YORKSHIRE FOLK TALK: Glossary
Earn, n. O. An uncle. Germ. Oheim (unclepoetical).
Earand, n. C. (pr. earan). An errand. Dan. En Alrende (an errand).
Earn, v. F. (Pr. yearn; or perhaps more nearly as yen). To cause milk to curdle.
Earning, earning-skin, n. F. (pr. yearning or yenning). That which is used for curdling milk. Rennet.
Easings, n. C. (pr. easins). The eaves of any building, particularly of thatched houses. Jutl. D. Ovs (eaves).
Een, n. R. Eyes (the old plural). The singular ee is also used. Dan. Oie (eye), pl. oine.
Ex.He 's gotten tweea black een.Bang her amang her een.
E'en, n. R. Evening; seldom heard except when used for the eve of a Holy Day, as Kess'mass E'en, St. Marks E'en, &c.
Een-holes, n. R. The eye-sockets. Dan. Et Oje hul (eyesocket).
Efter, prep. C. (pr. eftther). After. Dan. Efter (after). This word is also used in a verbal sense, e.g. Ah efther him (I went after him).
Ex.It 's a bit eftther t' tahm.
Efter-clecking, n. F. A brood of chickens, goslings, &c., hatched after the first brood of the season. This word is also applied to the brood in the pl. number.
Ex. Them fahve geslins is eftther-cleckins.
Efternoon, n. C. (pr. efttherneean). Afternoon. Morning, as distinguished from afternoon, is always termed forenoon. Morning, when used in the dialect, means early morning, and forenoon the interval between breakfast and dinnertime.
Eldin, n. C. Fuel, or kindling of any kind, generally wood or 'turves.' This word is not so common as it was a few years ago, and when used now the word fire is sometimes prefixed, which is quite redundant. Dan. Ild (fire). Jutl. D. Ilding (firewood).
Ex.Noo, Bobby, gan an' late some eldin.
Eller, n. F. The alder-tree. Dan. En El (an alder), pl. eller. There is a house near Newton-on-Ouse called Ellers, hence derived.
Elsin, n. C. A shoemaker's awl. I have heard this word called nelsin, which is of course a corruption of an elsin.
End-deck, n. F. The tail-board of a cart, more commonly called end-door.
End nor side, F. Synonymous with 'nothing'; esp. in the expression 'to make nothing of.'
Ex.-They meead nowther end nor sahd on 't.
Endways, to get, R. This expression is sometimes used to denote successto do well.
Ex.Aye, ah heerd he 'd gitten endways.
Entry, n. C. The space, greater or smaller, immediately within the entrance of a house.
Esh, n. C. The ash-tree. Dan. En Esk (an ash-tree).
Even down, adj. F. Straight down, perpendicular.
Expect, v. C. To suppose, to understand (from hearsay). There are few words of Latin derivation so commonly used as this.
Ex.-Ah expect seea.Ah expect there 's bonn ti be a stir i t' toon.
Fadge, v. C. To make way by a motion between a walk and a trot. The word is applied to man or horse or other animal. Vide Fidge-Fadge, also used as a noun.
Ex.Ah just fadged on wi t' au'd meer.Sha kept him at a fadge (spoken of a man and woman when the woman walked quicker than the man could).
Faff, v. R. To blow in puffs.
Fain, adj. and adv. R. Glad, gladly. Although this word is more classical and poetical than dialectical in its use, yet I here insert it because, although it has fallen into disuse among the more educated classes as a spoken word, it is still heard occasionally with the older country folk. It is matter for regret that such a good old word should be so nearly extinct.
ExSha 's fain ti be wiv her muther ageean.Ah 'd fain a'e gitten yam ageean.
Fair, adv. C. Entirely, wholly, altogether. Also used adjectively, in the sense of easy, in a few phrases, such as fair ti see, fair ti tell, &c.
Ex.Ah wer fair cappd ti see 'em.Ah 's fair bet wi 't. T' maistther wer fair ranty when he seed what t' lad had deean.
Fair up, v. C. To become fair weather again.
Ex.Ah think it 'll fair up inoo.
Fairlings, adv. C. (pr. fairlins). Fairly, clearly.
Ex.-Ah can't ken whau it is fairlins.
Fairy-butter, n. C. A fungus growing on dead trees, &c.
Falter, v. F. (pr. fawter). To knock the awns off the barley-grains by means of the faltering-iron, an instrument made or that purpose. The faltering-iron has gone out of use, 'bumblers' being used instead.
Fan', fand, fun', fund, pf. tense of finnd, C. The d final is seldom heard, the forms fan' and fun' being about equally common. Dan. Fandt, p. part of fade (to find).
Ex. They varry seean fan' it oot.A'e ya fun' it yet?
Fantickle, n. C. (pr. fahnticle and fanticle). A freckle.
Far, adj. C. Further, more distant. Dan. Fjermer (far, or 'off' horse) N. Fjerr Icel. Fjarr.
Ex.Q. 'Where's your husband?' A. He 's plewin yonder i t' far clooas.
Farantly. adj. R. (pr. fareantly). Well-behaved, orderly.
Fare, v. F. To go on, to approach, to draw near, to succeed. Dan. At fare (to go).
Ex. Sha fares o' cau'vin.
Far-end, n. C. The end, as opposed to the beginning of anything. The words beginning and end are not used, but instead, start and finish, as of a piece of work; fore-end and back-end; or far-end, as of a man's life or other period of time; first-end and last-end, as of a book, or other matter.
Farness, n. F. Distance.
Ex.It 's sum farness.
Far-side, n. C. The right-hand side of a horse; the left being called the nar-side. Far-side is used in other ways, e.g. the far-side of a field, road, &c. Dan. Frahaands Hest (the right-hand side of a horse); Jutl. D. Fier Hest (off-horse).
Fash, v. C. To create worry and anxiety (generally about small matters) either to oneself or others. Dan. D. Fasse (to exert oneself to do anything).
Ex.Sha 's a werrity body; sha oft fashes hersen when there 's ni 'casion.
Fast, adj. C. At a standstill, esp. in work, from any cause.
Ex.Ah 's nivver fast for a job.Whyah, mun, he 'll lend ya t' galloway hard eneeaf; he weean't see ya fast, howivver.
Fat-dabs, a. F. A term for a fat, awkward person or child.
Ex.-Sha 's a fat-dabs.
Fat-rascal, n. C. A tea-cake made with currants, butter, &c. Very common in the Whitby district, but not known in the East Riding.
Faugh, n. C. (pr. fawf). Fallow-land, used also as a verb. Jutl. D. Falg (fallow-land), falge (to fallow).
ExWa mun start wi t' fawf i t' morn It'll be ti fawf ti-year.
Feck, n. O. The largest part of anything; might. There may be a connection between this word and Danish fik, the past tense of faa (to get). The adjectives feckful (strong), and feckless (feeble), seem also to have died out.
Ex.-T' feck on 't 's deean.
Fele, v. F. To hide away: commonly used in the participial form, felt. In playing the game of hide-and-seek, the cry 'felto' was generally raised by the one who had hidden; the same word is also applied to the game itself. Dan. At fjaele (to hide).
Ex. They fun' it felt awaay it' Bahble.He had it fellen undher t' mat. They 'd felt t' tweea kags o' gin amang t' whins.
Fellon, n. C. A disease common with cattle, esp. cows: it arises in the first instance from cold.
Felly, v. F. To break up fallow land: this is done by means of dragging, plowing, and harrowing. Dan. At fielge (to break up fallow).
Felt, felten, F. part. of fele. Hidden. Vide Fele.
Feltrix, n. C. A disease common with horses, in the course of which lumps filled with watery matter appear underneath the belly. A continuance of cold and wet weather is supposed to induce the disease, as also the habit of allowing the animals to lie out of doors too late in the year.
Fend, v. C. To provide for; to look after; to manage. Jutl. D. At fiente (to catch, to seek with care and toil).
ExHe 'll varry seean a'e ti fend for hissen.
Fend, n. C. Ability and readiness to act for oneself, management. There are few words more expressive in our dialect than this: its meaning will perhaps be best under stood by saying that one who has no fend about him is a poor helpless creature. The word is often applied to sick people who cannot do anything for themselves.
Ex.Sha 's neea fend aboot her, na mair 'an nowt.
Fendable, adj. C. Contriving, capable.
Ex.Sha 's a very fendable lass.
Feat, v. F. To bind by an agreement. Dan. At faeste (to secure), faeste sig bort (hire oneself).
Fest, fest-penny, n. C. Earnest-money paid by a master to a servant on engaging him. Called also Arles, or God's-penny. The sum thus paid generally varies from a shilling to half-a-crown, but sometimes more than this is paid. The word is only applied with regard to servants hired under the Martinmas system. Dan. Faestepenge (earnestmoney). This word is used for the fine paid on taking over a leasehold farm.
Ex.Ah 's ta'en t' fest. Ah weean't tak t' fest back; ah 'll gan.
Fet, v. C. To last out; to keep one supplied with. Dan. At fode (to nourish, supply with food).
Ex.Them cauls 'll fet ma whahl t' backend. A'e ya what 'll fet ya a twelvemonth?
Fetch, v. C. To give (a blow).
Ex.He fetch'd ma a big clout ower t' heead.
Fettle, v. C. To prepare, put into order, get ready, arrange, repair; frequently the adv. up is added to the verb, the sense being the same.
Ex. Fettle an' gan. Wa mun fettle up wer hoos afoor t' backend. Yon far sahd o' t' clooas is varry sumpy; ah doot werstuff weean't be i' ower good fettle for leading. Ah wasn't i' varry good fettle yisttherda.
Few, n. C. A number, amount. The application of this word is peculiar, being used as an adjective in the ordinary sense, and as a substantive, in which latter case it is preceded by a qualifying adjective, generally good; but others, such as middlinish, gay, poorish, &c., are not uncommon qualifications. Dan. Faa (few).
Ex.Q. 'Are there many mushrooms in that field?' A. Aye! there 's a middlin' few on 'em (equivalent to a pretty good number). Ah see'd a good few bo'ds amang t' tonnups yisttherda. There was a good few at chetch last Sunda.
Fezzon, v. R. To lay hold of greedily or fiercely; to eat with avidity. This word was in commoner use a few years ago. It is followed by on or in. Fezzon has the same root as fest.
Ex. - He 's fezzonin' intiv it (i.e. He is eating greedily).
Fick, v. C. (pr. fick or feek). To move the feet with a somewhat rapid motion, as an animal does when under restraint in a recumbent posture; to struggle with the feet in order to get free. The motion implied by ficking is quite distinct from kicking, although a kick may be inadvertently given during the ficking. The word fick is rarely used except when some kind of restraint and consequent struggle accompanies the action.
Jutl. D. At fike [or fige] (to hurry). This word is always connected with quick movement: hence the ironical Jutlandic phrase fik et saa (make haste); or again, han gor saa! figelig. The Jutl. pr. of the word is almost identical with our own.
Ex.T' bairn ficked aboot i' bed despertly. What 's t' au'd coo fickin leyke that ti deea?
Fick, n. C. A short quick motion of the feet, whether of man or beast, when subjected to restraint, esp. when lying on the ground.
Ex.T' ratten just ga'e three ficks an' then it deed.
Fire-eldin, n. C. Vide Eldin.
Fire-fanged, part. R. Burnt (in cooking); overdone by the fire. Dan. At faenge (to catch fire), befaenge (to infect). This latter signification comes very close to that of fanged in our word.
Fire-pote, n. R. A poker. Wel. Pwttio (to push, poke).
Fire-stead, n. C. (pr. fire-steead). The fireplace.
Fit. adj. C. Ready, inclined to, prepared.
Ex.Ah 's fit for off (i.e. I am ready to go). Are ye fit? (said by a schoolmaster to pupil learning a lesson by heart). They were fit ti modther ma.
Flacker, v. C. To flutter; also to throb with pain; to flicker as a candle. Dan. At flagre (to flutter).
Ex. T' cock flackered ower t' wall. Mah feeat flackers sadly. What maks yon cann'l flacker seea?
Flag, n. C. A flake; esp. of snow. Dan. En Flage (a flake).
Ex.It snew i girt flags.
Flan, v. F. To spread out at the top.
Jutl. D. At flanre (to expand towards the top).
Flappy, adj. C. Wild, harum-scarum'; also light and frivolous.
Ex.- Sha 's a flappy body.
Flaup, n. F. Silly talk. Dan. Flab (chaps); also colloquially, Hold flab(none of your jaw).
Flay, v. C. To frighten, to scare. Hence the adj. flaysome (frightful), which however is not very commonly used. O. N. Flaeja (to frighten).
Ex.Q. 'Why isn't your brother at school?' A. Pleeas Sir! he 's flaain creeaks. T' lahtle lass wer flaay'd ti gun wiv hersen.
Flay-boggle, n. F. A hobgoblin: that which frightens; esp. at night.
Flay-crow, flay-creeak, n. F. A scarecrow.
Flee, n. C. A fly. Dan. At flyve (to fly). In the Danish pr. a distinct w is heard which is lost in the Yorkshire pr.
Ex. T' flees plagues t' hosses weeantly.
Flee-by-sky, n. F. (pr. fleebisky, the accent being on the first and third syllables). A passionate female; a giddy, flighty girl.
Ex.- Sha's a reglar fleebisky.
Fleece, v. C. To make thin, generally applied to persons who have lost flesh through illness; to get out of condition.
Ex.Mah wo'd, bud it 's fleeced him!
Fleece, n. F. Bodily condition; esp. as regards fatness.
Ex.He 's a good fleece. It 's ta'en his fleece frev him.
Fleeing-ask, n. R. The dragon-fly.
Flesh-fly, n. C. The common blue-bottle fly.
Flesh-meat, n. C. Butcher's meat as distinguished from swine's flesh.
Flick, n. C. A flitch (of bacon). Icel. Flikki (a flitch).
Flig, v. F. To fly. Dan. At flygte (to flee).
Ex.T' cock fligg'd ower t' wall an' flaayed t' lahtle lass.
Fligged, adj. F. Fledged.
Ex.Are they fligg'd yit?
Fliggers, n. C. Young birds fully fledged, those newly hatched being termed bare gollies, and those in the intermediate stage penners.
Flipe, n. C. The brim of a hat or cap. Dan. En Flip (the extreme part of a thing).
Flit, v. C. To move to a new home, with all household furniture and other goods and chattels. Dan. At flytte (to remove, shift), flytte md (take possession), flytte til (go to live with).
Ex.-When are ya boun ti flit? We 've nobbut just flitted ti wer new hoos. They 're throng flittin'.
Flite, v. C. To scold; to come to high words.
Ex.Sha started ti flite. A fliting bout.
Flite, n. C. A flow of quarrelsome words.
ExThey 're awlus on wi ther flites.
Flither, n. C. The common limpet.
Ex. Them 's t' lasses getherin flithers.
Flittermouse, n. R. The common bat. Dan. En Flaggermus (a bat).
Flitting, n. C. A removal to a new home.
Ex.Wer things isn't fairly reeted yit, we 've nobbut just gitten wer flittin' owered.
Flobbed up, part. C. Swollen or puffed up.
Ex.His airm wer all fobbed up.
Flowtered, part. C. In a state of trepidation; nervous, excited, from any cause. The word is generally used in the participial form from the verb flowter; the substantive flowter is also used in the same sense.
Ex.Ah felt flowtered all i' bits.
Fluke, n. C. (pr. fleeak). A maggot.
Ex. They 're as full o' fleeaks as ivvir they can hod.
Fod, n. C. A bound bundle of newly thrashed straw. This word is pr. as faud, but rather shorter, and is probably an abbreviation of fold, i.e. an armful - that which can be enfolded by the arms.
Fodderum, n. C. A building or part of a building for storing fodder: it is generally in close proximity to where the cattle are kept, e.g. between two cow-houses, from which the 'hecks' or racks could he easily filled, I do not remember to have heard this word in the ER., but it is very commonly used in the southern and other parts of the N. Riding. Dan. Et Foderrum (a place for keeping fodder).
Fog, n. C. Meadow-grass after the hay has been in-gathered the aftermath. This curious word seems to bear no trace of Scandinavian origin; it is probably an old British word: conf. Wel. Ffwgws (dry leaves).
Ex.T' fogs leeaks middlin' weel ti-year. It'll mak a good fog will yon.
Foisty, adj. C. Musty, mouldy; esp. when accompanied by a smell of dampness, as in the case of hay heated in a stack, &c.
Fold-garth, fold-yard, n. C. (pr. fo'dgarth). The farm-yard, that is, the inner yard surrounded by the farm buildings.
Folk, n. C. (pr. fau'k and fooak). People. I insert this word in the glossary; for although it is frequently found in the best standard English authors, yet it can scarcely be said at the present time to be a word that would be used exactly in an ordinary way, whereas it is throughout this East Yorkshire district the word universally used for people. It is used both with and without the plural termination s, more often with than not, though being a noun of multitude this is clearly redundant. Dan. Folk (people).
ExFolks 'll say owt. A vast o' folk. A deal o' folks. Sum folks says seea. - Bettermy folk.
Fond, adj. C. Foolish, wanting in common sense, silly. Dan. En Fjante (a silly person).
Ex.Ah nivver heeard tell o' sikan a fond tthrick.
Fond-heead, n. C. A silly fellow.
Ex. Thoo fondheead thoo.
Fondness, n. C. Foolishness, silliness, nonsense.
Ex.-He 's good ti nowi bud talkin' fondness.
Fond-plufe, n. O. This was formerly the name given to the practice of dragging a plough from place to place on or about the Feast of the Epiphany. The young men who took part in it used to collect money, which they spent in merry-making in the evening; some of the party were disguised and dressed in fantastic costumes.
Fondy, n. C. A simpleton, one half-witted. Dan. En Fjante.
Footings, n. C. The lowest rough foundation on which masonry is built up.
For, prepositional in its force, though placed after instead of before its connection. C. (pr. Foor and forr). To, towards. In this sense, which is of the commonest, it is only used in such expressions as Wheer are ya foor?. or Wheer 's ta foor? meaning 'Where are you going to ?' the verb being understood. It is also used satirically when a person accidentally makes a mauvais pas.
Ex.-What a numb baan thoo is! wheer 's ta foor?
For anenst, R. In front of. I have only beard of this word being used at the present time in a part of the Wold district.
Forboden, part. R. Forbidden.
Forced, part. C. (pr. foorced). Obliged. This word, though Std. Eng., is here inserted because it is universally used in the dialect in this sense, to the exclusion of all others, as obliged, compelled, &c. Ex.Ah 's be foorced ti gan. They 're foorced to fend for thersells.
Fore-elders, n. C. Forefathers. Dan. Forwldre (parents), Forfwdre (ancestors).
Fore-end, n. C. (pr. foorend or forrend, with rather a strong stress on the last syllable). The beginning. Jutl. D. For-ende (the fore-part of anything).
Ex. Wa started t' foorend o' t' last week.
Forkin' - robin, n. C. The earwig. This designation of the earwig is not universal : I used to hear it very frequently in the E. R., but not in the southern part of the N. R., where twitchbell is the word generally used.
Ex.-- There was a vast o' clocks an' worrms an' forkin' robins.
Forks. n. F. (pr. forrks). The main perpendicular beams which fork out at the top to support the roof in the old timber houses; they hold the 'ribs' to which the 'spars are attached; across these again are the ' latts,' and so the whole frame work is held together.
Fortherly, furtherly, adj. F. (pr. fo'therly). Forward, or early of its kind, or for the season.
Ex. Them 's mair fotherly na t' uthers. -- It's a fo'therly taatie.
Forwoden, adj. F. In a state of dirt, disorder, and waste; generally applied to such a state of destruction as is caused by vermin. Dan. At forode (to waste, consume).
Ex.Oor apple cham'er is fair forwoden wi' rattens an' meyce.
Foulmart, n. F. (pr. foomart). The polecat. Wel. Ffwlbart (the polecat). These animals were common fifty years ago, when 4d. apiece, or some such sum, was given for one by the village constable. They are still to be seen, but only here and there, and that occasionally.
Fout, n. C. A fool, a stupid lout.
Ex. Thoo 's a fout.
Fowt, n. C. (pr. the same way as owt). A spoiled child.
Ex.Sha 's nobbut a lahtle fowt.
Fra, fray, frey, prep. C. From. Fra is generally used before a consonant, frav and frey before a vowel. Dan. Fm (from).
Fra by, prep. R. Beyond, compared with, in proportion to.
Framation, n. F. Skill in action or management, readiness and aptitude in work, esp. in beginning it.
Ex. There 's neea framation aboot him.
Frame, v. C. To give promise in the performance of work of any kind, whether in man or beast: to make an attempt or beginning in any undertaking. This expressive word is one of the commonest : it occurs in Judges xii. 6, though in a slightly different sense from the above. In the dialect it is rarely followed by to as in the passage alluded to. Dan. At fremme (to advance, to take in hand).
Ex.- Cum, fraame. T' lad nobbut com'd yisttherda, bud ah think he fraames middlin'.
Fratch, v. C. To be quarrelsome, especially as to trifles: a word commonly said to children who are fretful and quarrelsome with one another.
Ex.Let him be; thoo 's awlus fratchin'.
Fraunge, v. C. To go on a spree. Also used as a noun.
Ex. He taks off fraunging aboot. He's had afraunge.
Fresh, adj. C. The worse for liquor; drunk.
Fret, n. F. A shower of misty rain from the sea; generally called a sea-fret.
Fresh-wood, n. C. The threshold of a doorway. This word may be a corruption of threshold.
Fridge, v. C. To rub against, so as to cause irritation; esp. of the skin, as when the clothes rub against any place inclined to soreness; to wear away by rubbing; to fray out.
Ex.- Mah feet 's sair, an' t' beeats fridges 'em.
Frightened, part. C. (pr. freeten'd,. This word is frequently used in a weaker sense than in Std. Lug., being equivalent to 'apprehensive,' or even 'shy.'
Ex. Ah's freetend at we 'r boun ti a'e some raan. Noo, you mun reach to; you maunt be freeten'd.
Froway, adj. F. Cross and forbidding-looking; ill-tempered. Fruggan, n. O. A long iron rake for scraping ashes out of an oven of the old-fashioned kind.
Frutas, Fruttish, n. R. A dish consisting of an egg, flour, sugar and currants, beaten together and fried. It was only eaten on Ash Wednesday; consequently that day was often called Fruttish or Frutas Wednesday.
Fullock, n. C. Rapid motion, impetus, force.
Ex. It kom wi sikan a fullock.
This word is sometimes used as a verb, e.g. a common saying with boys playing marbles is, Knuckle doon, neea fullocking, i.e. no false impetus from the wrist.
Full up, adj. C. Quite full.
Ex.We 're full up.
'Full' or 'quite full' are never used to express complete fulness.
Fuith, n. R. Fill, fullness.
Ex.-- He 's had his faith on 't.
Furmety or Frumety, a. C. A dish consisting of wheat, milk, sugar, and spices, always eaten on Christmas Eve, and sometimes on New Year's Eve also. The word is usually pr. frumety. Lat. Frumentum.
Ex.- Wa mun a'e wer bit o' frumety, howivver. Furtherly, adj. F. Vide Fortherly.
Fustilugs, n. R. A term of abuse.
Ex. Thoo 's a fustilugs.
Fuzzack, n. F. A donkey.
Fuzz-ball, n. C. The large common ground fungus found in fields.