[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer (1868)]

"ANNAN, a river in the south of Scotland, which uses in a mountain hollow, on the borders of Dumfriesshire and Peeblesshire. It flows through the fertile valley district of Annandale, receiving into it the waters of many burns and rivulets, and, passing the towns of Moffat and Annan, falls, after a course of 30 miles, into the Solway Frith, at the village of Annan Water-Foot. Hartfell, the mountain on which this river rises, is sometimes called by the extraordinary name of the Devil's Beef Stand. The name of the river signifies slow-running."

"ANNAN-WATER-FOOT, (sometimes called simply Water-Foot), a village in the county of Dumfries, Scotland, situated at the efflux of the river Annan, and is sheltered by Barnkirk hill. It is in close proximity to the town of Annan, to which it serves as the port, having ready communication with the town. It has two jetties of 140 yards in length, and a commodious inn at the place of landing, which was formerly much used when the two steamers ran to Liverpool, but they ago now superseded by the railway."

"ANNANDALE, one of the 3 districts of the county of Dumfries, Scotland, consisting of the fine and fertile valley of the river Annan, in the central part of the county In geologic ages it is supposed to have been long the bed of a great inland lake. It formed part of the kingdom of Strath Clyde, and also of the Roman province of Valentia, at which period it was covered with a dense forest. Of its Roman occupation there are abundant traces: part of Severus's wall, the camps of Birreus and Brunswark and the remains of a great military road, still are visible. There are also many ruins of the Scottish period: the large quadrangular fortress of Auchioncap, on Even-water, once the seat of the Regent Randolph, Lochmaben Castle, and the Castles of Hoddam and Comlongan. It became a lordship under the Bruces, to whom it was granted by David I. in 1124. The Douglases held it at a later period, and after them the Hopetouns. At one time, Annandale gave the title of marquis to the Johnstones, a family noted for their military prowess, but the title became extinct in 1792. They were wardens of the western marches, and were a terror to evil doers on the borders. It is said that the author and poet, Ben Jenson, was the descendant of an Annandale family, and was really not a Jenson, but a Johnstone."

"DALGARNOCK, (or Dalgerno), a suppressed parish in the county of Dumfries, Scotland. It was united to the parish of Closeburn in the 17th century."

"DEVIL'S DIKE, (The), an ancient line of fortification of unknown origin, and composed partly of rough blocks of stone and partly of earth, extending from Loch Ryan in the county of Wigton, Scotland, to the upper part of the Solway Firth in Dumfriesshire, by way of Minigaff, Glencairn, Penpoint, and Lochmaben. It seems to have been intended to defend the more fertile southern districts from northern enemies."

"ERRICKSTANE BRAE, a hill near the meeting of the counties Lanark, Peebles, and Dumfries, Scotland. It is 1,118 feet in height. A huge dell, enclosed by four hills, bears the name of the "Marquis of Annandale's Beef-stand," it having been used by the marauders of the border to conceal their stolen cattle. The road from Edinburgh to Dumfries takes its way past the hill."

"ESBY, a hamlet in the county Dumfries, Scotland, 2 miles N. of Lochmaben. It is situated on the rivers Ae and Kinull."

"ESK, (Black and White), two rivers in county Dumfries, Scotland. The Black Esk rises in the parish of Eskdalemuir, and takes a southerly course through the mountains. After a meandering route of about 12 miles it joins its waters, in the S.E. of the parish of Eskdalemuir, with those of the White Esk, whose source proper may be traced to the head of the Bloodhope burn, a little above Ettrick-pen. It now runs parallel with the Black Esk, passing through Eskdalemuir, and in its course receiving the waters of the Davington and Garvald, and the burns of Langshaw and Rae. Its length is 16 miles. The united waters proceed on their journey under the name of the Esk, as above."

"ESK, a river in county Dumfries, Scotland. The Black and White Esk, after uniting, take the name simply of Esk. It flows through Westerkirk, round Craighill, traverses the parishes of Langholm and Canonbie, and after lingering for about 1 mile on the border, enters Cumberland, and eventually falls into the Solway Firth near Sarkfoot. Its tributaries are the Ewes, near Langholm, the Wauchope, the Tarras, the Liddell, at Canonbieholm, the Glenzier burn, and the Line, of Cumberland. Its banks are rich in every variety of delightful scenery. Its length is about 24 miles."

"ESKDALE, a district in county Dumfries, Scotland. It is the most eastern of the three districts into which the county is divided. It is traversed by the river Esk. Part of the lands of Upper and Lower Eskdale were given to Robert Avenal, an Anglo-Norman settler, by David I., who granted them to the abbey of Melrose. The Rossedals held lands here in the time of Malcolm IV., and one of that family, Turgot, founded the priory of Canonbie. Eskdale was next possessed by the Douglases as a regality, but they having forfeited it in 1455, it passed to the Maxwells, who held it till the end of the 17th century. The Duke of Buccleuch received compensation for the jurisdiction of Eskdale in 1747."

"GARVALD, (or Garrell), a quondam parish now incorporated with Kirkmichael, county Dumfries, Scotland, which see."

"HART FELL, a mountain in the county Dumfries, Scotland, 6 miles N. of Moffat, and near the river Tweed's head. It rises to the height of 2,790 feet, and commands a view of the Highlands, and of both the Atlantic and German oceans. At its foot is Moffat Spa."

"KELLOE WATER, a feeder of the river Nith, rises near New Cumnock, in county Dumfries, Scotland."

"KINNELL, a rivulet which rises at Kirkpatrick-Juxta, in county Dumfries, Scotland, and continues its course for 10 miles in a southerly direction, past Esby (where the river Ae joins) to the river Annan, near Lockerby."

"LOCHAR WATER, rises above Kirkmahoe, in county of Dumfries, Scotland, and falls into the Solway Frith at Blackness. On its banks is Lochar-Moss, a marsh about 10 miles long by 3 broad, in which a canoe, anchors, &c., have been found at the depth of 5 feet below the present surface."

"LOCKWOOD CASTLE, in the county of Dumfries, Scotland, on the banks of the river Annan, surrounded by marshes and bogs. It was built by the Johnstones, in the 14th century."

"MEIKLEHOLMSIDE BURN, a small stream of county Dumfries, Scotland, traversing the south-western boundary of Moffat parish to the river Annan."

"MEIN WATER, a small river of the district of Annandale, county Dumfries, Scotland. It rises above Middlebie, and flows 6 miles S.W. to the river Annan, near Hoddam."

"MIDDLESHAW, a post-office village in county Dumfries, Scotland, near the town of Lockerby."

"MIEN WATER, a feeder of the river Annan, county Dumfries, Scotland. It rises above Middlebie, and joins the Annan below Ecclesfechan."

"MILK RIVER, a tributary of the river Annan, county Dumfries, Scotland. It rises under Little Hartfell, and flows 14 miles past Tundergarth."

"NITH, a river in the counties of Ayr and Dumfries, Scotland. It was known to the ancients as the Nidus (lumen, and has a course of about 50 miles, abounding in trout and salmon. It rises in the hills near Dalmellington in Ayrshire, and, flowing through Nithsdale, which formerly gave title of earl to the Maxwells, enters Dumfriesshire, and falls into the Solway Frith, about 3 miles S. of Dumfries, below which it is navigable for large craft."

"SARK, a stream of the county of Dumfries, Scotland. It rises in Canobie, and flows 12 miles to the Solway Frith near Gretna, on the English border."

"SCARR-WATER, a stream of the county of Dumfries, Scotland, rises in Black Hill, and joins the Nith near Keir."

"SHINNEL, a stream, county Dumfries, Scotland, rising under Black Hill, and joining the Skarr near Penpont."

"SKENE, (or Skeen), a loch in the county of Dumfries, Scotland, 7 miles N.E. of Moffat. It is situated on the borders of Peebles and Selkirk, near the fall on the river Moffat, and is 1,000 feet above sea-level."

"STENNIS WATER, a stream of the county of Dumfries, Scotland, joins the Meggot Water a little above its confluence with the Esk."

"TARRAS, a trout stream, county Dumfries, Scotland, rises under Pike Fell, and joins the Esk at Irvine Bridge."

"TURNMOOR, a small loch, county Dumfries, Scotland, near Lockerbie."

"WARDLAW, several hills in Scotland, the principal being Wardlaw Mountain, near Ettrick, county Selkirk, 2,000 feet above the sea; Wardlaw Hill, in Caerlaverock, county Dumfries, 826 feet; and Wardlaw Hill, near Camnock, county Ayr."

[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)
Transcribed by Colin Hinson ©2003]