177, 411.464-5, 470
  • Young Worker, 73
  • Youth, Trade Union Conference on, 416-17
  • Ystradgynlais, 62-3, 72,439

[Last Updated : 30 May 2004 - Gareth Hicks]