[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer
"KIRKLAND, a parish in Leath ward, county Cumberland, 9 miles E. of Penrith, its post town and railway station. It is situated near the river Eden, under Cross Fell, and contains the townships of Skirwith and Blencarn, and the chapelry of Culgaith. The old Roman road Maiden Way traverses the parish. The soil is various, and the surface boldly varied, rising into hills of mountainous elevation. Above half the parish is in pasture, the remainder arable, except about 1,000 acres of improvable common. The high pasture lands are principally kept as sheepwalks. Coal is wrought at Ardale, and on Cross Fell is a lead mine, containing a large proportion of silver, called Bullman Hills Vein; copper ore is also found, and smelting furnaces have been erected. Cross Fell, which here rises to the height of 2,901 feet above the level of the sea, commands an extensive view over six counties. The sides of the mountain produce a variety of plants, and its summit is covered with snow during the greater part of the year. A little below the summit is a well which has the same temperature in winter as in summer. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of Carlisle, value £221, in the patronage of the dean and chapter. The parish church, dedicated to St. Lawrence, is an ancient stone building with a bell-turret. There are two district churches at Culgaith and Skirwith, the livings of which are perpetual curacies The charities produce about £74 per annum, £60 of which go to the support of a school. On Bank Ridge are three artificial terraces of 200 yards each in length, and on the top are remains of ancient buildings known as the Hanging Walls of Mark Antony. A singular phenomenon frequently occurs here during harvest time which proves very destructive to the crops." "BLENCARN, a township in the parish of Kirkland, Leath ward, in the county of Cumberland, 9 miles to the E. of Penrith. A free school was established here in 1775 for the benefit of the townships of Culgaith and Blencarn. It has an income from endowment of £60 per annum. There is a mineral spring near the village." "SKIRWITH, a township in the parish of Kirkland, ward of Leath, county Cumberland, 8 miles N.E. of Penrith. The village is situated on a branch of the river Eden, under Cross Fell. The living is a perpetual curacy in the diocese of Carlisle. The church, dedicated to St. John, was erected in 1858. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. Skirwith Abbey, the principal residence, is erected on the site of a preceptory of the Knights Templars. Lady le Fleming, of Rydal Hall, is lady of the manor."
[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)
Transcribed by Colin Hinson ©2003]