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The signs of the Hotels, Taverns, Inns,
Wine-and-Spirit Vaults and Beer Shops in Devonshire

Transactions of the Devonshire Association, 1872 , Vol. V, pp. 416-509.

by

W. Pengelly

Prepared by Michael Steer

Devonshire has a unique heritage in its inn signs: a record of its history and the people who made it. Inn signs depict everything, from battles to inventions, from sporting heroes to royalty. The origin of inn signs goes back to the Romans. The ‘Tabernae’ would hang vine leaves outside to show that they sold wine – in Devon, as vine leaves are rare (due to the climate!), small evergreen bushes were substituted. One of the first Roman tavern signs was the ‘Bush’. Early pubs hung long poles or ale stakes, which might have been used to stir the ale, outside their doors. If both wine and ale were sold, then both bush and pole would be hung outside. The naming of inns and pubs became common throughout Britain by the 12th century. With pub names came pub signs – as the majority of the population could not read or write. In 1393, King Richard II passed an Act making it compulsory for pubs and inns to have a sign (e,g. his own emblem the ‘White Hart’ in London) in order to identify them to the official Ale Taster. Ever since then, inn names and signs have reflected, and followed, local life at that time.  The article, from a copy of a rare and much sought-after journal can be downloaded from the Internet Archive. Google has sponsored the digitisation of books from several libraries. These books, on which copyright has expired, are available for free educational and research use, both as individual books and as full collections to aid researchers. 

Names Pages
Abdil Aziz, Sultan 485
Achilles 482
Addison, Joseph 416-7
Adelaide, Queen 484
Albemarle, Duke of 501
Albert, Prince Consort 483-4,490
Alexandra, Princess 484
Alfred, Duke 484
Babbage 502
Bacchus 481
Beaumont 481
Becket, St Thomas ā 501
Bedford, Duke of 474
Bellows, Mr 480
Blaize, Bishop (St Blasius) 472
Blucher 497
Booth 481
Boscawen, Admiral 486
Bovey, Mr W. 470, 503
Browne, Mr J. 470
Brunel, Isambard Kingdom 502
Buckland 502
Buller 482
Bullock, Rev F 470
Burns, Robert 502
Calixtus III, Pope 500
Cambridge, Duke of 497, 501
Cambrinus 481
Campbell, Sir Colin 497, 499
Caprera 497
Carew 481
Carlton 503
Carr, Henry 491
Caxton 502
Chanter, Mr J. R. 470, 473, 477
Charles II 471-2
Cheare, Abraham 471
Churchill 497
Clarence, Duke of 484
Cleave, Abbot of 473
Coleridge 502
Collier 502
Conyers, Mr 492
Cornish, Rev Dr 470, 504
Cornwall, Duke of 483
Cotton 481
Courtenay 482
Cromwell, Oliver 497
Cruden 509
Cumberland, Duke of 474, 488, 501
Davis 486, 502
Denmark, Princess of 484
Devon, Earl of 477, 482
Diodorus Siculus 481
Doel 500, 503
Donne 481
Drake, Sir Francis 486, 499
Dryden, John 481
Eastlake 502
Edinburgh, Duke of 474, 484
Elizabeth I, Queen 500
Exmouth, Admiral Lord 474, 486
Falstaff 501-2
Flavel, Rev John 472
Fletcher 481
Follett 502
Fox, S.P. 472
Francis 501
Frederick the Great 485
Garibaldi 497
Gay 502
George III 484
George IV 484
George, Saint 490, 496, 509
Gifford 502
Gilbert, Sir Humphry 486, 502
Gill, Mr H.S. 470, 473
Grenville, Sir Richard 486
Grey, Earl 499, 502
Grey, Rev G 470
Gunning, Rev P. 504
Hanover, House of 487
Harry, Prince (Hal) 501
Havelock 497
Hawke, Admiral 486
Hawkins, Sir John 486
Hearder, Mr G.E. 470
Hercules 416
Hicks, Rev John 471
Hood, Lord 486
Hood, Robin 502
Hooker 502
Hotten, John Camden 417, 480, 487, 489, 492-5, 499, 501
Hughes, Rev G. 471
James, Saint 509
Jonson, Ben 481, 496
Kent, Leonard 472
Kingsbridge, Earl of 472
Kingsley, Charles 502
Kirwan, Rev R. 470
Langworthy, Arthur 472
Larcombe 487, 489, 492-4
Larwood, Jacob 417, 480, 495, 499, 501
Leland, John 478
Lempriere 480
Macaulay 485, 488
MacBride, Admiral 486
Marie, Grand Duchess of Russia 485
Marlborough, Duke of 501
Martin 481
Mary, Queen 491
Mary, Saint 504
Maurice, Prince 472, 478
Mayne, Jasper 481
Monck, General 497, 501
Monmouth, Duke of 485
Muller, F. Max, MA. 480
Murray 473
Napier, Admiral Sir Charles 486, 499
Napoleon 485, 497
Napp 500
Nelson, Lord 486-7
Newcomin 502
Noah 508
Oldenburg, Prince Peter of 485
Ormond, Duke of 501
Palk 482
Palmerston 502
Parker 501
Pope, Alexander 501
Prout 502
Prussia, King of 485
Quickly, Mistress Nell 501
Raleigh, Sir Walter 481, 486
Raglan 497
Reynolds 502
Richard III 477
Rodney, Admiral 486
Russell family 474, 502
Salmon, Mrs 417
Selden 481
Shakespeare, William 481, 501-2
Smyth, Captain W. H. RN, KSF, DCL 500
St Aubyn 509
Stuart family 471, 497
Talbot 500
Tudor family 494
Vernon, Admiral 485-6, 488
Vicary, Mr W. 470
Victoria, Queen 483, 490
Wales, Prince of 483
Wellington, Duke of 497, 501
Wesley 493
Weymouth, Philip 472
William IV 484
Wolcot 502
Worth, Mr R. N. 470-1, 478, 504
York, Frederick Duke of 485, 501