The parish of Linkinhorne, (Cornish: Lanngynhorn), is situated in the Deanery and Hundred of East; it is bounded on the north by Northill and Lezant, on the east by Stoke Climsland and Southill, on the south by St Ive and St Cleer, and on the west by St Cleer and Northill. The parish is divided into two nearly equal parts by the River Lynher, which runs through it from north to south. The name 'Linkinhorne' means Church site (Lann) of Kenhoarn, but the patron saint of local church is St Mylor. In the Domesday Book of 1086 it was called Resleston (town by the ford) and was part of the manor of Rillaton. This parish is divided by the wooded Lynher valley, the west rising steeply to Bodmin Moor while the eastern half is mainly agricultural. At Darley Farm is the Darley Oak which is believed to be over a thousand years old and has a circumference of 36 feet. Another relic of the Bronze Age is The Hurlers, another group of stones. These are reputed to have once been a group of men who were turned to stone for hurling on the sabbath day. The chief villages are the Churchtown, Caradon, Henwood, Rillaton and Rilla Mill.
As a mining district, the western part of this parish is similar to St Cleer to which it adjoins. Tin mining and streaming was being worked here from the mid-17th century.
This parish rests on granite, forming high and barren hills, the sides and summits of which are covered with immense boulders and tons of granite which once furnished employment for a great number of stone-cutters.
Most parish and church description(s) on these pages are from Lake's Parochial History of the County of Cornwall by J Polsue (Truro, 1867 - 1873)
- The Cornwall Family History Society have published Monumental Inscriptions for:
- The Parish Church - 852 entries
- Bray Shop Methodist Chapel - 100 entries
- Lanhargy Methodist Chapel - 80 entries
- Rilla Mill Methodist Chapel - 347 entries
- Upton Cross Church - 429 entries.
- War Memorial information on those from Upton Cross who were killed in World War I was available on-line as below.
- Callington Area Heritage Centre (broken link) have placed on-line monumental inscriptions for St Melor's churchyard [completed 1986], Upton Cross, St Paul's churchyard [completed 1986], Rilla Mill Methodist [completed 1986], and Darley Ford [not complete]..
Census information for this parish (1841 - 1901) is held in the Cornwall Records Office.
The Cornwall Family History Society offers a census search service for its members.
Specific census information for this parish is available as follows:
- The 1841 Census of Linkinhorne (HO107/134), Enumeration Districts 8 to 11, is available on-line from the Cornwall Online Census project.
- The census has also been filmed by the LDS church - film No. 241258.
- The 1851 Census of Linkinhorne (HO107/1901), Enumeration Districts 5a and 5b, is available on-line from the Cornwall Online Census project.
- The 1861 Census of Linkinhorne (RG9/1527), Enumeration Districts 8 to 10, is available on-line from the Cornwall Online Census project.
- The 1871 Census of Linkinhorne (RG10/2235), Enumeration Districts 8 to 10, is available on-line from the Cornwall Online Census project.
- The 1881 Census of Linkinhorne (RG11/2284), Enumeration District 8 to 10, is available on-line from the Cornwall Online Census project.
- Anglican. The parish church is located in OS Grid Square SX3173 and was dedicated to St Melorus (Mylor).
The mother church of the parish is that of St Melor at Linkinhorne, with a (separate) church dedicated to St Paul being built at Upton Cross in the late 19th century to meet the need for a church closer to the populous mining villages.
The parish church of St Melorus comprises a chancel, nave and north and south aisles. The arcades each comprise five four-centred arches of granite, supported on monolith pillars of the same material. At the west end of the church the arcades are banded together with iron bars on which stands the date 1786. The tower arch, which is well-proportioned and moulded, is blocked. The tower, which has four stanges, is 120ft high, and is buttressed on the square, and is finished with battlements, battlemented turrets and crocketed pinnacles. There are six bells. The church was given to Launceston Priory by Reginald Fitz-Henry, Earl of Cornwall, the natural son of Henry I; the gift was confirmed in a charter from King John in 1199 and by another from Henry III in 1288.
In 1885 the decision was taken to build another church at Upton Cross. The land was donated by the Duchy of Cornwall and the church was designed by Mr Silvanus Trevail of Truro and constructed by Mr Trehane of Liskeard for the sum of £1600. At the same time the Sunday School building was constructed for just over £200 and was designed to accommodate about 70 or 80 scholars. The Board School, which was finished before the Church was designed by the same architect! The church was designed for a congregation of around 200 and has a nave 50 feet long by 21 feet, with a chancel 22 feet by 16 feet with an apsidal end. A graceful granite arch divides the chancel from the nave and the woodwork of the roof is open with arch ribbed principals. Hot air heating was installed when the church was built. St Paul's church was consecrated on the 5th May 1887.
Details about the plans of these two churches are available on-line.
- Non-Conformist. The following Non-Conformist Chapels were active in the parish:
- Minions. (Primitive Methodist). The chapel was built in 1864 and it closed in 1980; it is now a private dwelling.
- Henwood. (Primitive Methodist). This chapel was built 1855 and closed in 1980. It is now a private dwelling.
- Higher Stanbear. (Bible Christian). There is no further information available. The building has been demolished.
- Upton Cross. (Wesleyan Methodist), was built 1864 and closed early 1980s; it is now in use as a storeroom.
- Lanhargy. (Wesleyan Methodist). The present chapel was built in 1911 to replace an earlier building from 1802. The building is now semi-derelict. There is a burial ground attached.
- Caradon. (United Methodist Free Church). This chapel was in use until the late 1920s and was then demolished.
- Plushabridge. (Plymouth Brethren). The chapel was built at the end of the 19th century and closed down during or after WWII; it is now a private dwelling.
- Darley. (United Methodist Free Church). The baptism registers date from 1837 to 1907. It was no longer a chapel in the 1960s and in the 1970s was converted to a dwelling. There are some monumental stones still in existence.
- Rilla Mill. (Wesleyan Methodist). The present chapel was built in 1846 and is still in use today; there is an adjacent burial ground.
- Bray Shop. (Bible Christian). This chapel is still in use at the beginning of the 21st century, and has a small burial ground attached.
- LDS Church Records.
- The LDS Church batch numbers for Linkinhorne are: C002242, E002241, M002241/2, P002241. These are searchable by surname.
- The IGI coverage of this parish is 1570 - 1876.
- CRO Record Holdings. The Cornwall Record Office holdings: Baptisms 1576 - 1910, Burials 1576 - 1894, Marriages 1576 - 1966, Boyd's Marriage Index 1576 - 1812, Pallot's Marriage Index 1790 - 1812.
- CFHS Records. The Cornwall Family History Society have published on-line transcripts of:
- Pre 1813 Marriages
- 1813-37 Marriages
- 1813-37 Burials
- Non-Conformist Registers - General. Information on Non-Conformist registers in Linkinhorne parish was available online.
- Callington Area Heritage Centre (broken link) have placed the following baptism records for Linkinhorne parish on-line:
- Parish baptisms 1699 to 1850.
- Non-conformist baptisms 1837 to 1850.
- Darley Chapel baptisms 1837 to 1850.
- Rilla Mill Chapel baptisms 1841 to 1850
- Baptisms 1676 to 1772 (Bishop's transcripts), and 1660 to 1911 (parish transcripts), for this parish are available on-line through the OPC search Facility - (C-PROP).
- Baptisms in the Lanhargy Wesleyan Methodist Church 1871 to 1892 are available on-line through the OPC search Facility (C-PROP).
- The Parish Chest have published on CD, baptisms 1725 to 1843 for this parish.
- Callington Area Heritage Centre (broken link) have placed the following baptism records for Linkinhorne parish on-line:
- Callington Area Heritage Centre (broken link) have placed on-line marriage records for Linkinhorne parish 1575 to 1850.
- Phillimore marriages 1576 to 1812, Bishop's transcripts 1675 to 1772, and parish transcripts 1813 to 1837, for this parish are available on-line through the OPC search Facility - (C-PROP).
- The Cornwall Family History Society have published transcripts of: Parish Marriages 1579 to 1837, which is available in CD or downloadable .pdf file formats.
- Burials 1675 to 1772 (Bishop's transcripts), and 1725 to 1894 (parish transcripts), for this parish are available on-line through the OPC search Facility - (C-PROP).
- The Cornwall Family History Society have published transcripts of: Parish Burials 1813 to 1837, which is available in Book format.
- Callington Area Heritage Centre (broken link) have placed on-line Linkinhorne Burials 1725 - 1837 (note: 1734 to 1741 are missing) and 1854 to 1894.
The parish of Linkinhorne has always been in the Liskeard Registration District. There were sub-districts at Callington, Lerrin, Liskeard and Looe; Linkinhorne was under the Callington sub-district which was closed in the 1930's. All BMD registers for Linkinhorne are at Liskeard and always have been. Parishes within the district are: Boconnoc, Broadoak, Callington, Calstock (1837-60), Duloe, East Looe, Lanreath, Lansallos, Lanteglos, Linkinhorne, Liskeard, Liskeard Borough, Menheniot, Morval, Pelynt, St. Cleer, St. Dominick, St. Ive, St. Keyne, St. Martin's, St. Neot, St. Pinnock, St. Veep, Southill, Talland and West Looe. The Superintendant Registrar can be contacted at: Graylands, Dean Street, Liskeard, PL14 4AH. Tel: 01579 343442.
Some Quarter Session Records for the parishes of Linkinhorne, South Hill and St Ive, are possibly available on the Callington Area Heritage site (broken link) .
The following are available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- The 1856 Post Office Directory of Linkinhorne.
- The 1862 Post Office Directory of Linkinhorne.
- An extract from the 1873 Kelly's Directory relating to Linkinhorne.
- An extract from the 1876 Harrod's Royal Directory relating to Linkinhorne.
- An extract from the 1893 Kelly's Directory relating to Linkinhorne.
- An extract from the 1910 Kelly's Directory relating to Linkinhorne.
- An extract from the 1930 Kelly's Directory relating to Linkinhorne.
- The 1892 Sanitary Report gives an interesting indication of the housing conditions of the period in Linkinhorne. (broken link)
- Ask for a calculation of the distance from Linkinhorne to another place.
"LINKINHORNE, a parish in the N. division of the hundred of East, county Cornwall, 4 miles N.W. of Callington, its post town, and 8 S.W. of Launceston. The parish, which is extensive, is situated between the rivers Inney and Lynner. It contains Carraton Downs, 1,208 feet above the sea, where in 1644 Charles I. was joined by Prince Maurice. The manor was held by Launceston Priory, and now belongs to the Duchy of Cornwall. The parish includes numerous points affording extensive views, among which may be mentioned Sharp Tor, and the remarkable rocks called the Hurlers and the Cheesewring. There are several tin and copper mines. The soil is loamy on a subsoil of clayslate. The living is a vicarage* in the diocese of Exeter, value £312. The church, dedicated to St. Mellor, is an ancient structure, with a lofty tower containing six bells. It was rebuilt by the Trecarells of Trefey. The interior of the church contains several monuments. The parochial charities produce about £8 per annum, with the interest of £705 bequeathed by Charles Roberts, Esq., for a free school for both sexes. A Sunday-school is also held in the school-room. The Wesleyan Methodists have places of worship. An annual cattle fair is held at Rilla-Mill on 3rd December."
- OPC Assistance.
- The On-line Parish Clerk (OPC) scheme operates a service to help family historians; the OPC page for this parish is available on-line, from where the OPC can be contacted by email.
- Some family histories of persons from Linkinhorne may be available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- Persons born in Linkinhorne but found elsewhere in records are known as "Strays". Some Strays from Linkinhorne but found elsewhere may be available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
The Domesday Settlements of Cornwall, a study undertaken by the Cornwall Branch of the Historical Association, has identified and located settlements listed in the Exeter and Exchequer Domesday Survey of AD 1086. The following places have been identified in Linkinhorne ecclesiastical parish:
- Caradon (Carnatona, Carnetone), Grid Reference 292714.
- Hall (Carnetona, Carneton), Grid Reference 280725.
- Patrieda (Pedret, Peret), Grid Reference 308739.
- Pengelly (Pengelli, Pengelle), Grid Reference 313747.
- Rillaton (Risllestona, Risleton), Grid Reference 298738.
- Trefrize (Treuerim, Treverim), Grid Reference 308766.
You can see the administrative areas in which Linkinhorne has been placed at times in the past. Select one to see a link to a map of that particular area.
- Callington Area Heritage Centre (broken link) have placed on-line a webpage for the history of Linkinghorne parish.
- Land tax assessment for 1805, 1736 & 1710, and various other lists of landowners & tenants, was available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- A list of Linkinhorne Land Owners in 1873 is available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
The Manorial Documents Register (MDR) maintained by the Historic Manuscripts Commission notes that, so far as can be established, the parish of Linkinhorne contained the manors of:
The MDR contains the following information for these manors:
- Carnedon Prior Manor
- Minister's accounts 1542-1623.
- Receiver' accounts 1542-1661.
- Court rolls 1628-1759.
- Surveys 1607-1851 (non consecutive), 1974 in the Duchy of Cornwall Office, 10 Buckingham Gate London SW1E 6LA. (Access to records at the Duchy of Cornwall is restricted).
- Court rolls 1574-77, 1589-1601, 1603-47, surveys temp Jas I and Commonwealth in the Public Record Office, Ruskin Avenue, Kew, Richmond TW9 4DU (ref: SC2/156/21-2; SC2/158/25-9; LR2/207/55-6; E317/Cornwall/8).
- Survey with Climsland Prior 17th cent in Southampton Archives Office, Civic Centre, Southampton SO14 7LY (collection ref: D/M).
- Rental 1655 in Cornwall Record Office, Old County Hall, Truro TR1 3AY (ref: AD 1166/1).
- Climsland Prior Manor
- Minister's accounts 1542-1623.
- Receiver's accounts 1542-1661.
- Court rolls 1628-45, 1666-91, 1725/26, 1735.
- Surveys 1608-1851 (non-consecutive), 1974 in the Duchy of Cornwall Office (access restricted).
- Court rolls 1574/75-1647/48 (non consecutive).
- Surveys temp Jas I and Commonwealth in the Public Record Office (ref: SC2/156/21-2; SC2/158/6, 26, 34-6; SC2/163/16; LR2/207/60; E317/Cornwall/9).
- Newland Manor
- Court roll 1540/41-1541/42 in the Public Record Office (ref: SC2/159/30).
- Court rolls 1553-6 in the Huntington Library, 1150 Oxford Road, San Marino, California CA 91108 (collection ref: Hastings collection).
- Rillaton Manor
- Rillaton Manor Rentals of 1701 were available on-line.
- Minister's accounts
- Assession rolls and other records with other manors 13th-16th cent.
- Court rolls 1515-1648, rental temp Jas I and Commonwealth survey in the Public Record Office (no reference given).
- Minister's accounts 1341-75, 1379-1633.
- Receiver's accounts 1400-1660
- Assession rolls 1333-1756 (non consecutive).
- Court rolls 1795-1839.
- Rentals and assessioning papers 17th-18th cent.
- Surveys 1338, 1649-1851 (non consecutive), 1974 in the Duchy of Cornwall Office (access restricted).
- Account rolls.
- Reeve's accounts.
- Court books.
- Estreat rolls.
- Precepts, presentments and rentals with other manors 1600-1900 in Cornwall Record Office (collection ref: DD R(S)).
- Court rolls 1638/39-1642/43 Rental (detailed) temp Jas I in the Public Record Office (ref: SC2/156/21-22; SC12/2/32).
- Rillaton Pengelly Manor
- Fragments of rentals and valuation 1783, Rent book 1788-98, in the Cornwall Record Office (collection ref: DD RD).
- Court roll with Tremollett 1550, List of tenants and rental 1635, 1643, Reeve's accounts and rental 1654-1721, Court roll 1547, Court book 1648-1709, Rentals 1636, 1641, 1730-39,
- Reeve's accounts 1706-9, 1730-37, Surveys c1740, 1783, Court books with Tremollett 1648-1710, Valuation and lists of tenants 16th cent. Court rolls with Lantyan 1636-43 in Cornwall Record Office (collection ref: DD R).
- Survey and valuation 1783, Reeve's accounts 1696-97, in Cornwall Record Office (ref: CA/B42/11-12, 52).
Reeve's account with Bulland 1711 in Cornwall Record Office (ref: DD.CM/1447).
- Rillaton Peverell Manor
- Rentals with other manors and papers rel to rents 1783-1844 in Cornwall Record Office (ref: X420).
- Letters and accounts concerning payment of chief rents c1816-25 in Cornwall Record Office (collection ref: DD RD).
The MDR has no note of any documents relating to the manors of Carnedon Lyer, Linkinhorne and Patrieda.
You can see maps centred on OS grid reference SX289739 (Lat/Lon: 50.539868, -4.416264), Linkinhorne which are provided by:
- Google Maps
- StreetMap (Current Ordnance Survey maps)
- Bing (was Multimap)
- OldMaps (Old Ordnance Survey maps.)
- Old Maps Online (Other old maps.)
- National Library of Scotland (Old Ordnance Survey maps)
- Vision of Britain (Click "Historical units & statistics" for administrative areas.)
- English Jurisdictions in 1851 (Unfortunately the LDS have removed the facility to enable us to specify a starting location, you will need to search yourself on their map.)
- Magic (Geographic information) (Click + on map if it doesn't show)
- GeoHack (Links to on-line maps and location specific services.)
- The records for 1861 cover all the people who died in Linkinhorne parish in 1860. The total figure came to 33 persons at a time when the population of the parish was 2551 (in April 1861). The average age for death was only 21 years old, however if you take the average age of those who were either miners or the sons, daughters or wife of a miner, from 21 deaths you have an average age of only 13 years. Of the 9 persons who were farmers or relatives of farmers the average age is 38 years. Fifteen of the deaths were of children under 5 years of age. The youngest death was Loveday KNIGHT at 5 days old, who was found dead in her bed. Debility and atrophy are common causes of child death with croup, typhus and various infections of the chest. Emma MANLEY at 37 years was the only one to die in childbirth. Amongst the adults the most common cause of death was consumption, phthisis and typhus. Of the three deaths over 60 years of age Joseph PARSON a miner, died of 'Gradual decline' William KERNICK (67) a farmer, of heart disease and Jane DAWE (85) widow of an agricultural labourer, of old age and heart disease.
Other surnames of deceased in 1860 are:
Allen, Andrews, Baskel, Bennett, Bowden, Bray, Carkeel, Chegwin x2, Davis, Gourd, Harvey, Hawkey, Henwood, Hoar, Hodge x2, Hore, Northcott x2, Rawling, Smetherham, Snell, Spargo, Trehane x2, Vine, Webb.
- 1861 was a bad year for deaths in Linkinhorne as 41 died, compared to 33 in the previous year. The average age of all deceased persons was only 15 years! The youngest to die was a one day old premature child of the JENKIN family and the oldest was 92 year old John MITCHELL a farmer. The Coroner was called out twice and was obviously perplexed as to the cause of death as it is listed as 'Visitation of God', this was for 6-week old Samuel GOVETT and 22 year old Emma TONKYN. The death of 5-month old Emily Ann NICHOLLS is listed as 'Unknown' and uncertified and 5-day old Richard LUCAS was stated as 'Found dead in bed'. Seven year old Elizabeth Jane MITCHELL died from 'Accidental burning', but the coroner was not called in for any of these three. In all a total of 28 deaths were of children below the age of 5. Causes of death range from croup to convulsions, rickets, fever, debility, abscess, ulceration of throat, disease of the skin, teething and there were 6 fatal cases of measles during the summer months. Ann PEARCE died in childbirth and the son she gave birth to, George Thomas died four months later of 'stoppage of the bowel'. There were another two unlucky families in February Sarah JEFFERY, the 5 year old daughter of Thomas died of 'croup' and in March 10 month old Ann died of 'debility'. On the 29th March 3 year old Elizabeth daughter of William OLVER died of fever and four days later her 19 year old brother Henry died of typhus, which leaves one to doubt the diagnosis of the first death. What can be noticed so far from these records, apart from the sad - and what are now quite preventable deaths - of children, is the fact that there are very few death of what we would call middle-aged people i.e. 40 - 60 years, or even the earlier period from 25 to 40. It would seem that if you got past 20 you had a reasonable chance of living to old age as in 1861 after the age of 25 the deceased were 32, 36, 38, 50, 61, 64, 66, 71, 92, and if anyone lived into their 80's or 90's there was a strong chance they were farmers.
Surnames of other persons deceased in Linkinhorne in 1861 ANDRAWATHA, BRAY, BROOK, COOMBE, CRABB, EDWARDS, GARLAND, GOURD x2, HERRING, HOAD?, JEFFERY x2, JENKIN, KEMP, MITCHELL, MORRISH, PALMER, PEARN, PEARSE, PHILP, POLKINGHORNE, SCOBLE, SMALE, SMEETH, STEPHENS, STRIKE, TREGLOYN, VINE.
- The Cornwall Record Office holds a report which is dated 26th January 1893 and is signed by William Nettle, Medical Officer of Health. It gives an interesting insight into the housing conditions of the working classes at the end of the 19th century and briefly mentions housing in the 24 parishes in the Liskeard District. This report, entitled The Housing of the Working Classes in the Liskeard Rural Sanitary District - 1892, was available on-line.
Newspaper Extracts of events in Linkinhorne, and taken from the CORNISH TIMES 1857, 1858, 1859 & 1862, and the Sherborne & Yeovil Mercury 1773-1778, may be available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- Information about the Caradon and Liskeard Mines is available on-line.
The Free & Voluntary Present, as the name indicates, is a list of those persons making a voluntary contribution to the King. The list is a record of those persons who went to Launceston on 8th November 1661, from the parishes of St Ive, Linkinhorne and South Hill. The amount they gave is indicated. This list may be available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- Linkinhorne parish was part of the Liskeard Union for Poor Law administration and parish relief.
- Overseers' Accounts (1715 to 1827) are available in the Cornwall Record Office.
- Information on the parish welfare system in Linkinhorne prior to 1947 may be available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- Some Bastardy Bonds for Linkinhorne parish may be available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
Some Wills & Admons for Linkinhorne parish may be available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
In the May of 1641 it was agreed and ordered that every Member of the House of Commons and House of Lords should make a protestation (declaration of loyalty) to the crown. The Protestation was printed and then distributed by the Members to their counties. The Protestation was to be made by everyone and the Rectors, Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor, had to appear before the Justices of the Peace in their Hundred to make their protestation and, on returning to their parishes, any two of them were to witness the taking of the Protestation Oath by all males over the age of 18 years. All names were listed and anyone who refused was to be noted.
The Protestation Returns of 1642 for Linkinhorne are available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- Cornish Subsidies in the reign of Henry VIII, lists all men in the parish with land or goods of value. The Lay Subsidies of the reign of Henry VIII are available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- Details of the 1660 Poll Tax of Linkinhorne are available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- The Hearth Tax entries for Linkinhorne (1660-1664) are available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- Land tax assessment for 1805, 1736 & 1710, and various other lists of landowners & tenants, are available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
- Churchwardens' accounts 1715 to 1754 for Linkinhorne parish are available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)
The Poll books recorded the names of everyone in Cornwall who voted at Parliamentary elections along with the names of the person they voted for. There are three poll books for the County, all at the Cornwall Record Office. 1710 (CF4787), 1774 (DX622), 1790 (PD208). Names for St Ive, Linkinhorne & Southill are available on the Callington Heritage site (broken link)