"Rutland (or Rutlandshire), inland County of England, bounded W. and N. by Leicestershire, NE. by Lincolnshire, and SE. by Northamptonshire; greatest length, N. and S., 18 miles; greatest breadth, E. and W., 17 miles; area, 94,889 acres, population 21,484. Rutland is the smallest county in England. The surface is diversified by gently rising hills and fine valleys, and is watered by the Eye Brook, the Chater, and the Gwash, flowing into the Welland, which forms the south-eastern boundary. The soil is in general loamy and fertile; in the east part it is chiefly in tillage, and in the west part under grass. The chief crops are wheat and barley. Great attention is paid to rearing choice breeds both of cattle and sheep. In the Vale of Catmose, round Oakham, are tracts of woodland, the remains of old forests. The prevailing rock is limestone. Rutland was made a county by Henry III., and gives the title of duke to the family of Manners. It contains 5 hundreds, 57 parishes and part of another, and the market-towns of Oakham (where the assizes are held) and Uppingham; it has no parliamentary or municipal boroughs. It is in the diocese of Peterborough. It returns 1 member to Parliament; it returned 2 members until 1885."
[Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles, 1887]