"LLANWNOG, a parish in the hundred of Llanidloes, county Montgomery, 5 miles N.W. of Newtown, its post town, and 7 N.E. of Llanidloes. It is situated on a tributary of the river Severn, and includes four townships Here are several hills, some above 1,500 feet in height, and three lakes. The old Roman road to Chester passes through the parish, and had a station called Caersws. Woollen goods are manufactured in the village, which is a considerable and well-to-do place. They living is a vicarage* in the diocese of Bangor, value £220, in the patronage of the bishop. The church is dedicated to St. Gwynog. There are two Calvinistic Methodist chapels. The parochial charities amount to about £10 per annum. The workhouse for the Newton Poor-law Union is in this parish. There are some traces of British camps."
"CAERSWS, a hamlet in the parish of Llanwnog, hundred of Llanidloes, in the county of Montgomery, North Wales, 6 miles to the W. of Newtown. It is seated on the river Severn, which is here crossed by a bridge of three arches of modern erection. Caersws is believed to be the site of a Roman station on the road to Chester, called the Sarn Sws. Near the village are remains of two ancient encampments, and Roman bricks with inscriptions have been found. The Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, and the Baptists, have chapels here."
"CASTLE, a township united with Escob, in the parish of Llanwnog, hundred of Llanidloes, in the county of Montgomery, 5 miles to the W. of Newton."
"ESGOB, a township united with Castle, in the parish of Llanwnog, county Montgomery, 6 miles N.W. of Newtown."
"MOAT LANE, a hamlet in the parish of Llanwnog, county Montgomery, 6 miles W. by N. of Newtown. It is the junction station of the Newtown and Machynlleth branch railway. It is situated near the river Severn and the Sarn Sws Roman way, which went to Chester."
"SURNANT, a township in the parish of Llanwnog, county Montgomery, 5 miles W. of Newtown."
"UCHLLAWRCOED, a township in the parish of Llanwnog, county Montgomery, 6 miles N.W. of Newtown."
"UWCH-LLAWR-COED, a township in the parish of Llanwnog, county Montgomery, 5 miles N.W. of Newton."
"WEEG, a township in the parish of Llanwnog, county Montgomery, 6 miles S.W. of Newtown."
CAER-SWS, a hamlet in the parish of LLANWNNOG, hundred of LLANIDLOES, county of MONTGOMERY, NORTH WALES, 5 miles (W.) from Newtown. The population is returned with the parish. This is said to have been a Roman city of considerable extent, though unnoticed as such by early writers : its Roman name is not even known, and few vestiges of its grandeur have been traced. In Mr. Pennant's time the fields in the vicinity were divided by lanes intersecting each other, which probably pointed out the places that had formed the ancient streets, but the exact size of the station is not known. A Roman road, called Sarn Swsan, or Swsog, led from it in a direction northward, though whither it proceeded is doubtful, and but little of it can now be discovered. By the side of this road, on Gwyn-vynydd common, there is a small sub-oval encampment; and in a field adjacent to Rhos Ddiarbed, " the common where no quarter was given," is another Roman camp, of singular form. At the south side there is a vast conical mount, surrounded by a deep fosse, supposed to have been exploratory, to the north of which an oblong area, about seventy yards broad in the greatest diameter, is defended by a high rampart and outer ditch : in the lower part there is an entrance to a square camp, about two hundred yards in length, and above one hundred in breadth, opposite to which is another entrance : the whole is surrounded by a rampart and ditch. No coins have been discovered here, but, about the year 1777, some Roman bricks, and large blocks of cement, much indurated, and as porous as breccia, were dug up in the south-western angle of the camp : one of the bricks bore an inscription in bas relief, which has not been satisfactorily decyphered, and was placed in the back part of a chimney belonging to the apartment of an adjoining inn.
Caer-Sws had formerly a castle also, and at least one church, and is said to have been the residence of the lords of Arwystli. It is situated on the northern bank of the river Severn, across which a new stone bridge of three arches was built a few years ago, and has been enlarged, within the last fifty years, by the erection of some decent houses and cottages : a new road, leading from Caer-Sws to Llanwnnog, was constructed in 1831. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists.