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SCARBOROUGH:
Geographical and Historical information from the year 1890.

Wapentake of Pickering Lythe - Petty Sessional Division, County Court District, and Poor Law Union of Scarborough - Rural Deanery of Scarborough - Archdeaconry of the East Riding - Diocese of York.

The area of the borough is 2,292 acres, with an estimated population of 35,000. In 1881 the population was returned at 30,504. The rateable value is £178,353. Scarborough is distant from London, 227 miles; Manchester, 108;.Liverpool, 140; Birmingham, 164; Glasgow, 256; Leeds, 66; Hull, 53; York ,40; Bridlington, 23; Malton, 21. It is a parliamentary and municipal borough, and returns six members to the County Council.

Situation and Climate. Scarborough is indebted to that celebrated physician and indefatigable spa traveller, Dr. Granville, for its title of "Queen of watering places." The bay, which has been appropriately compared to that of Naples, its remarkably picturesque surroundings, and the diversified scenery in the neighbourhood, make it one of the most attractive marine spas in England. It consists of two parts, the one fronting the north, and the other the south sands. Between them the rocky promontory, on which the castle is built, descends precipitously to the sea, separating the old town from the new. Every street in the former has an ancient and old-world look. It is the Scarborough of our fathers, and of the old times before them. Many of the houses contain Dutch tiles, with scriptural devices. In Sandside, one old house is well known as being the temporary residence of Richard III., who visited Scarborough in 1484, accompanied by Anne, his queen. It is now used as a smith's shop, but still, the apartments bear traces of elaborate decoration, The new town on the other side of the bay is a creation of modern times, and has quite another character. It is well built, the streets being spacious and well paved, with excellent flagged footways on each side; and the houses have, in general, a handsome appearance. The new buildings on the north and south cliffs, in respect of situation, stand almost unrivalled, having terraces in front nearly a hundred feet above the level of the firm sands, and commanding a view of a variety of charming prospects. The peculiar situation of the town on both sides of the promontory, give it the appearance of two watering places in one, the portion occupying the south cliff being, however, by far the larger, most attractive, and most fashionable. Mr. Hinderwell, the historian, in describing the general aspect of the place says, "To the east stand the ruins of the ancient castle, whose venerable walls adorn the summit of a lofty promontory. To the south is a vast expanse of ocean, a scene of the highest magnificence. where fleets of ships are continually passing. The recess of the tide leaves a spacious area upon the sands, equally convenient for exercise and sea bathing. The refreshing gales of the ocean, and the shades of the neighbouring hills, give an agreeable temperature to the air during the sultry heats of summer, and produce a grateful serenity."

The protection of the town on three of its sides by heights which shield it from the high winds often prevalent, renders the air cool in summer, and mild in winter, thus making the town superior to most of the other resorts on the south and west coasts, and an exception to those on the east. At the coldest time of winter, the temperature of the ocean is five degrees from freezing point, while the mean winter temperature of the town is within two degrees of that of Torquay. Not only is the climate mild, but the entire district unusually healthy, the mortality being less than the average of the kingdom, especially that resulting from diseases of the respiratory organs. While the mean zymotic, or preventable, death-rate of Scarborough is only 0.6 per 1,000 per annum, in 46 of the English and Welsh health resorts it is 1.77. When we consider that the population of the town may be estimated at 35,000, swollen into 60,000 in the height of the season, this is, indeed, a low, but gratifying, return.

Intending visitors to Scarborough, while having plenty of facilities by rail, would do well to approach it from the sea. It has the advantage of introducing the tourist from its most attractive point of view. It has been said that travellers by rail seem to sneak into the town by the back door. Her magnificent bay is the chief glory of Scarborough, and those upon whom this bright vision bursts at their first glimpse of the place, will not soon forget the pleasure of the sight.

Early History. - Although neither history or tradition furnishes us with the early history of Scarborough, yet many things point to the conclusion that it was occupied by the Romans, if not by the early inhabitants of Britain, In the neighbourhood of Whitby and Bridlington Bay the Romans possessed military stations of considerable importance, and the direct road between these stations ran through this part. From the imperfect knowledge of navigation which the Romans must have necessarily had, we may safely infer that, in making their way from the Gaulic or Belgic coasts to the east of Britain, they must have been in considerable doubt as to their landing place, and would make use of such bays as Bridlington, Filey, and Scarborough. Although there is no positive proof to show that a military road ran between the two last places, yet there is some evidence to show that such roads may possibly have existed. "From Filey to Flamborough," writes Mr. Hinderwell, "the road is vulgarly called the street, and in some ground on this road was the vestige of a fortress, most probably Roman, now called Castle Hill; hence the road to Spittal,* where it meets the Scarborough road." The way from Scarborough to Seamer presents several traces of Roman work in it, particularly on both sides of the bridge between Seamer and Spittal, which is over a rivulet that runs from the vast carrs in this place. Hinderwell observes: "The quantity of large blue pebble, and the particular manner of jointing, sufficiently indicate it to be Roman, and were there no other testimony on the whole road but this, it would be a strong argument in its favour. The road is evidently forced through these carrs, which were otherwise impassable, and seems to have required Roman industry and labour to perfect it." Since Hinderwell wrote, part of an ancient military road has been discovered in Seamer Lane, about a mile from Scarborough. It would seem to have been a task impossible to the Comites Littoris Saxonici, or guardians of the seacoast against the Saxons, to have defended Bridlington Bay and Whitby without their junction by land, and the occupation of the present site of Scarborough. Hinderwell traces the line of defence from the sea-coast to the country west of Scarborough. "The Romans, in addition to the maritime garrisons and military roads, formed camps in the most convenient situations, to prevent the enemy penetrating into the interior country. The lofty promontory at Scarborough, on which the ruins of the castle now stand, the elevated hill of Weapon-Ness (Mount Oliver), and that at Seamer Moor at a little distance, have opposed a strong natural barrier to any hostile invasions from the sea, and must have been formidable stations when occupied by the Roman troops. These precipitous brows, forming a long chain westward, had but few passages practicable for armies, and were rendered more difficult by the assistance of art. The line of defence seems to have commenced at Weapon-Ness, which has been intersected by a rampart; and the tumuli on its eastern side, which were visible previous to the enclosure, render it probable that there may, at this place, have been a contest. The continuation of the line again appears in the camps on Seamer Moor. The remains of these camps show that the summit of the hill has been strongly fortified by military works." In fact, the country westward from Scarborough, from the remains of camps, entrenchments, and tumuli on Hutton Bushell Moor, on the plain of Seamridge, near the western end of Troutsdale; on Sawdon Heights; on Pickering Moor; and over the heights called Middleton Lays, has, even from the borders of the sea-shore, been a continued line of defence, communicating with the military road which intersected the country from Malton to Mulgrave, near Dunsley Bay.

* Spittal means Hospital. It was customary for our Christian Saxon forefathers to provide such homes at the junction of several roads, for the relief and entertainment of distressed travellers.

Although the evidence may be somewhat incomplete and inconclusive as to Scarborough having been a Roman station, there can be no controversy as to its being a town of some note before the Conquest; and we find it was then known by its Saxon name of Scardeburgh, from Scar, a rock, and burgh, a town, or fortified defence. According to Camden, Scarburgh signifies, "Burgus in prærupta rupe," a Burgh upon a craggy rock. It is first mentioned by Thorkelin in his record of the Danish invasion of the island in the 10th century. "Towards the end of the reign of Adelbricht, King of Northumberland," he writes, "an army of Danes, under Knut and Harold, invading England, subdued a great part of this province, upon which Adelbricht meeting the enemy, and fighting a battle at Clifland, or Cleveland, in the north, routed the Danes with great slaughter. But soon after this the Danes, leading their forces to Scardaborga, fought and obtained the victory." In 1066 Tosti obtained the assistance of Hadrada, the Norse king, to dethrone his brother Harold. Being joined by Tosti, Hadra sailed from Shetland to Scarborough, which he plundered and burned in 1066. A modern writer gives the following account of this event:- "They (i.e., the King of Norway and his son) coasted along the eastern side of Scotland, and there they met Tosti and his vessels. They sailed together, and, as they passed along, attacked the port of Scarborough. Finding the inhabitants disposed to make an obstinate resistance, they made themselves masters of a rock which overlooked the town; and on this they heaped up an enormous pile of trunks and branches of trees, with stubble thrown between, which they set fire to, and rolled down upon the houses; then, favoured by the conflagration, they forced the gates, and plundered the town." The poor old town seems to have suffered so much from these and subsequent ravages of the Northmen as to have been unworthy of record in Domesday Book, although the neighbouring village of Falsgrave, anciently called Walsgrif, Walesgref, and Walsgrave, is mentioned in that famous compilation. It was, however, probably included as part of the manor and soke of Falsgrave.

"There are in Walsgrif," says this ancient account, "and in the hamlet of Nordfeldt, Northstead, or Peasholm, fifteen geldable (taxable) carucates of land, which may be cultivated with eight plows. Tosti held these as one manor. It is now the king's. There are within this manor five villainies, who hold two carucates. There is a wood, with pasturage, three miles in length and two miles in breadth. In the time of King Edward (the Confessor) it was valued at fifty six pounds, now at thirty-six shillings. To this manor belongs the soke (or jurisdiction) of the following lands:- Asgozbi, Osgodby; Ledbeston, Lebberston; Griefthorpe, Gristhorpe; Scagertorp, Scagglethorpe; Eterstorp and Bobestorp; Facelæ, Filey; Burtune, Burston Dale, near Weapon Ness; Depedale, Deepdale, between Weapon Ness and Cayton; Atune, Ayton; Neuneton, Prestelune, Hortune, and Martune, now united in Hutton Buscel; Wicham, Wykeham; Rostune, Ruston; Thornelai, Thorneybrow; Steinton, Stainton Dale; Brinniston, Burniston; Scallibi, Scalby; Cloctune, Cloghton."

The town of Scarborough, whose inhabitants first followed the occupation of fishermen, was confined in narrow limits, and situated near the shore. The erection of the castle, and afterwards of the churches, would cause artizans and labourers to congregate here, and thus the town, advancing in opulence and population, gradually ascended the hills to the north and west. It was defended on the land side and south east by strong walls; on the north by a deep moat and mounds of earth; while the castle cliff, an inaccessible height, formed its defence on the east. Some of the foundations of the old wall are yet remaining, and may be traced. Vestiges of the ancient moat are yet visible in an eastern direction from Auborough Gate, through a field to the great bank forming part of the ancient mound. Such were the boundaries of the Old Town of Scarborough, and the addition of the New Town, or Newborough, is supposed to have been made in the reign of Henry III.

The Castle. - The erection of the castle in 1136, by William, earl of Albemarle, is the first evidence of Scarborough emerging from the state of obscurity caused by the ravages and desolations of the invaders. The promontory, on which stand the ruins of this venerable old structure, rises nearly 300 feet above the level of the sea, which washes its base on the north, east, and south sides. The rock, on all sides but the west, is nearly perpendicular, and seems to be quite inaccessible. The approach to the castle is by the gateway, on the summit of a narrow isthmus on the western side above the town. Within the fortress is a green, of nearly 15 acres, and near the centre is the "Lady's Well." This reservoir contains about 40 tons of excellent water, of great transparency. It has been found by experiment to weigh lighter, by one ounce in the Winchester gallon, than any other water in the vicinity. The position of such a spring is extraordinary. It is about 20 yards from the edge of the cliff, and its height from the sea 300 feet, and there are no high lands either above it or on its level within a mile. The present remains of the castle give but a very imperfect idea of its original strength. William of Newburgh, who wrote about the year 1190, says: "A rock of wonderful height and bigness, and inaccessible by reason of steep crags almost on every side, stands into the sea, which quite surrounds it, but in one place, where a narrow slip of land gives access to it on the west. It has on the top a pleasant plain, grassy and spacious, of many acres, and a little well of fresh water springing from a rock in it. In the very entry, which puts one to some pains to get up, stands a stately tower, and beneath the entry the town begins, spreading its two sides north and south, and carrying its front westward, where it is fortified by a wall, but on the east is fenced by that rock where the castle stands; and, lastly, on both sides of the sea. William le Gros, observing this place to be fitly situated for building a castle on, increased the natural strength of it by a very strong work, having enclosed all the plain upon the rock with a wall, and built a tower in the entrance. But this being decayed, and fallen by the weight of too much age, King Henry II. commanded a great and brave castle to be built upon the same spot." Inside the gateway, situated on an eminence, is an outwork, known as "Bushell's Battery." This outwork, or Corps de garde, and the entrance to the castle, form what was anciently called the Barbican. A few yards beyond this was the drawbridge, removed in the year 1818, and now replaced by a stone arch, under which is the fosse, or dyke, which is continued southward along the foot of the western declivity of the castle hill the whole length of the line of the wall. Beyond this arch, on the right, is a part of the ballium, to which there is a slight acclivity, and here rises a stately tower, majestic even in ruins. Leland mentions two towers, and between them a drawbridge, the remains of which are yet traceable.

The keep, or donjon, was erected within the ballium, or inner bailey. Its area is over half an acre, and is separated by a ditch and mound, surmounted by a wall from the internal part of the castle. On the wall facing the south was a beacon turret, In the north west corner of the ballium stood, and, in parts, still stands, the keep, or donjon. This was a square building, of four stories, three of its walls only remaining. Sir Ralp Ellerker, in his survey made in 1538, says: "In the said inner ward standeth the donjon, or high tower, and is of four stories in height, whereof the nethermost is a cellar. The tower above is tabled with stone to the embattlement, nine feet thick, and covered with lead, with a spout in the mid-ward descending to a cistern of lead that will contain 20 ton, and there is above the same five turrets, whereof four be covered with lead, and the fifth tabled with stone." In its complete state the height of the tower could not have been less than 120 feet, and at present it is about 97 feet high. The walls are 12 feet thick from the base to the second story, where it gives place to a chamber in the thickness of the wall, and this continues to the top. The great aim in this mode of construction was that the keep, being the last place of defence, was often held for long after the rest of the castle had been taken, and the walls were of great thickness, to withstand the efforts of the besiegers. Above the second story the chambers, or passages, have vaulted roofs; and, according to Ellerker, the roof of the topmost story was laid with stone from the battlemented outer wall to the inner one. This stone roofing ran round the top of the castle, so as to make it available for defence by the garrison, while the centre was covered with lead. The great hall of the keep occupied the first story, and above this were the governor's apartments. Four out of the five turrets evidently occupied the four corners, and it is a question whether the fifth was in the centre of one of the walls or above the entrance to the keep. On the south-east of the castle yard, on a projecting plane facing the bay and the haven, midway between the outer pier and the summit of the castle cliff, is the South Steel Battery. A covered way, descending from the castle yard by a flight of steps, leads to this battery. It was first erected in 1643, and rebuilt in 1748, when 12 eighteen-pounder guns were placed therein. There is also a storehouse, guardroom, and magazine, where ammunition was deposited. In 1850 the admiralty placed a thirty-twopounder gun in this battery for the use of the coastguard.

AN EPITOME OF THE HISTORY OF THE CASTLE.

As we have previously said, William le Gros erected the first fortifications in 1136, but was dispossessed of it by Henry II. in 1170, who enlarged and strengthened it, and appointed Roger, Archbishop of York, as its governor in 1174. To him succeeded Hugh Bardolph, youngest son of Lord Bardolph; but on Richard's return from the crusades he deprived him of the command. The first siege undergone by the castle was in 1312, when Piers Gaveston, the favourite of Edward II., was governor. Gaveston, after a brave resistance, capitulated to the Earl of Pembroke, and was beheaded. The next notable seige was in the reign of Henry VIII. when, owing to the suppression of religious houses by that monarch, an insurrection arose in Yorkshire, called the "Pilgrimage of Grace." Robert Aske was the commander of the rebellion, and it was a detachment of the army under his command that laid siege to the castle. The governor, Sir Ralph Evers, although ill prepared for a defence, compelled the assailants to retire. In 1554 a party of the Duke of Norfolk's insurgents, headed by a son of Lord Stafford, formed a plan to surprise the castle. Repairing to town on a market day, disguised as peasants, they were permitted to enter the fortress. Having concealed arms, they surprised and seized the sentinels, and, securing the gate, admitted their followers. So short and sharp was the attack, that it gave rise to the expression of "Scarborough warning: a word and a blow, but the blow first." Three days after the fortress was recaptured, and Mr. Stafford and four of his companions beheaded. During the reign of Charles the castle sustained two sieges. The first was in 1644, and lasted eighteen months, when Sir Hugh Cholmley was governor. Sir John Meldrum commanded the attacking force, and, after taking possession of the town, erected batteries on Peasholme and Ramsdale Cliff to command the approaches to the town, and so intercept supplies. He also erected batteries in front of the castle, the chief of which was one on the north side, near what was the Old Ropery. This battery was built with a view of silencing Bushell's battery at the flank of the castle gate. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to storm the castle, and on one occasion the choir of St. Mary's church was used as a battery; upon which the garrison opened a tremendous fire and completely destroyed it. During this memorable siege square-shaped silver coins, of the value of five shillings and two and sixpence each were issued, having on one side a representation of the castle, inscribed "Obfidium, Scarborough, 1645," and on the reverse the nominal value of the coin. In 1648 a vote was passed in the House of Commons for £5,000 towards repairing the works at Scarborough. In the same year Colonel Boynton, the governor of the castle, declared for the king, and it underwent another siege of four months by Colonel Bethell, who succeeded in taking it. Little of interest now occurs till the rebellion of the Young Pretender, when the government considered the position of Scarborough of such importance as to send down 900 barrels of gunpowder, and military stores, and stands of arms for 36,000 men. In 1830, at the time of the West Riding disturbances, the arms and ammunition then in Scarborough Castle were removed to Hull, and in later years part of the keep has been transformed into a magazine, in which military stores are now kept.

Recent excavations and restorations. - "Operations in and about the keep have been carried on for some time past, and some excellent work has been done, both in the way of restoration and excavation. A large flight of steps, about six feet wide, has been discovered, and is stated to have been the original means of ingress and egress. They commence from the corner of the south side of the keep, running at right angles to the present steps, and continue up until they enter on what has been a smaller tower adjoining the keep, the lower story of which has probably been used as a vestibule or entry before passing into the great hall, which was on the first floor, and on a level with the top of the steps. An inscription on the coins struck during the siege, shows the tower to have extended upwards to half the height of the main tower. At the top of the steps there are indications that the entrance has been machicolated, a form of shoot being distinctly visible nearly at the top of the steps, and just in front of where a gate would possibly be placed, so that the besieged could pour down molten lead and various missiles on the attacking party without placing themselves in any danger. A boar's tooth, in excellent preservation, has been found at the foot of the steps, and picks of deer horn, used by the soldiers for their horses' hoofs, have also been found. On the south side of the flight the foundations of the wall have been uncovered; and at the west end of the wall a deep vault or well, of the depth of nearly 20 feet, has been found. It possesses a vaulted roof, and has one or two openings leading into it. The precise character of the vault has not yet been determined; but the existence of a cistern on the top of the keep would lead to the belief that the garrison did not possess a well within the precincts of the keep. The top of the vault is about six feet square, but the walls narrow considerably towards the bottom, always, however, preserving their square form. Further towards the centre of the yard the remains of stables have been found, with the cobbled floors of the stalls for the horses, and gutters; while in the same buildings have been found fireplaces, with the stone still black from the effects of the fire, so that the soldiers and their horses were evidently located in the same building together. These so far are, we believe, the main results of the excavations now in operation at the castle, but notice must be given to the work of restoration that has been done. On the third story, where the extreme thickness of the wall ends, the two windows on the east side of the keep opening into one of the chambers or passages, have been completely and most carefully restored, the original character being strictly preserved throughout. The windows are of rather peculiar form, and consist of two semi-circular arches, surmounted by a solid tympanum, and supported on mullions with Norman capitals. Two plain Norman windows on the south side of the keep have also been restored. The excavations will be proceeded with with a view, if possible, of finding an entrance to the lower, or subterranean story of the tower." - The Scarborough Post, 25th January, 1889.

PLACES OF DIVINE WORSHIP.

Probably no town in the kingdom, of the same size, possesses a greater number of places of worship than Scarborough. This is in order to meet the wants of the great influx of visitors in the season. The largest and most venerable of these is

St. Mary's Parish Church. - This ancient structure is situated on a prominent site above the town, and appears to have been a conventual or monastic church. It was built in the reign of King Stephen, and was given by Richard I. to the Cistercians, and the connection continued till the reign of Edward III., when the patronage passed into the king's hands. In 1408, Richard II. gave it to the prior and convent of Bridlington, in whose hands it remained until the suppression of the monasteries by Henry VIII. It is now in the gift of Lord Hotham. The ruins at the east end of the church, and the foundation stones in the churchyard, reveal the fact that it was once a much larger and more imposing edifice than it is at present. The building attained its fullest glory in the early part of the 16th century, by the addition of a choir ninety feet long and fifty-six feet wide, which gave the church a length of 200 feet, while the transepts were 100 feet across. Leland, in 1534, thus describes it:- "There is but one Parsche Churche in the town, of our Ladye, joyninge almost to ye Castle. It ys verye fayre, isled on the sides, and cross-isled, and hath wythout towers for belles, wyth pyramids on them, whereof two towers be at the west ende of the Churche, and one in ye middle of the cross-isle."

It bears in its structure traces of many periods and different styles of architecture, from the Norman of the time of Stephen, to the Perpendicular of the reign of Richard II. The arch of the central tower, and that of the nave, and the portion yet remaining of the two western towers, probably belonged to the latter part of the 12th century. The side walls of the nave and clerestory, as high as the string course above the clerestory windows, is supposed to have been the work of the early part of the 13th century. The piers, arches, and south transept bear traces of the architecture of the 14th century. The four south chapels, together with the south porch, parvise, and west doorway, are of the end of the 15th century. St. Nicholas' aisle, on the north side, was originally built prior to the 15th century, but its front walls were erected out of the old materials after the Restoration. In the years 1848-50 the whole church was restored, at a cost of about £8,000. Since then many important details have been added. There are several fine specimens of monuments, amongst which is one to the memory of the late Rev. Dr. Whiteside, formerly vicar of the parish; and one to the late W. Tindall, Esq., who was drowned near the Spa in 1861. The stained glass windows are many and beautiful, and add much to the internal appearance. The east window consists of five lights, containing figures of our Saviour and the four Evangelists; and below these are figures of the Annunciation, Nativity, the wise men making their offerings, the Presentation, and the marriage at Cana. In the centre of the tracery is the Lamb bearing the cross. The donor was the late Doctor Harland. The window of the second chapel was inserted by Miss Whiteside. The centre compartment consists of a full-length figure of John the Baptist, underneath which is a medallion representing the Baptism of Our Lord. In the chapel of St. James, or the third chantry, the centre light contains a full-length figure of St. James the Greater; and a medallion below represents the martyrdom of that apostle by the sword. It was erected by J. Wharton, Esq., to the memory of the late Guy Temple. In the largest chantry, or St. Nicholas' chapel, the upper divisions of the window are occupied by four oval-shaped emblems of the Evangelists, viz., the eagle (St. John), the ox (St. Luke), the lion (St. Mark), and the angel or man (St. Matthew). These are the gift of the late R. M. Beverley, Esq. The stained glass in the west window of the south-west tower was inserted and inscribed to the memory of the late John Hill Coulson, Esq., of this town, by his widow; and that in the corresponding window of the north-west tower, to the memory of his daughter, Mrs. D'Aeth. Over the western door is a memorial window by the celebrated artist, Gerente, of Paris, illustrative of the principal events in the life of Christ, and was erected to perpetuate the memory of Richard Wilson, Esq., who founded and endowed at Scarborough, during his lifetime, the charity known as "Wilson's Mariners' Asylum," and died in 1837, and was buried at Seamer. The centre compartment of the east window of St. Nicholas' aisle contains a figure of Christ bearing His cross, erected in memory of the late Mrs. W. B. Fowler. The first window from the same aisle contains three lights, representing the Crucifixion, raising of Jairus, and Christ weeping at the tomb of Lazarus. This window was erected by Mrs. Uppleby, to the memory of her husband and children. There is also a very beautiful window in memory of Mrs. Wright, erected by her daughter. In 1869, a new font, presented by R. Champley, Esq., was used for the first time. The font is Early English, and massive and handsome. The bowl, which is of Portland stone, rises from a clustered column of polished Purbeck marble, and is ornamented with stiff-leaved foliage. The whole stands on three octagonal steps of Purbeck marble and Portland stone, and is in harmony with the architecture of the church. The central embattled tower, erected in 1669, contains a fine peal of eight bells, shown in the Exhibition of 1851, the treble and tenor of which took the first prize. The new organ was built in 1870 by Hill and Son, of London, at a cost of £1,050. The Ven. Archdeacon Blunt, M.A., vicar, was inducted in 1864. He is assisted in the services of this and Christ Church by four curates. Services are also held in the Trinity House and Wheelhouse Almshouses.

The following is a list of the Vicars of Scarborough with the year of their induction

1227     Rev. R. de Chaunseye
1289     Rev. Thos. de Roston
1291     Rev. W. de Langetoft
1306     Rev. I. de Roston
1313     Rev. W. de Wandesford
1320     Rev. Robert de Scardeburgh
1335     Rev. J. Belety
1349     Rev. E. de Skyrpse
1363     Rev. H. Bendebowe
1397     Rev. Richard Askham
1408     Rev. Richard Shropham
1412     Rev. J. Longe
1414     Rev. Robt. Abraham
1454     Rev. Robt. Killom
1464     Rev. Robert Sutton
1475     Rev. T. Bedford
1485     Rev. Richard Tunstall
1494     Rev. W. Penet
1501     Rev. T. Rokeby
1502     Rev. R. Ogram
1506     Rev. W. Evers
1510     Rev. Richard Bull
1602     Rev. W. Ward
1608     Rev. T. Taylor
1630     Rev. W. Simpson
1667     Rev. W. Hodgson
1676     Rev. N. Boteler
1696     Rev. John North
1708     Rev. H. Docker
1721     Rev. Theo. Garencieres
1750     Rev. J. Morfitt
1782     Rev. J. Kirk
1828     Rev. M. H. Miller
1848     Rev. J. W. Whiteside
1864     Rev. R. F. L. Blunt
The following Chronological Notes on the Ecclesiastical History of Scarborough and the Parish Church may be of interest
   1004. -          Establishment of Cistercians in Scarborough.
c. 1140. -          Earliest existing church built. Traces at east end.
c. 1160. -          Two western towers built.
c. 1180. -          Nave built on site of earlier church.
   1181. -          St Nicholas church built.
   1188. -          Gilbertus de Turribus presented to vicarage by Richard I.
   1198. -          Richard I.'s grant to Cistercians.
c. 1216. -          Dominican convent (Black Friars) founded in Scarborough.
   1245. -          Franciscan (Grey Friars) monastery erected in Scarborough.
   1306. -          Dedication of Church of St Sepulchre.
   1312. -          First siege of castle. Piers Gaveston.
   1318. -          Town burned by Douglas.
   1320. -          Carmelites (White Friars) established in Scarborough.
   1363. -          Licence of vicarage house granted to Vicar.
   1380. -          St James' chantry founded in this church, and chapel built on S. side.
   1390. -          St. Stephen's         "              "                 "
   1396. -          St. Mary's            "              "                 "
                    St. Nicholas' aisle built on N. side.
c. 1400. -          Porch with parvise and N. and S. transepts built.
c. 1400. -          Three westernmost pillars of S. side of nave built.
c. 1410. -          Cistercian abbey and church given to Bridlington Priory.
   1450. -          Choir with aisles built.
                    Rectory dissolved with Cistercian monastery, by Henry VIII.
   1536. -          2nd siege of castle. Pilgrimage of Grace.
   1537. -          Prior of Bridlington attainted. Rectory seized by Henry VIII.
   1539. -          Dominican convent dissolved by Henry VIII.
                    Franciscan   "        "             "
                    Carmelite    "        "             "
   1554. -          3rd siege of castle, by Thomas Strafford.
                    4th   "    "    "     " Lord Westmorland
   1564. -          St. Sepulchre's Church demolished.
   1606. -          Tithe of fish from fishermen relinquished.
   1644-5. -        5th siege of castle.
   1645. -          Destruction of choir of this church.
                    Episcopal clergy ejected under Parliament.
   1648. -          6th siege of castle.
   1649. -          St. Thomas' Church (Chapel-of-Ease to St. Mary's) demolished.
   1659. - Oct.     Central tower of this church fell.
   1660. -          Charles II. issued brief for rebuilding tower.
   1669. -          Nave repaired - tower rebuilt.
   1771. -          Glebe house in Long West Gate considered too small for vicar.
   1828. -          Christ Church consecrated. John Kirk, vicar.
   1840. -          Present St. Thomas' Church consecrated.
   1848. - 11 Oct.  Church closed for restoration, John Wm. Whiteside, D.C.L., vicar.
   1850. -  1 Aug.  Church opened after restoration.
   1856. -          New clock erected.
   1863. - 11 July  St. Martin's Church consecrated. R. H. Parr, 1st incumbent.
   1868. -  2 Oct.  All Saints' Falsgrave, consecrated. R. F. L. Blunt, vicar.
   1870. -  4 Aug.  Parish Church, New organ built.
   1872. -  1 Aug.  Christ Church restored.
   1873. -          Parish Church. All seats made unappropriated.
   1873. - 12 Dec.  All Saints' as separate district. R. Brown-Borthwick, 1st incumbent.
   1879. - 25 Mch.  St. Paul's Mission Chapel opened. R. F. L. Blunt, vicar.
           25 Apl.  St. Michael's Chapel, Wheatcroft, opened. R. H. Parr, vicar.
   1880. -  2 July  Holy Trinity Church consecrated. R. Vetch Dunlop, 1st incumbent.
   1884. -  9 Oct.  St. John's Mission Chapel opened. R. F. L. Blunt, vicar.
   1885. - 25 July  St. James' Mission Chapel, Parish of All Saints' opened. R.
                         Brown-Borthwick. 1st incumbent.

It may not be uninteresting to mention briefly the various other churches that have now ceased to exist. The church of St. Nicholas was erected in 1175, on what is known as St. Nicholas' Cliff, between the Museum and Cliff Bridge entrance. One hundred years ago, on levelling the terrace, an entire skeleton of a human body, and many human bones, were discovered; and though this had been a burial ground, no traces of any coffins have been found. The church of St. Thomas, in North Street, close to the Bar, was a Chapel-of-Ease to St. Mary's. In 1645, the Parliamentary Forces converted it into a magazine, and it was much injured by the fire from the garrison. There were, also, the church of St. Sepulchre, the site of which is now occupied by the Friends' Meeting House; the Charnel Chapel, north of St. Mary's; the chapel within the castle; and the chapel of St. John, not far from Newborough Gate. The Cistercians established themselves in Scarborough in 1198, by grant from Richard I. In 1333, they were taxed by Edward III. to aid the marriage of his sister, and in 1406, their possessions were seized by Henry IV. In 1230, the Franciscans erected a house here, known later as the Friargate, the foundations of which were traceable in that part of the town, north of St. Sepulchre Street, till a few years ago. The Grey Friars founded a convent in 1245, which was dissolved in 1539. In 1250, the Dominicans, or Black Friars, established themselves in Friars' Entry; and Queen Street was formerly known as Black Friars' Gate. House dissolved in 1531.

Christ Church (Chapel-of-Ease). - This church occupies a site between Huntriss' Row and Vernon Place. The foundation stone was laid in 1826, and, on completion, was consecrated in 1828. The edifice is in the Early English style of Gothic architecture, and the cost of erection and site amounted to about £8,000, of which sum, £5,000 was granted by the Commissioners for building churches, and £3,000 was raised by subscription. The outside is faced with beautiful freestone, the gift of Sir John V. B. Johnstone, Bart., from the Hackness quarry. At the west end, is a neat square tower, of three stages, surmounted by pinnacles and vanes at the angles, and a clock dial on each side of it. The height of the tower is 116 feet. The interior presents a nave and side aisles, separated by plain octagonal pillars running into pointed arches, above which is a clerestory. The aisles and west end are galleried, and there is a second gallery, at the same end, containing the organ. The roof of the nave is made to imitate stone groining, and the front of the galleries to resemble stonework. The pulpit and reading desk are in front of the communion table; the vestries are formed out of the easternmost divisions of the aisles, the space between them (the east end of the aisle) forming a small chancel. The royal arms, and three other shields bearing the arms of Scarborough, the Archbishop of York, and of Sir J. V. B. Johnstone, Bart., in stained glass, are in the east window. The pews are single seated, with doors. The church will accommodate about 1,200 persons.

Christ church underwent a complete renovation in 1874. The east end was reconstructed, and the present coloured windows inserted. A new organ was added and placed in a separate chamber at the east end of the south aisle. The central window is "In memory of Mary Williamson, who died at Scarborough, April 21st, 1872." The window on the south side represents the figures of Ruth, Eve, St. Mary, and Sara, and is "In memory of Eleanor, the beloved wife of S. W. Theakston, born 1805, died 1858." The north window is "In memory of Martha Hick, born August 16th, 1808, died July 17th, 1875. The remaining window on the right of the north one was inserted "In memory of John W. Whiteside, D.C.L., for 16 years vicar of Scarborough, died June 26th, 1864. The gift of friends."

St. John's Mission Church, in St. Sepulchre Street, was opened in 1884, and will accommodate 400 worshippers. It is a brick building, with stone dressings.

St. Paul's Mission Church, in Regent Street, was opened in 1879, for providing religious instruction in the district. It has two stories, and a tower 60 feet high. The base is used as a coffee and refreshment house. The upper portion holds 300 persons.

St. Thomas's Church. - This church, situated in East Sandgate, was erected in 1839, by voluntary subscriptions amounting to £1,100, supplemented by a grant of £300 from the Incorporated Society for the building of churches. It is in a densely crowded district, near the harbour. Since its erection it has undergone extensive alterations, and in 1859, 400 new sittings were added. The material of the structure is brick, with cut stone windows and dressings; and the style of architecture is Perpendicular. The end rakes up to an embattled and pinnacled apex, and in the centre is a window of five lights, with a transom, and above that a small wheel window. The chief entrance is by a door or small porch towards the north-east end of the corner of the building. There are six good windows of two lights each, with transoms, on the south side. The interior is rather odd in shape, and may be said to consist of a body, and a north aisle, separated by two wide arches. It is plainly, but neatly, fitted up, and over the aisle is a gallery. In the wall, on the east side of the Communion table, is a piscina-like font used for baptism. The present incumbent is the Rev. William Tofield Reeder.

St. Martin's-on-the-Hill. - This church occupies a prominent position in Albion Road, South Cliff, and was consecrated by the Archbishop of York in 1863. It was erected through the instrumentality and munificence of the late Miss Mary Craven. The plan of the architecture is in the 14th century style. The following are the principal dimensions: nave, 94 feet by 25 feet 6 inches; the aisles are the same length, and 15 feet wide; whilst the chancel is 30 feet long. The entire length is 200 feet; breadth, 64 feet; height, 60 feet; tower, 100 feet high, and 50 feet square. The chief features of the interior are the piles and arches of massive character and wide span. The church is built on arches, thus affording an opportunity of ventilating the interior. The contract amounted to £6,300, and accommodation is comfortably provided for 950; but in summer, with the extra chairs, it usually accommodates 1,100. The font, which was the gift of Mrs. Etty, is of Purbeck marble, and the communion plate was the gift of John Woodall, Esq. There is a large organ, with a very beautiful case, designed by Mr. Bodley. The church abounds with works of art and beauty. Perhaps the most striking of these is the pulpit, which is of oak, standing on an alabaster base, and painted decoratively. The stained glass windows, which, together with the pulpit, were the gifts of Miss Craven, are rich, both in design and execution. They are all supplied by Morris & Co., of Bloomsbury, and are designed by the following artistes: Rosetti, Burne-Jones, Maddox Brown, Philip Webb, and Mr. Morris, The great east window represents, in the centre, a picture of the Crucifixion, and around it are subjects illustrating the Parable of the Unfaithful Labourers in the Vineyard, The western rose-window represents the Annunciation. The subjects of the two windows illustrating more recent church history, are St. Martin dividing his cloak with the beggar, and the legend of St. Dorothea and St. Theodosius. The church is open from early morning to dusk, and visitors are allowed to examine the works of art. All the seats are free. The vicar is the Rev. C. C. Mackarness, M.A. In connection with St. Martin's is -

St. Michael's Mission Chapel, at Wheatcroft, two miles on the Filey Road. It is a Gothic building of brick, with stone dressings, erected at a cost of £800, and will accommodate 250 persons.

All Saints' Church - In 1865, the large and increasing suburb of Scarborough, known as Falsgrave, being without a church, the vicar of the town felt the necessity of supplying the deficiency. A site was decided upon in Falsgrave Road, a short distance beyond the railway station, and the foundation stone was laid by Lord Hotham in 1867, and the church consecrated by the Archbishop of York in 1868. The building is admirably proportioned, broad and simple in effect, and well adapted for sound. It consists of a nave, chancel, and south aisle. It is mainly built of red brick, substantially constructed, and sandstone has been freely used in dressings, which harmonises admirably with the principal material. There is but one aisle, but it has a breadth of 20 feet, and is separated from the nave, having a width of 30 feet, by five bays, that are formed entirely of stone, and rest upon octagonal piers. A large stone arch separates the nave from the chancel, and the lower part of the chancel is entirely faced with stone. The fittings of the chancel are in keeping with the building; the benches and stalls are of English oak; the credence table and sedelia of stone; whilst the whole chancel is lighted with a large and delicately traceried five-light 14th century east window; and with two-light windows on the north side. The roof has been divided into panels, in which the sacred monagram is worked. The floor within the altar rails is laid with Minton's tiles. The pedestal of the pulpit is composed of blocks of Huddlestone stone, and the pulpit itself is of carved oak. Accommodation is provided for about 1,000, and the sittings are free and unappropriated. The cost of the whole, including site, was £6,230. In 1872, the Rev. Robert Brown-Borthwick accepted the vicarage of All Saints', although, in consequence of unforeseen legal difficulties, the parish was not formally constituted into a separate ecclesiastical district till 1875. The parish is bounded on the south by the North Eastern Railway, on the east by the continuation of the Valley Bridge Road as far as Victoria Road, when it turns eastwards as far as Nelson Street, the middle of which divides it from St. Mary's, as far as the end of Lower Nelson Street, when once more it diverts eastward as far as the cemetery. On the west and north it matches with the parishes of Seamer and Scalby.

Bow Street Mission Chapel. - In connection with All Saints' Church there are commodious mission premises in Bow Street, off Victoria Road. Portions of the rooms are used for services, meetings, and classes; others for library, newsroom, billiards, &c. Also connected with All Saints' is

St. James' Mission Chapel. - Opened in July, 1885, with residence in Seamer Road. It was built entirely through the liberality of the Rev. F. Hartop Holt, M.A. (curate in charge).

Holy Trinity Church. - Nowhere, within the boundaries of the borough, has time produced more marked changes than in the locality now known as Holy Trinity parish. The district extends from the Valley Road on the north, to Oliver's Mount on the south, and is separated by the Filey Road from St. Martin's parish on the east, and by the North Eastern Railway from All Saints' parish on the west. Comparatively speaking, but a few years ago, Westbourne Grove was a narrow country lane, known as Bleach House or Washbeck Lane, running between green fields. Except such lane, there was at that time no way to and from the town, other than a narrow footpath past Cockhill Closes and the Mill Outs to the Plantation, now called the Park. This path was the modest precursor of the handsome drive which now runs through the valley. The site chosen for Holy Trinity Church consists of 3,234 square yards, and cost £1,176. It proved a most difficult one owing to the nature of the ground, and involved much additional outlay in levelling, excavation, and concrete work. The cost of this was £1,213. In appealing for funds the promoters have sought no assistance from any Diocesan or Church Building Society.

The church was built from designs by Mr. Ewan Christian, and was proceeded with in sections, the contractors being Messrs. Padbury and Son. It consists of a nave and chancel without break, and of equal width, 30 feet between the walls, terminating at the east end in a semicircular apse; a north aisle about 17 feet wide, overlapping the chancel; a large south aisle, and a tower at the north-west angle of the nave. The first stage of the tower forms the entrance porch or vestibule. The next stage contains the ringers' floor. Above this is a handsome bell story, with lofty coupled lancets on each face, the whole being surmounted by a leaded spire. The entire length of the nave and chancel is about 108 feet, and the width 73 feet inside. The material used for the walling is grey Hackness stone, laid in random courses, with masonry and dressing of freestone. The roofs are of Baltic fir and pitchpine. The style is that of the 13th century, treated in a simple manner and with little ornament. The principal entrance on the north side of the tower, has a double square-headed doorway with central pillar or mullion, and a tympanum above pierced with a foliated circle; the external arch is deeply recessed under a gabled canopy. The west end has a double range of lancet windows, four of equal height in the lower row, and a triplet in the gable. The clerestories consist of a series of lancet windows, connected by a moulded string course, and the apse is lighted by seven windows of similar form. The south aisle has four gables. The main roof is carried through the whole length of the nave and chancel at the same height and pitch. The columns are circular, with light stone caps and bases, and chamfered arches of two orders with a moulded label. The passages of the church are laid with stone, and the floor of the chancel with Minton's tiles. The pulpit is of oak, and is approached from the chancel by a stone platform, on which is fixed the brass lectern. The organ stands at the east end of the south aisle, and the font at the west end of the nave. One half of the sittings in the nave and north aisle are free. The patronage of the living is invested in a body of trustees. The first incumbent was the Rev. R. V. Dunlop. The church was consecrated in July, 1880, and the following year saw the death of Mr. Dunlop, of smallpox. In grateful memory of the many spiritual blessings received through his ministry, a parish room was erected adjoining the church, and a tablet placed in the south aisle. His successor was the present incumbent, the Rev. J. A. Faithfull, M.A. During the time Mr. Faithfull has been in charge, the debt of about £1,600 on the south aisle and organ, has been paid off, the memorial parish room and vestry, erected at a cost of £300, and the west entrance and spire completed

St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church. - Hinderwell in his history of Scarborough, printed in 1798, says the Roman Catholics of the town had a chapel in Westgate, and that the number of resident Catholics was very small. Without going back to the days when Father Nicholas Postgate served the few scattered Catholics in this part of Yorkshire, or the time when a large body of French emigre priests, to the number of 200, were lodged and maintained by the English Government in Scarborough Castle, we have historical record of a priest stationed in Scarborough as far back as 1780, who served the Catholics of this town and neighbourhood. Until about 1820 the Catholics were attended to at intervals, one priest having to do duty at Whitby, Egton, and Scarborough. Among other priests who served here may be mentioned the Rev. George Leo Haydock, D.D., well known for his popular edition of the Catholic Family Bible. The first priest permanently stationed here, was the Rev. James Seyne, from 1826 to 1831. The chapel and priest's house, erected in 1783, were situated in Auborough Street. In 1835 Canon Walker was appointed to Scarborough, and for 40 years devoted himself to the work of the mission. He opened a school for the children of the congregation in his own house, and enlarged the chapel. Finding the accommodation still insufficient, he decided to erect a new church, and convert the old chapel into schools. The church was begun in 1856, and comprises a nave, apsidal chancel, and lateral aisles terminated by chapels. One of the most striking features of the interior is the chancel arch, the piers of which are square, moulded on the angles, and set back to the line of the arcade, so as to afford the best possible sight of the chancel, The chancel is lighted on the sides by windows of two lights each, filled with medallions. There are two side chapels. The one on the east is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. The window is of stained glass, representing in the centre light the Blessed Virgin of the Immaculate Conception. On the right is represented an incident in the life of St. Edward, and on the left the legend of St. Elizabeth. The tracery is occupied by angels, and the armorial bearings of the donor of the window, E. Petre, Esq., on the right, and on the left, those of Lady G. Talbot, his wife. The chapel on the west side is dedicated to St. Michael. The nave is a bold arcade of five bays, circular columns and arches of two orders, with a clerestory pierced by two-light windows of pattern glass. The aisles are lighted by geometric windows of varied design. The church was opened in 1858, when the late Cardinal Wiseman preached. The church, though opened, was not completed in all its details for some years afterwards. First it was enriched by the gift of the present noble high altar, the gift of the late W. Potts Chatto, Esq. The altar is of Caen stone, and contains, in the centre, a medallion of the Crucifixion, with angels on each side. The tabernacle is surmounted by a richly carved Baldacchino and pinnacles rising to the height of about 25 feet, and has a handsome brass door, richly engraved, and inlaid with precious stones. There are several stained glass windows, and a very handsome pulpit, as well as a baptismal font, all in keeping with the rest of the furnishings of the church.

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES.

Eastborough Church stands on the site of the oldest Non-conformist meetinghouse in the town. It was erected in 1703, and rebuilt in 1774, during the pastorate of the Rev. S. Bottomley, who laboured in this place 58 years. It was again enlarged and almost rebuilt in 1869, leaving but few traces to remind us of its great antiquity. There are entrances to the church from both St. Sepulchre Street and Eastborough Street. On the walls are several monuments, the most important of which are those to the Rev. W. Whitaker, 50 years pastor, who died October 22nd, 1776, aged 81, and to his successor, the Rev. S. Bottomley, who died in 1831. Rev. E. L. Adams, minister.

The Bar Congregational Church is situated at the corner of Aberdeen Walk. The foundation stone was laid by Lady Lowthorpe in February, 1850, and opened in August of the same year by the Rev. T. Raffles, LL.D. The structure is in the Early Decorated style, with quoins and dressings, and geometrical tracery. The plan consists of nave and transepts, with recessed organ chamber behind the pulpit, and a tower at the south-west angle, the stair turret of which is crowned with a small leaden spire and gilt vane. The principal entrance is on the south side, by a richly moulded and crocketed doorway, above which is a handsome five-light window, the whole surmounted by a beautifully carved and crocketed niche and canopy. The sides of the edifice present three gables, in each of which is a window; and in the ends of the transepts are large windows. The principals of the roof rest on carved corbels, representing angels with shields, springing from internal piers, forming on each side three shallow chapels, each having a three-light window. The organ is of superior tone, and was erected in 1873; its pipes are so arranged as to give an uninterrupted view of the beautiful stained glass window of five lights. The pews or seats are single, with low backs, and the design is chaste. There is accommodation for 1,300 adults and 500 children. Rev. J. Robertson, M.A., minister.

The South Cliff Congregational Church, in the Filey Road, is certainly one of the greatest ornaments to the town. It was erected in 1866. It is in the Early Decorated style of Gothic architecture, and consists of nave, side transepts, with an organ chapel as a continuation of the aisles, and a nave. At the south-east corner is placed the tower and spire, 175 feet in height. The clock, which cost £240, has three dials and Westminster chimes. The south, and principal entrance, front has two doorways, converted as an arcade, with six windows, and canopied; above is a large circular window. On entering these doors is a spacious vestibule, 14 feet wide, which is also approached by a doorway under the tower. Covered porches open out of the vestibule, to protect the church from draughts. The gallery staircase is placed at the end of the vestibule. The side windows are three-light, filled with geometrical tracery, deeply recessed, and with shafts and carved capitals. The transepts are of the same height as the nave. The gables are finished with handsome crocketed pinnacles. The transept windows are five-light, filled in with rich and deeply moulded tracery. The vestries are at the north end of the church. The lower buildings are symmetrically grouped, and connected by an arcade with shafts and carved capitals. The interior of the church is even more effective than the exterior. The roof timbers are exposed, and the woodwork stained and varnished. A small gallery forms the only interruption to the open elegant perspective of the interior, with its moulded stone arches and circular columns, with richly carved capitals. The church is lighted by large handsome iron coronæ, suspended from the roof principals, decorated in colours; and by standard lights in the aisles. The circular windows at each end of the church, the clerestory windows, and the large transept windows are filled with rich stained glass, of geometrical design. The cost of the site, building, &c., amounted to £16,000. There is accommodation for 1,040 persons. At a cost of £2,400 have been added a Sunday school and lecture hall. Rev. A. Vine Hall, minister.

The Unitarian Church, situated in Falgrave Road, is an elegant structure, with a spire above 90 feet high. The style is Early English Gothic, of red brick and stone. It will seat 300 persons. For some years before the erection of the present building the congregation met at the Temperance Hall, North Street. Rev. S. F. Williams, minister.

WESLEYAN CHAPELS.

The Centenary Chapel, in Queen Street, was built in 1839, as a memorial of the centenary of the Wesleyan Methodist Church. It superseded an old chapel in St. Mary's Street, in which John Wesley himself preached in 1759, and again in 1761, 1764, and lastly in 1790. There is accommodation for 1,800 persons. The external aspect is plain, but internally it has a fine appearance. The ceiling is handsomely decorated, and the pews are arranged in the amphitheatrical style. The building cost £7,000. Recently a large lecture hall and suite of classrooms have been erected on an adjoining site. This year the church will celebrate its jubilee, in preparation for which event it has just undergone a renovation, at a cost of £500.

Westborough Chapel. - This is the second in size and age of the seven chapels in the town of Scarborough, belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists. The chapel, which is a massive stone structure, stands in a commanding position opposite the railway station. It was built in 1860, at a cost of £6,000, and has accommodation for 1,200 worshippers. Its architectural features are:- the fine approach by a long flight of steps to the portico; the height of the building; the elegant Corinthian columns and antae, enclosed at each end by a tower, the towers rising 50 feet above the main building, and being surmounted by symmetrical domes. The interior of the chapel has a very pleasing appearance, as it is handsomely furnished, and neatly decorated in white and gold. The organ, which is placed in the gallery, at the rear of the pulpit, is a powerful instrument. There is a large piece of land adjoining, on which it is intended to erect a lecture hall, schoolrooms, and vestries, in the same style of architecture as the chapel. The congregation is large and influential, and during the "season" this place of worship is often crowded.

South Cliff Wesleyan Church. - This is a handsome Gothic structure, well situated on the Ramshill road. It consists of nave, transepts, and chancel, with an organ chamber on the north side of the chancel, and a gallery over the entrance lobby. The roof is an open one, and the woodwork throughout is of pitchpine. The tracery windows, which are rich in design, are filled with stained glass. At the south-east angle of the building there is a tower, surmounted by a graceful spire. The church, lecture hall, and minister's house cost £8,000, one gentleman contributing the handsome amount of £3,000. The opening services took place July 2nd, 1886.

Wesleyan Chapel, Seamer Road, Falsgrave, was opened in 1877. It is in the Gothic style of architecture. The cost was £3,000. The situation is central, and in the midst of a rapidly increasing neighbourhood.

Nelson Street Chapel is a commodious building, used for the double purpose of public worship and Sunday school instruction. It is intended in the future to build a large chapel on an adjoining site, and use the present structure for school purposes only.

Durham Street Wesleyan Mission Hall is a newly erected and very convenient building, which seats 250 persons. Various evangelistic and philanthropic enterprises are carried on under the care of the missionary, Mr. G. Harrison.

Wesleyan "Bethel" Chapel occupies the site of the ancient Town Hall. It faces the harbour, and the services are specially intended for sailors and fishermen.

PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHAPELS.

St. Sepulchre Street Chapel is the third structure erected on this site. It is built on ground which was at one time occupied by the Franciscan Convent and the Holy Sepulchre Church and its burial ground. The present building was completed in 1866, and cost £6,200, and will seat 1,000 persons. It possesses a good organ and an efficient choir.

Jubilee Chapel, Aberdeen Walk, was built in 1860, during the jubilee of the connexion, hence its name. The cost, including site, was £4,000.

St. John's Road. - In 1879 the first buildings here, originally built in 1868 and enlarged in 1873, being found inadequate for their purpose, were converted into a schoolroom, and the present beautiful chapel erected alongside, at a cost of £2,400, and capable of seating 800 persons.

Gladstone Road. - The memorial stones of this chapel were laid in April, 1881, and later in the same year the building was opened for divine service. It will seat 400 persons. The cost was £1,720.

In Seamer Road is a Mission Room, built in 1882, at a cost of £660. There is also land for a good chapel.

Friends' Meeting House. - The society assemble in a neat building in St. Sepulchre Street, erected in 1801. Adjoining it is the burial ground of the body. Their ancient burial ground is situated at Falsgrave.

United Methodist Free Church. - This church was formed in 1836, and was known as the "Independent Primitive Methodist." It then worshipped in Batly Place. When, by the amalgamation of the Wesleyan Association and the Wesleyan Reformers, the United Methodist Free Church was formed - the church worshipping in Batly Place joined the new denomination. This was in 1857. Batly Place being inconvenient and badly situated, the church resolved to build a more commodious place of worship. A plot of ground was secured on the Castle Road, and the present chapel was erected thereon, at a cost of over £3,000. The foundation stone was laid in 1861, and the chapel opened in 1862, the Rev. George Barnes being the first minister. The church returns 98 full members, and has a Sunday school and Band of Hope.

BAPTIST CHAPELS.

The "Ebenezer" Chapel, in Long Westgate, was built in 1827. The first chapel belonging to this body was built near the present site in 1776. The late Rev. W. Hague may, with propriety, be called the founder of the Baptists in Scarborough, as there were none of that denomination in this town previous to his first ministry, in 1767. The chapel, which, in 1856, underwent considerable alterations and improvements, will accommodate 800 persons.

The Albemarle Chapel is situated in Albemarle Crescent. It is in the Geometric style of architecture. The south-east corner of the principal front is occupied by a tower and a spire, rising to the height of 110 feet. The windows of the tower are richly moulded, and filled in with bold tracery. The centre portion of the façade consists of a vestibule, entered by triple arches, and from this vestibule the entrance to the ground and gallery floors is reached. Above the arched vestibule is a six-light window. Internally the chapel consists of a nave and aisles, divided by iron columns, which support the roof. The transepts have each a five-light tracery window, and behind the pulpit is an ornamental baptistery, with an apse end. There are seats for 800 persons.

The Town Mission is upon the same system as the London Town Mission. This place of worship is in Batley Place, Durham Street, and formerly belonged to the Methodist Free Church. Being afterwards converted into tenements it became a hot bed of vice. In 1868, however, the building was again converted into a place of worship, having accommodation for 150 persons. Batley Place is a very short street in a low quarter of the town, and, 20 years ago, sent more cases before the court than any other street in Scarborough. Now it is comparatively quiet, having got rid of one large public-house and two houses of ill-fame. A mothers' meeting is held here on Mondays - also a Band of Hope. Missionaries:- Henry Topham and Miss E. Abernethie.

The Cemetery, although not, strictly speaking, a place of divine worship, yet, from the solemn and sacred character of the purpose to which it is set apart, is noticed here.

In consequence of the crowded state of the churchyard, the necessity of providing additional burial ground was brought before the parishioners in 1855, and it was agreed by a majority that the conditions of the Act 16 and 17 Vic., cap. 134, should be acted upon, and that a Burial Board should be formed under the Burial Grounds Act, with power to purchase a site and to construct a public cemetery for the town. Ultimately a field of twelve acres, known as Chapman's Pasture, was purchased for £3,000. It is situated between Scarborough and Falsgrave, a little to the north. Ten acres, measuring 1,274 yards in length and 344 in breadth, were at once enclosed. This gave room for about 6,000 grave spaces and 220 plot vaults. In the centre of the ground is a handsome Gothic edifice, consisting of two chapels, connected by a tower, the basement story of which is open, for the admission of the hearse or bier to pass through, and on each side of which are entrances to the chapels. The building is in the Decorated style, of hammer-dressed stone, with tooled ashlar dressings, and is buttressed at the sides and angles. The roofs are high pitched, with an ornamental ridging. The windows have tracery in the heads, and the gables are surmounted with crosses. The arched-way between the chapels and beneath the tower is stone-groined, and from its centre rises a beautiful structure, consisting of a square tower, with carved canopies and pinnacles; and above this is an octagonal lantern, surmounted with a neat spire of tooled ashler. The entrance to the cemetery is about half-way up the road on the north side. There are two lodges, one on each side of the entrance gates, within the cemetery; these are appropriated respectively to the use of the superintendent and the sexton. The entrance opens into the main avenue, which is ten yards in width, and forms the approach to the chapels. The easternmost portion of the ground, with the chapel thereon, is set apart to the Established Church; and the western part, with the chapel, to the Roman Catholics and Dissenters. The first interment took place on the 11th May, 1857. The overcrowding of that portion set apart for the use of Dissenters rendered it necessary to extend the cemetery. This was done by taking in that portion which forms the western burial ground, and consists of about ten acres. It was first used in 1872. This new portion is separated from the old by a narrow lane, but connected by a bridge. The entire cemetery is laid out in the most picturesque manner with flower beds, trees, and shrubberies; whilst the numerous monuments and inscriptions form the connecting link between the past, the present, and the future.

EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS.

The Amicable Schools are the oldest charity schools in the borough, being founded in 1729 by Robert North, for educating and clothing the children of poor parents. The present schools were built in 1863, and are of Gothic design. The exterior walls are of red brick, with white stone dressings, and occasional bands of black and moulded bricks. The roofs are covered with blue and green slates, with ornamental terra-cotta cresting on the main roof, and cast-iron cresting, with suitable standard and gilt vanes, to the towers. The school-rooms are each 20 feet by 15 feet, with an average height of 15 feet, and are placed one over the other. Each has a room, 16 feet by 20 feet, at the west end, round the walls of which are arranged wardrobes for the clothes of the full complement of children the schools are designed to accommodate, viz., 200. The schools are well lighted, and warmed by open fireplaces. There are separate residences for master and mistress. The total cost of buildings, exclusive of the site, was £2,000. Fifty boys and fifty girls are now in the schools, which are under government inspection. In 1839, the clothing of the boys, which then consisted of knee-breeches, swallow-tail coat, and skull cap, &c., was altered to a suit of brown with red facings. This has been recently changed to a plain suit of navy blue, free from any distinguishing facings or badges.

St. Mary's National Schools. - This is a fine block of buildings of Gothic design, built in 1859, in Castle Road. The rooms for the infant mistress have since been converted into a higher grade school for boys, whilst a class-room, cloak-room, and lavatory have been added to the infant department, and a lavatory to the girls'. There are in the various departments upwards of 500 children in average attendance, and over 600 names on the books. Both grades of the boys' school have been classed as "excellent" by the government inspector. Twelve choral scholarships are given in the higher grade school. There is a Sunday school library, Bible class, and penny bank conducted by the head master, Mr. Pexton, and his assistants.

St. Thomas' National Schools, situated in East Sandgate, adjacent to St. Thomas' Church, were erected in 1858, mainly through the indefatigable exertions of the Rev. W. Keys, a former incumbent. They are kept up by subscriptions, schoolpence, and government grant.

All Saints' National School is situated between Falsgrave and Londesborough Roads, adjoining the church - the north wall of the school being the south wall of the church. The present school superseded a much smaller one which was burnt down on the last Saturday in 1879. There is one large department, and an infants' room; also three class rooms, the whole giving accommodation for 400, with an average attendance of 390. In connection with the school is a library and penny bank.

All Saints' parish library is at Bow Street Mission Room.

St. Peter's Schools for boys and girls are in Huborough Street, and occupy the building used for divine worship by the Catholics of Scarborough previous to the erection of their present handsome edifice in Castle Road. The school-rooms are commodious and have a good recreation ground attached.

St. Mary's Convent School is situated in Queen Street, and was built by the Sisters, after a three years' residence in Scarborough, in 1885. The course of instruction comprises all the branches of a superior English and French education, pupils being prepared for the Cambridge Local Examination, College of Preceptors, &c. The house and grounds are spacious and cost £16,000.

BOARD SCHOOLS.

The Central School, in Trafalgar Street West, has accommodation for 1,443 children, whilst the number on the books is 1,672, and the average attendance is 1,375. It is a large brick building, erected in 1873, and contains departments for boys, girls, mixed, and infants. In connection with the girls' department there is a cookery class, where the girls are taught in classes of 18 at a time, by a member of the Yorkshire School of Cookery. Each child must attend 40 hours during the term, to earn the government grant of 4s. per head. The kitchen is well supplied with all the necessary requirements for experiments, and the room is well away from the other school-rooms.

Lancasterian Board School, St. Mary's Walk, was built in 1827, and was handed over, free of cost, to the Board in 1874. There is accommodation for 721. At the present time the average attendance of boys, girls, and infants is 410.

Long Westgate Board School was built in 1873, having accommodation for 537. The number on the books is 517, with an average attendance of 397.

Falsgrave Board Schools. - The boys' department was opened in June, 1884. It will accommodate 206. The present average is 185, whilst there are on the books, 240. The girls' and infants' departments were opened in March, 1873, the former with accommodation for 180, with a present average of 170, and the latter with accommodation for 128, with an average at present of 134.

Gladstone Road Board Schools. - The infant school was opened in 1889, with accommodation for 450. There are now on the books, 300. The boys' and girls' departments will not be completed before midsummer, 1890.

The Gladstone Board Schools are built on the class-room system, and the the infants have a large central hall separate for their use. The boys and girls will also have one each when completed. These are the only schools in the town on the class-room system.

Among the private establishments for educational purposes may be mentioned:- Oliver's Mount School, The Westlands, Westwood Collegiate School, The Uplands, Haddo School, Gordon House, Grammar School, Belgrave School, Grosvenor Crescent, School of Art, Clifton House, St. Martin's School, &c.

HOSPITALS AND ALMSHOUSES.

Royal Northern Sea-bathing Infirmary. - This institution is on the Foreshore Road, and was established in 1804, for the relief of persons afflicted with disease, in the successful treatment of which sea-bathing and sea-air are considered beneficial. During the year 1852 an effort was made to increase its accommodation and extend its usefulness by incorporating with the old building two adjacent tenements. By this means space was obtained for eighteen additional beds, raising the number from six to twenty-four. The public confidence in its quiet, orderly, and successful management was soon manifested in the general impression that the time had come for the erection of a larger and more convenient hospital for the in-patients of the charity. In 1860 the present large and commodious edifice was completed. The internal arrangements are admirable, and will accommodate patients with bed, board, and the best medical advice.

The Dispensary is a free institution, in Elders Street, founded in 1851. Attendance is given daily by the medical officers of the institution.

King Street Hospital, for the sick and invalided poor of the town, is maintained through the benevolence of Lady Sitwell, of Wood End. The internal arrangements are excellent, and patients are provided with every necessary free of charge.

Cottage Hospital was founded by Mrs. Wright, a local philanthropic lady. She rented for her purpose the first house built in Hoxton Road, but this becoming inadequate for her purpose, a large brick building was erected in 1870, in Spring Hill Road, Falsgrave. Accommodation was provided for 25 beds, and the cost was £1,200. Finding it necessary to enlarge the building, a bazaar was got up, which produced £600, to which Mrs. Wright added £300. In 1878 a new wing was added, providing space for 25 more beds. In 1885 the hospital was converted into a convalescent home.

The Ladies' Convalescent Home is under the care of a lady superintendent, at 21, Albion Road. This institution was established to afford a temporary sea-side residence to sick persons of respectable position but limited income.

The Trinity House is in St. Sepulchre Street. The original building is mentioned by Thornby, in his "Diary," as existing in 1682. It doubtless was founded much earlier. The building had so far gone to decay in 1832, that it was resolved to pull it down and erect the present structure upon its site. It gives a home to old and disabled mariners and their families. It is not, however, so much sought after as others in the town, as there are no other allowances to its inmates. It is under the management of the trustees and president of -

The Seamen's Hospital, in Castle Road, which was erected in 1752. It is supported by a fund formed by the contribution of sixpence each per month from every seaman belonging to the port of Scarborough, and is under the management of 15 trustees, chosen annually from the inhabitants by the owners and masters of vessels belonging to the port. It contains 36 apartments, for as many poor seamen or their widows, in addition to which, about 150 persons receive aid from its funds.

St. Thomas' Hospital was, until recently, situated in North Street, and contained 12 sets of very comfortable compartments for the use of the aged and infirm poor. The hospital was founded in the reign of Henry II., by Hugh de Bulmer, who gave some lands at Scarborough for its support. The hospital is now in Hoxton Road; the old buildings having become ruinous, while the site had increased in value, they were taken down, and the present buildings erected from the proceeds of the sale of the site.

Wilson's Mariners' Asylum, in the Castle Road, was founded by the late Richard Wilson, Esq., in 1837. It comprises 14 separate dwellings, each consisting of two rooms, most comfortably and conveniently arranged for their poor occupants, who must be distressed mariners. Each of the tenants receives £5 annually, being the interest on £2,000, with which the generous founder endowed the asylum.

Hydropathic Establishment. - This fine block of buildings, situated in a salubrious and wooded locality in Falsgrave, is in the Italian style of architecture. It was erected by Professor Wells at a cost of nearly £10,000, and was opened in May, 1889, by the Mayor of Scarborough. The situation has been well chosen, standing within its own grounds, overlooking a hilly slope, and commanding a fine view of Weaponness valley, with a glimpse of the Yorkshire Wolds beyond. It is sheltered from the east winds, and the northerly and westerly gales, by the wooded heights of Spring hill, while the front view opens to the south, giving it a sunny and cheerful aspect. It is distant but a few minutes walk from the railway station, and other parts of the town. Turkish, Russian, Electric, Vapour, Sitz, and every other kind of bath may be had, as well as the most approved hygiene appliances. There are between 50 and 60 bedrooms in the establishment, which are lofty and light, elegantly furnished, and those on the first floor are supplied with hot and cold water. This institution will be one more source of attraction for visitors during the winter months.

The most important of the free dwellings are those of "Wheelhouse and Buckles," in Cemetry Road. They were built in 1868, at a cost of £4,000, and consist of 40 dwellings.

There are also the following free tenements bequeathed at various periods for the use of the poor:- "Taylor's Free Dwellings," in Cook's Row; "Spinster's Hospital," in St. Thomas Street; "Farrar's Hospital," Low Conduit Street; "Sedman's Hospital," Cross Street; "Trott's Hospital," Tollergate; "Stubb's Almshouse," Quay Street; " Bury's Hospital," Dumple Street; "North's Tenements," Tollergate; and "Mrs. Clark's Hospital," Mill Street.

The Workhouse is a large handsome building in Cemetry Road, built in 1860, at a cost of £12,000. The house is considered a model one, and will accommodate between 300 and 400 persons.

The Red House. - Founded by the liberality of Lady Sitwell, for reclaiming and employing fallen girls. The house is situated in Falsgrave; particulars may be known on application to the benevolent founder.

Markets and Fairs. - The weekly markets are held on Thursdays and Saturdays, the former, chiefly for corn. Fairs for cattle, toys, &c., take place on Holy Thursday and Old Martinmas Day. In an old document of 1181, it is stated that King Henry II. "being then seized of a market at Scarborough, gave the same to the burgesses there." By a charter of 1253, in the reign of Henry III., "The burgesses and their heirs for ever" were authorised to have one fair in the borough every year, "to continue from the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Mary, until the feast of St. Michael next following." In 1256 the markets of Filey, Sherburn, and Brompton, were suppressed, because they were injurious to the market at Scarborough. After much litigation and expense, the market at Seamer was also suppressed by a charter, specially granted for that purpose, to the bailiffs and Burgesses of Scarborough in 1612. Tradition says that the first market place was near the covered rope walk, north of Tollergate. In the reign of Edward VI., both fairs and markets were held upon the sands. There are, still, remains of an ancient market cross at the end of Low Conduit Street. In corporation records this is spoken of as the Butter Cross. Princess Street, in the neighbourhood, is still known by the name of Saturday Market. Until the erection of the market hall in 1853, the markets were held in and near Newborough Street. The market hall is in the Tuscan style of architecture, and is 151 feet long, and 111 feet broad. The roof is of glass and iron.

The Gas Company was started in 1836 with works in Quay Street, near the harbour, and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1851, and received further powers in 1859 and 1867. In 1873 new works were erected in Seamer Road, adjoining the North Eastern Railway, a branch from which runs into the works. During the year ending the 31st December, 1889, the Company manufactured over 180 million cubic feet of gas, of about 17½ candle power. The number of public lamps at the above date was 1,210, and the number of consumers, 4,100. The price of gas in 1838 was 13s. 4d. per 1,000 cubic feet, and on 31st December, 1889, the net price was 2s. 9d. per 1,000 cubic feet. The Scarborough guide of 1796 says, "In Scarborough Streets there are no lamps! the reason assigned is, lest they should be broken! moreover, that two individuals hung up two lamps, and they both 'got broke.'"

The Water Works became the property of the Corporation in 1878, at a cost of £153,159. An artesian well was bored in 1879-8O, and sunk to the depth of 550 feet, which supplies 1,400,000 gallons every 24 hours. The water is pumped into two reservoirs, one on the top of Oliver's mount, and the other at the side. There are other works at Cayton and Cayton bay.

HARBOUR AND PIERS.

At the eastern end of the sands are the harbour and piers. Various grants, many of an early date, have been made by government for the support of the harbour. In 1252, Henry III. granted to the "Bailiffs and Burgesses, and other good men of Scardeburgh," certain duties to be taken "from the day of the Assumption of the Blessed Mary (15th August), to the end of five years next following," in order to enable them "to make a certain new port with timber and stone towards the sea, whereby all ships arriving there may enter and sail out without danger, as well at the beginning, as at high water." By these letters patent, every merchant ship entering the harbour was to pay 6d.; every fisherman's ship, 4d.; and every fisherman's boat, 2d. Several similar grants have been subsequently made for limited periods.

The harbour of Scarborough possesses many natural advantages. It is the only place of refuge between the Tyne and the Humber, which can, in rough weather, be safely entered by vessels of moderate draught of water. At present the harbour accommodation is insufficient for the increasing trade of the town, and the Commissioners have obtained parliamentary sanction for the expenditure of £50,000 in enlarging and improving it. For the guidance of ships a signal ball is displayed on the "White Tower," or lighthouse, at the end of Vincent's Pier, so long as the water continues at the depth of 10 feet in the harbour, and a light is exhibited by night. The height of the light is 58 feet above the sea, can be seen 13 miles off, and is in latitude 54° 17m. N., and 23m. east longtitude. The average depth of the water at the end of the pier, when the spring tides are at their height, is 22 feet. A north wind will increase and a south wind depress this elevation. Some idea may be formed of the accumulation of sand, since the formation of the port, by the fact that what is now Quay Street, was evidently at one time included in the old harbour, mooring stones having been found in the cellars of the houses. It is said, by John Hinderwell, that, in 1811, persons were living who remembered catching fish with angling lines from the present staith on the sands.

In 1732 the harbour was considered to be contracted and dangerous, and, the old pier being inadequate for the requirements of the town, an Act was procured for their enlargement, at an estimated cost of £12,000. This old pier is now known as the Old or Vincent Pier, after the engineer who completed it. Its length is 1,200 feet, and its breadth from 13 feet to 18 feet, The new portion is broader than the old. It measures 42 feet across at the extremity. The damage done to the pier and the shipping in the harbour, by several violent storms in the latter part of the 18th century, induced the Commissioners to build a new pier, extending from the foot of the Castle Cliff, and sweeping further out into the sea. The situation being so exposed it was deemed necessary to build it of extraordinary dimensions. This is now called the New or Outer Pier. The foundation is 60 feet in breadth, and at the curvature, where there is the greatest force of the sea, it is 63 feet. The breadth of the top is 42 feet, and the elevation of the pier is 40 feet. Its length is 460 yards, or 1,380 feet. The ponderous rocks used in the building of this pier were taken from a quarry, the White Nab, or Neb, an opposite point about two miles distant, and conveyed in flat-bottomed vessels, called floats. The Western Pier, or jetty, was built about 1820. It is convenient for the loading and discharging of vessels, in addition to its utility in rendering greater security to the shipping in the harbour during storms. It is 25 feet broad and 170 yards long. The Floating Dock. - Many of the resident shipowners, feeling the want of accommodation at Scarborough necessary for repairing vessels, under their own superintendence, at home, formed a company, in 1849, with the object of remedying this inconvenience. Accordingly, in 1850, the present dock was opened, since when a great number of vessels, of various tonnage, have been placed in it.

The Lifeboats. - The first lifeboat belonging to this port was built at Scarborough, in 1801. A second boat was built in 1822, upon a new and improved plan; but, by the tremendous gale which visited this coast in February, 1836, it was upset whilst assisting a distressed ship, the John, of Aberdeen, and 10, out of a crew of 14, were drowned, only four being rescued whilst clinging to the capsized boat. In 1852 another lifeboat was built, from a design by Mr. James Peake, but, being too small, was replaced by a large and powerful one, given, through the Royal Lifeboat Institution, by a London benefactor. This boat, in an attempt to rescue a crew from the ship "Coopland," in 1861, was dashed against the Spa wall, and two of its crew thrown out and drowned. To assist the lifeboat crew an excited crowd rushed down the incline at the south end of the Spa, and, before they could return, a huge wave engulphed them, the backwater dragging into the breakers beyond some who were lost. Lord Charles Beauclerk, W. Tindall, Esq., and Mr. John Iles perished, and many others were only rescued with great difficulty. The boat became a wreck within reach of the Spa promenade. The next boat, "The Mary," was the gift of Mrs. Cockcroft, of Scarborough, and was successful in saving 32 lives between the years 1861 and 1872. After this followed the "Lady Leigh," presented by the Freemasons of Warwickshire. She has a splendid record, having saved 166 lives in 15 years, without the loss of one of her crew. In 1887 Herbert Foster, Esq., gave to the port the new lifeboat, "The Queensbury," and it was liberally endowed by his family.

The Rocket Apparatus is a valuable adjunct to the lifeboat, often being able to save crews from stranded vessels when too near the rocks or cliffs for the lifeboat to be of any service. It is stationed near the foot of the central tramway.

BATHING, BOATING, AND FISHING.

No part of the British coast offers a situation more convenient or delightful for the purpose of bathing. The bays - north and south - are spacious, and open to the sea; the waves in general are transparent as those in mid-ocean; the sand clean, smooth, and even; and the inclination of the beach towards the sea scarcely perceptible. Bathing can be indulged in at all times of the tide, the accommodation being excellent, and the attendants obliging. The north bay is preferred by some for its greater privacy, the greater coolness of the water, and, usually, its more boisterous waves. Both on the north and south beaches every precautions is taken by the public authorities for the prevention of accidents, and appliances are always at hand for rendering prompt assistance in cases of emergency. These are kept on the South Shore Road at the foot of the central tramway. Besides bathing in the open sea, several more or less public establishments will be found in various parts of the town.

The Public Baths are at the bottom of Bland's Cliff, on the Foreshore Road. Besides hot and cold, fresh and sea-water baths, and a Turkish bath, it has a large swimming bath of sea-water, 40 feet square; also a plunge bath for ladies. The sea-water supplying these baths is pumped from the sea at a considerable distance from the shore. In winter the water is made tepid in the swimming bath.

The South Cliff baths are in Ramshill Road, and are fitted up with the usual hot, cold, fresh, sea water, Turkish, and medicated baths.

Other baths are in Falconer's Road and King Street.

Boating. - Visitors to Scarborough may enjoy a trip to sea either in the steamboats, the yachts, or the numerous pleasure boats for hire on the beach. The pleasure steamboats run to Flamborough and Bridlington, and to Whitby and Saltburn on alternate days in the season, leaving the Lighthouse pier at half-past ten in the morning, and returning at half-past five in the evening. A steamboat from London to Sunderland calls off Scarborough twice a week, leaving or taking up passengers as desired. A voyage may also be taken in the steamers, that call weekly, running from Hull to Dundee. There need be no fear as to the safety of any of the vessels referred to, as all are subject to periodical official inspection, and are also limited as to the number of passengers each shall carry at one time.

Fishing in the bay is a pleasant occupation in congenial weather, when an abundance of fish, including whiting, gurnard, plaice, brill, flounder, and occasionally mackerel, may be caught. The largest and best kinds of fish are found several miles from the shore, where the bottom is rocky, and require larger hooks and stronger gear. The pleasure boats are supplied with lines, hooks, and baits by the owners of the boats. The variety of fish brought to the markets by the fishermen are:- halibut, turbot, ling, cod, skate, haddock, codling, soles, mackerel, plaice, herring, whiting, lobsters, and crabs. The steam-trawler, the smack, the yawl, and the large coble are what the fishermen use for deep water fishing.

PUBLIC BUILDINGS, ETC.

The discovery of the mineral waters at Scarborough speedily gave it a high reputation, and elevated it to the first rank among the watering places of the kingdom, and at this day it presents the two great attractions to the invalid, of medicinal waters and sea bathing. The Guide to Scarborough curtly remarks, "The discovery of our spa is not marked by any of those marvellous occurrences to which some of our neighbours are fond of alluding, when tracing the history of their mineral waters. We are not indebted to the swine or the stag, nor the fluttering of a pigeon or lapwing, as at Bath, Harrogate, or Cheltenham, for the detection of the medicinal properties of our waters, but simply to the observations of an intelligent female." Mrs. Farrer, who lived in Scarborough at the commencement of the 17th century, observed that the stones over which the waters passed received a russet colour, and, finding the taste of the water different from that of other springs, thought they might possess a medicinal property; and having therefore made an experiment herself, and persuaded others to do the same, it was found to be efficacious in some complaints, and became the usual physic of the inhabitants. It was afterwards in great repute, and, becoming generally recommended, several persons came from great distances to drink it. An old writer says, "That which adds further to the fame of the place is the Spa's well, which is a quick spring about a quarter-of-a-mile south from the town, at the foot of an exceeding high cliff, arising upright out of the earth, like a boiling pot, near the level of the spring tides, with which it is overflown."

The first cistern for collecting the waters was built in 1698. This was destroyed by what was supposed to be an earthquake, in 1737. A great mass of the cliff behind the house, containing near an acre of pasture land, sank, and forced up the sand and soil around, for the space of 100 yards, to 18 or 20 feet above its level. The ground thus raised was 26 yards in breadth, and the staith, notwithstanding its enormous weight - supposed to be about 2,468 tons - rose entire, 12 feet higher than its former position, and was forced out forward to the sea, the distance of about 20 yards.

This convulsion completely buried the springs, but the authorities of the town, being fully alive to the importance of recovering them, on which the prosperity of the town depends, made diligent search for them, and their efforts were crowned with success, and though the spa itself was destroyed by a violent storm in 1836, and partially burnt down in 1876, they have never since disappeared.

A stranger, arriving on the broad promenade, is struck with the grand pile of buildings before him, erected on the site of the old Saloon, and which comprise the Grand Hall, theatre, picture gallery, restaurant, &c., built at a cost of £70,000. This building was opened by the Lord Mayor of London, in 1880. He was accompanied by the Lord Mayor of York, the Mayor of Scarborough, and the mayors and corporate bodies from many of the provincial towns. The Grand Hall is 120 feet long, and 96 feet in width, and will accommodate 3,000 persons. The orchestra will seat 300 performers. The decorations of the Grand Hall, the Spa Theatre, and the Refreshment Buffet are of the most elaborate description.

To the north of the Grand Hall is a smaller one, arranged for dramatic and musical entertainments; and beneath it is a luxurious and spacious buffet, connected with which are dining rooms, cloak rooms, lavatories, &c. In front of the range of buildings is the broad sea-wall promenade. It is raised considerably above the sands, and obtains the full benefit of the sea breezes. A colonnade, supported by iron pillars, runs round three sides of the buildings, and, elongated at both the north and south, form a lofty balcony-promenade, as well as a sheltered one underneath. Numerous winding walks about the face of the cliff, and leafy bowers, invite the patronage of those who desire greater quiet. The band plays daily from eleven to one, and seven to nine, and on Sundays from 3-30 to 4-30.

There are two springs, called the North and South Wells, The north is the mineral and tonic, or chalybeate water, generally, but erroneously, supposed to possess more of this property than that of the south well. The difference consists in the less proportion of saline aperient that is found in the former than in the latter - an immense advantage in numberless cases. The water of the north well is simply to be used as a tonic, and is particularly applicable in all cases of general debility, nervous diseases, &c. The south well water, however, is of the greater importance, from its being applicable to a far larger number of cases. In order to derive the full benefit of the waters, they should be drank at the fountain, as it is important they should be had pure, before the azotic gas escapes. The temperature of the water in winter, when the thermometer, in the air, stands at freezing point (32°) is about 46°; in summer it is about 49°.

We append a careful analysis of these tonic and aperient waters from the table of Dr. Muspratt:-

                                 ANALYSIS OF SPA WATERS.
                               North Well.  South Well.
                             Cubic inches. Cubic inches.
Nitrogen Gas                     7.4864      7.9792
Carbonic Acid Gas               43.3112     38.0400

                                Grains.     Grains.
Carbonate of Lime               42.354      34.841
Carbonate of Magnesia            2.844       4.051
Carbonate of Iron                1.465       1.996
Carbonate of Manganese           Trace.      Trace.
Sulphate of Magnesia            98.952      90.092
Sulphate of Lime                69.120      69.537
Sulphate of Soda                 7.060       2.015
Chloride of Sodium              19.287      19.540
Chloride of Potassium            3.002       2.416
Chloride of Magnesium            1.941        .920
Iodide of Sodium                 Trace.      Trace.
Bromide of Sodium                Trace.      Trace.
Organic Matter                   Trace.      Trace.
Siicic Acid                       .859       1.063
                         
Total solid matter             246.884     226.376
Specific gravity of the waters   1.0033069   1.0028878
                           Mean Temperature 48 deg.

Scarborough derives an advantage not possessed by many watering places from its natural conformation of hill and dale. Not only has it two distinct portions, separated by the valley, but connected by the two bridges which obviate the necessity for a descent of the one hill and an ascent of the other; but the rocky promontory of castle cliff gives it two bays, each with its own distinctive features of attraction of an opposite character.

The Cliff Bridge, which spans the ravine, in which the Aquarium is built, and leads from St. Nicholas' Cliff to the Spa, is a splendid iron structure, 414 feet long and 13½ feet wide, whilst the height above water mark is 75 feet. The foundation stone was laid in 1826, and the bridge was opened to the public in 1827. It cost about £9,000. In 1880 the width of the road was increased, and a siding was added for the convenience of persons desiring only to walk between the town and the south cliff. The toll is one halfpenny. The prospect from this bridge is at once extensive and varied, and with the walks about the Spa, a picture is constituted which is not often equalled, and seldom excelled.

The Valley Bridge has proved, next to the Cliff Bridge, one of the most important additions to the means of inter-communication in the town, as it has done away with the necessity for the descent and ascent of steep cliffs between the two portions of the town. It was first erected over the Ouse at York, but purchased and re-erected here by a company in 1865. The bridge consists of three spans of neary 300 feet each, crossed by means of wrought-iron girders. The roadway on the bridge itself rises about nine feet from south to north. The length of the iron work is 550 feet, and the clear width 39 feet. The toll is one halfpenny each person; for horses, carriages, &c., see bye-laws.

The views on either hand from this bridge are truly charming. Looking down the valley may be seen winding walks amid the foliage of the park, the wooded sides of which are relieved by the richly cultivated gardens; further, the Museum and the Aquarium, the Cliff Bridge and Grand Hotel; and beyond, the castle hill with the German ocean in the distance studded with vessels. The view inland is a panorama of hills and dales and sylvan beauty.

The Aquarium was constructed from designs by Mr. Birch, the originator of the Brighton Aquarium. It stands upon a plot of ground three acres in extent, at the entrance to the south sands, and close to the Cliff Bridge, which was formerly known as the Mill Beck. The pool of stagnant water and the horse and carriage sheds, which constituted a great eye-sore, have been swept away, and the wide and convenient road leading to the sands and the external parts of the Aquarium occupies their place. The building was opened in 1875, costing £100,000. Its length is 500 feet, and width 250 feet. The external appearance of this original and magnificent marine temple, is quite unworthy of the splendour of the interior. The building is of Mahomedan-Indian architecture, which gives it the appearance of a vast subterranean palace. The entrance hall, which will eventually be used as a conservatory, is 70 feet long by 32 feet wide, and is designed in the style of the Hindoo temple at Bindrabund, as is also the vestibule leading into the reading-room. The rooms devoted to concerts and refreshments are of the style of the Palace at Futupoor, while the general character of the woodwork is similar to the Palace of Akbar, at Agra.

The corridors are formed of picturesque brick arches in the Eastern style, whilst the tile flooring justifies a close inspection. Several caves and grottoes, containing choice specimens of ferns and other plants, are arranged in the building. The scene, when the Aquarium is lighted in the evening, in this part of the building, is particularly effective, the gas light displaying to advantage the formation of the roof. The large tank is placed in the cave of Elephanta, and contains over 75,000 gallons of water. It is 36 feet square. In summer the most celebrated swimmers are engaged by the management to give exhibitions in this tank several times daily. Since the present company purchased the building, extensive alterations and additions have been made, including large and magnificent monkey house and aviary. There are also seal and alligator ponds, shooting galleries, and numerous other attractions, which bear out the name of the "People's Palace," in which during the season a ten hours' varied programme is provided for sixpence. On Sundays sacred concerts are given afternoon and evening.

Foreshore Road. - Previous to 1862, access to the sands was by a narrow street only, but after then, a very convenient approach was effected by the construction of a street leading direct from the main street, Newborough, to the west pier. This new street forms a drive, in a straight line from the railway station, through the Bar, to the harbour. In 1878, the construction of the Aquarium afforded an opportunity of making a magnificent road from the foot of the before-mentioned one, Eastborough, to the Aquarium, and which has proved one of the greatest improvements to the town. It forms a carriage drive and promenade half-a-mile long, and is asphalted all the way. This "Foreshore Road" is provided with numerous seats, and protected by a light iron fence on the side next the sea. Three hydraulic tramways afford easy communication with the sands and the cliffs above.

The North Shore Road. - The North Bay, with its long sweep of rugged undercliff, terminated by the stern promontory of the Castle Hill, was, for long, an insoluble problem to the authorities. Meanwhile, the German Ocean assisted the Corporation to make up its mind, and find an escape from the difficulty. Year by year the waves made steady inroads upon the undercliff, until the falling away of the roadway above compelled the authorities to take action. The whole of the undercliff was acquired, and the opinion of Sir John Coode taken as to the feasibility of a road round the sweep of the bay. As the ultimate result of his advice, a carriage drive has been constructed, at a cost, to the town, of £30,000. The wilderness of undercliff has been transformed into grounds, which, for attractiveness, will compare favourably with any in England. A kiosk, in a sheltered part, accommodates an excellent band. One result will, sooner or later, follow this improvement. The scheme to construct a road round the castle foot, thus connecting the foreshore roads in the North and South Bays, is a large order; Sir John Coode's estimate being £124,000. This drive, when constructed, will, undoubtedly, be the finest in Europe.

The Museum is nearly opposite the Aquarium. It is a rotunda, of the Roman Doric order, 374 feet in its external diameter, and 50 feet high. On the basement are the library, keeper's room, and lavatory; and the principal room, which is 35 feet high, is approached by a spiral staircase. This room is lighted from the dome. The cornice that surrounds the building has scarcely its equal; it was taken from the Theatre Marcellus, at Rome. The windows, designed more for the admission of air than light, are taken from the temple of the god Ridiculo, at Rome, The staircase to the gallery is similar to the one in the library at the Chapter House of York Minster, and the model of both from the same temple. Amongst the varied objects of interest contained herein, is the skeleton of an ancient Briton, 2,000 years old. It was found under a hillock near Gristhorpe; the coffin was perfect, and contained beads and other articies. The Antiquity Room is crowded with curious specimens of mediæval armour, personal ornaments, and domestic appliances of a long past age. In the gallery, is a magnificent and varied display of minerals; whilst in the Geological Room, we find fossils, chiefly from the county and north-east coast.

The Postal and Telegraph Offices are in a commodious building, specially erected for the purpose, in Huntriss row.

The Market Hall is a roomy building in St. Helen's square, at the lower part of Newborough Street. Markets are held on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, when may be obtained a good supply of meat, game, and provisions of all kinds and of the best quality. Before the erection of the above hall in 1853, the market was held in Newborough Street, from the Bar to St. Helen's Square, and in the neighbouring streets. King street was known by the name of Apple Market; while the cloth vendors, boot dealers, clog makers, and twine spinners had their stalls in Queen Street.

The New Town Hall and Court House are built on part of the old gaol yard, fronting Castle Road. It is a brick building, with stone dressings. The magistrates' room is lighted by a dormer light from the roof. There is also a large retiring room for the use of the magistrates, and suitable offices conveniently arranged. Above these, are larger rooms, for Corporation purposes. On the ground floor is the sessions court, which contains a gallery to hold 400 persons. On each side of this court are rooms for the use of the recorder, grand jury, counsel, &c., Ornamental iron columns support the roof. The Police Station, which is attached to the Town Hall, stands on part of the site of the old gaol, at the north end of St. Thomas' Street. The premises consist of fire engine house, chief constable's and clerks' offices, charge office, reserve or muster room, and the constable's residence and 10 cells. The force consists of chief constable, two inspectors, seven sergeants, and 29 men. In addition to the fire engine house in St. Thomas' Street, a hose and reels are kept at South Cliff and Falsgrave.

The Old Town Hall, rebuilt, is in St. Nicholas Street. It contains a large and tastefully decorated room, used for public entertainments.

The Promenade Pier, extending over 1,000 feet into the sea, is a handsome structure of iron in the north bay, and is an excellent promenade and lounge, having seats the entire length. It was built by a limited company in 1866, at a cost of about £16,000. It was sold to Mr. Hudson in March, 1889, for the ridiculously small sum of £1,240. This gentleman has since spent over £10,000 in improvements. The entrance has been transformed into an artistic arcade, composed of shops, refreshment bar, and ladies' cloak and retiring rooms. It is proposed to light up the pier with electric light.

PLACES OF AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION.

The Cricket Ground is in North Marine Road, and is one of the finest and most complete in the kingdom. The seats, which are erected on a slope, and give on every side an excellent view of the game, will accommodate 4,000 persons. The ground is enclosed by a high wall, and has a spacious pavilion, and refreshment rooms.

An excellent lawn-tennis ground is on the South Cliff, where a tournament is held in August.

Near the cricket ground is the new recreation grounds, where football, cycling, and other sports and pastimes are enjoyed.

The People's Park. - This name has been given to Ramsdale Valley, commencing near the Aquarium and extending towards Falsgrave. It is thickly wooded, and tastefully laid out, with numerous walks and seats. A path branching to the right, under a splendid avenue of lofty trees, leads to the railway station. Further up is the fish pond, while many rare swans, geese, and other fowls of various plumage add picturesqueness to the scene.

The Circus, situate in St. Thomas' Street, is a large permanent building, capable of accommodating upwards of 4,000 persons. The fittings and decorations are much superior to what are usually found in buildings of this class. It is frequently used for monstre meetings and large gatherings, for which it is admirably adapted.

The Theatre Royal is in St. Thomas' Street, and the interior is very prettily laid out.

The Londesborough Theatre is amongst the newest and best specimens of architecture in Scarborough. It is situated in Westborough, and forms part of a series of business premises unique in appearance, with the Pavilion Hotel as the principal building of the estate.

There are also the Spa Theatre and the Aquarium Theatre, whose stages are occupied during the season by the most distinguished companies.

Holbeck Improvement. - "The work of improvement," says the Scarborough Post, "carried out by the Corporation on that portion of the undercliff in the South Bay, extending from Mr. Beeforth's estate on the north to that of Mr. G. Alderson Smith on the south, and known as Holbeck, has been universally admired and appreciated by both visitors and townspeople. The natural facilities afforded by the cliff have been taken full advantage of in laying out the walks and grounds, and the ravine afforded an attraction to thousands during the last season. When the Corporation first undertook the work, it was their intention to protect the surface of the cliff by underpinning it in a similar manner to that of Mr. Beeforth's, but, as the works proceeded, they found it would be entirely insufficient to keep the cliff secure. The plan of facing parts of the upper portion of the cliff with stone was entirely successful in draining and keeping the surface of the cliff secure, but the lower portion would still have been exposed in some degree if the original plan of underpinning had been proceeded with, and the committee decided to build a retaining wall. The first part of 165 yards is now nearly completed. The height is fifteen feet. A flight of steps leading down to the sands will be put in the centre, and another flight leading up to the first landing of the present steps is also to be built. The cliff is to be made entirely safe, and, when the aid of the gardener has been called in, it will be one of the most picturesque spots in the bay."

The Barracks for the Artillery Militia Depôt is on the Scarborough and Whitby road, one mile north from the Market Place, and is situated in Throxenby township. It is a square pile of brick building, erected in 1861-2 by the North and East Ridings, and has been rented by the Government since 1877, at a yearly rental of £108. It consists of fourteen married quarters, two for the first class (staff), and the remainder for sergeants. These are on the north side. On the west side are two large gun sheds. At the east end of the north side are the wash and outhouses. On the east side on the ground floor of the first block is an armoury, with accommodation for 600 stand of arms and accoutrements; following is the cook-house and ablution-room. Above the armoury is a kit store, with accommodation for 600 kits and clothing. Above the cook-house and ablution-room there are two stores, one used as a tailor's shop and the other as a band-room. Following these is a small gun shed. On the ground floor of the second block are the meat and artillery stores, above which are the paymaster's office, quartermaster's office, and new clothing store. In the south-east bastion is situated the hospital, which consists of surgery, kitchen, bath-room, two ordinary wards, one infectious ward, and outhouses. On the south side, on the ground floor, is the guard-room, prisoners'-room, and three cells. Above these are offices for the commanding officer and adjutant, and one large officers' (assembly) room.

In front of the entrance to the barracks are six guns - two 32-pounders on traversing platforms, and four on standing carriages, two 32-pounders, and two 64-pounders. On the west side of the square are four 32-pounders on standing carriages, and on the east side are two 32-pounders. The militia are not known now by that name, but are designated the "Yorkshire Artillery, Western Division, Royal Artillery."

On the north side of the Artillery Militia Depôt two new blocks have just been built, as an addition in which to quarter the men when they come up, and which will probably soon become a depôt for "Regulars." In each of these blocks there is accommodation for 108 men. At present there are only 37 recruits and two trumpeters in the east block.

The following are the officers of the "Yorks. Artillery, W.D.R.A." Colonel: A. Brooksbank. Lieut.-Colonel Commanding: J. D. Legard. Majors (Honorary): C. F. Fellowes and W. R. Ringrose Voase. Captains: E. C. Brooksbank, B. Haworth-Booth, and S. C. Scrope. Lieutenants: G. F. Harwood, W. E. Fell, H. P. Cundliffe, C. P. Sykes, G. A. St. Quinton, F. Cohen, A. H. Darley, H. D'Arcy Hutton, and R. Marshall. The staff officers are:- Adjutant: S. V. Thornton. Captain and Quarter-Master: W. J. Emby. Medical Officer: Surgeon-Major H. Wright, J.P.

The Municipal History. - Scarborough is a borough by prescription, that is to say it is so by virtue of customs and privileges, which had from usage obtained the force of law. Some of these privileges may have been granted by the Saxon monarchs, In the charter granted by Henry II. in 1181, mention is made of a still earlier grant by Henry I. By the charter of Edward III. in 1356, and which was in operation with little interruption, till the passing of the Municipal Corporation Act in 1835, the government of the town was vested in a common council of 44 persons, viz.:- two bailiffs, two coroners, four chamberlains, and 36 capital or select burgesses, anunally arranged. The Act of 1835 placed the civil government of the town under a council of six aldermen and 18 councillors periodically elected, and from whom a mayor is chosen. The arms of the borough are of great antiquity. Its registry in the Herald's office is without date. A watch tower (supposed to be a rude resemblance of the ancient castle), a Norman ship, and a star appear on the common seal, and the inscription or legend, Sigillum Commune Burgensium de Scardeburg is in letters of Saxon or Lombardic character. In retiring from the office of mayor in 1852, John Woodall, Esq., presented to the mayor and corporation of Scarborough a collar and badge of gold. The ornament is composed of a rose, the emblem of the county, alternated at short distances with ornaments of a mediæval character; these ornaments are at once connected together and relieved by links after the manner of a chain. The inscription on the reverse side of the badge is "The gift of John Woodall, Esq., to the mayor and corporation of Scarborough, 9th November, 1852. The number of municipal voters is 5,911.

Parliamentary History. - Scarborough is one of the most ancient privileged boroughs which sends members to Parliament. It has been regularly represented by two members from the 11th, Edward I., 1282, up to the passing of the Redistribution Bill, in 1865, since when, it has only returned one member. The number of voters is 4,751.

By the Local Government Act of 1888, Scarborough sends six members to the County Council, being one from each of the municipal wards of the borough.

[Description(s) from Bulmer's History and Directory of North Yorkshire (1890)]

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