Location of Fife

FIFE

Description of the county in 1868

"FIFE, a maritime county of the east side of Scotland, lying nearly in the middle of the lowland region, which is bounded by the Lammermoors on the south, and the Grampians on the north. It is a peninsula, enclosed by the frith of Tay on the north, the German ocean on the east, and the frith of Forth on the south; and it marches on the west with Perthshire, Kinross-shire, and Clackmannanshire ...The southern coast is, for the most part, indented by small rocky bays with corresponding projecting headlands; but along the banks of the Tay, the grounds slope gently toward the beach, and are generally cultivated to the river's edge. Along the north-eastern shore, towards St Andrews, it presents one large plain, terminating in a flat beach of sand."
from the Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland, edited by John Marius Wilson, 1868.


TOWNS AND PARISHES

The parish index page leads to greater detail about all the parishes in the Kingdom of Fife. You can also try searching the Where in Fife is ... ? pages which locate 2300 places in Fife.


INFORMATION RELATED TO ALL OF FIFE


Archives, Libraries & Museums

National collections, all with a lot of material concerning Fife:

Internet collections:

Local collections:

An excellent guide to the location of pre-1900 archive material of genealogical and local historical importance is "The Archives of Fife" by Andrew Campbell, published 1997, which is available from the Fife Family History Society or the Tay Valley Family History Society

There are also several excellent museums in the county.

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Bibliography

Business and Commerce Records

There are at least 2 sites, here and here, with information about the Fife Banking Company which operated from 1802.

Wemyss ware pottery was made in Kirkcaldy from 1882 and continues to be made in Fife although now it is produced in Ceres [click on 'About us' then 'History'].

Cemeteries

The cemeteries page has a list of all Council-maintained burial places, and a few private ones. Records for cemeteries currently in use are held by various Fife Council offices. There are also a few older records held by Fife Council Archives. Details of all cemeteries and their records are given on the parish pages.

There are 2 crematoria in Fife - Kirkcaldy (opened in 1959) and Dunfermline (opened in 1973). Details on the parish pages. The crematoria at Dundee (opened in 1936) and at Perth (opened in 1962) are used by residents in north Fife.

The Scottish Genealogy Society has published three volumes of pre-1855 monumental inscription listings for Fife.

The older edition, in 2 volumes, "Monumental inscriptions (pre-1855) in West Fife" and "Monumental inscriptions (pre-1855) in East Fife", is available on microfilm at LDS Family History Centres around the world.

Some stones are recorded in Graveyard Monuments in East, North and Central Fife, John di Folco, published in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1969-70, vol. 102, pages 205-236, which deals largely with stones dated pre-1707. It can be downloaded from the Archaeology Data Service.

Fife Family History Society have produced the Pre-1855 Fife Deaths CD which contains the details of over 250,000 deaths in Fife extracted from burial registers, kirk session records, monumental inscriptions, newspapers, wills and testamants, etc.

The Fife Family History Society, the Tay Valley Family History Society and the main local libraries have copies of many monumental inscriptions and burial registers.

War graves can be seen at the Scottish Wargraves Project and war memorials can be seen at the Scottish War Memorials Project.

CDs with photographs of the stones and transcriptions of most Fife cemeteries are available from Scottish Monumental Inscriptions or from The Parish Chest. Some of these photographs are included in Deceased Online

Census

There has been a census every ten years since 1801, excluding 1941, but only those returns from 1841 onwards carry details of named residents. (Earlier listings for the parishes of Abdie and Carnbee have survived.) The latest that is currently available for inspection is for 1911. All census returns are held at the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh and can be accessed online at the ScotlandsPeople website.

The 1841 and 1851 censuses were organised on a parish basis. The census reference number will be the same as the Old Parish Register (OPR) reference number. From 1861, censuses were organised on a registration district basis. There were some differences between the 2 different administrative areas. Some addresses will therefore appear in a different area, under a different reference number, from one census to another. Differences are noted on the relevant parish pages. There is a list of the census parish / district reference numbers here.

The original copies of many Fife 1841 census records were lost in transit to Edinburgh and are therefore unavailable. The parishes are: Abdie, Auchtermuchty, Balmerino, Ceres, Collessie, Creich, Cults, Cupar, Dairsie, Dunbog, Kinghorn, Kinglassie, Kirkcaldy and Leslie. Some other parishes have missing books:
Abernethy - the book for the part of the parish in Fife is missing. Only 1767 out of 1920 entries are available.
Arngask - the book for the part of the parish in Fife is missing. Only 492 out of 750 entries are available.
Burntisland - only the entries for the Burgh survive. The landward part of the parish, including Kirkton, is missing. 1572 out of 2210 entries survive.
Kennoway - only one book survives with approx. 126 entries out of a total population of 2044.

The 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901 and 1911 censuses are indexed and online at the ScotlandsPeople website. They can be searched and copies of the census pages can be purchased. For 1881 only, transcripts can also be purchased. 

The 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891 and 1901 censuses are available on ancestry.co.uk (indexed transcripts, no images of the pages).

The 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891 and 1901 censuses are available on findmypast.co.uk (indexed transcripts, no images of the pages).

The returns for 1841 and 1851 are now available on the FreeCEN website (the parish pages will indicate if they are available).

The census returns for 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881 and 1891 have been microfilmed by the LDS  church and may be consulted in their Family History Centres around the world. The LDS library catalogue numbers for the films are given here.

Microfilms of the 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891 and 1901 census are held by both the Fife Family History Society and the Tay Valley Family History Society; and are in some local libraries. You can download lists of census films held by Fife Council libraries.

The 1881 census has been transcribed and indexed and is available at LDS Family History Centres, some libraries and some family history societies.

The 1851 census for Fife has been indexed by the Tay Valley Family History Society.

The 1861 returns for many parishes have been indexed and can be downloaded here.

An index to the 1891 census is available on microfiche at some local libraries and family history societies.

A Vision of Britain provides census statistics and graphs from the 1801 census onwards.

Histpop, the online historical population reports website, in its census section provides access to all the published population reports for Britain and Ireland from 1801 - 1937. The site has a huge amount of statistical information both at a county level and at a parish or district level. There is no personal information on the site.

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Church History

To help understand the many splits and reunions in the history of the Church of Scotland, this outline history diagram and notes, on the GENUKI Ayrshire pages, based on those originally compiled by Linda Merle, may be of assistance.

A census of Religious Worship and Education was taken in 1851 at the same time as the census of population. A table of statistics about the churches in Fife at this time is available here.

The Fife Post has useful pages listing the churches in Fife in 1861, 1893 and 1903. (look under Genealogy)

Information on historic churches at the Scottish Churches website.

The Churches of Britain and Ireland site has photographs of many churches in Fife. More are needed - can you help?

Church Records

Information about the church records for each parish will be found on the parish pages.

The Established Church (the Parish Church, Church of Scotland):

The original Old Parish Registers, sometimes called the Old Parochial Registers, abbreviated to OPRs, comprise the registers of baptisms / births, proclamations / marriages, and burials / deaths of the parish Church of Scotland for the years up to 1854. They are held at the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh with online access at the ScotlandsPeople website. Copies of the original register entries may be purchased.

There is a list of the OPR parish reference numbers here.

Copies of the registers on microfilm may be consulted in LDS Family Search Centres around the world. The birth / baptism & proclamation / marriage records are indexed on the IGI (International Genealogical Index) on microfiche and online at the LDS website (see below). Copies of the films (not necessarily of all parishes) are also held by both the Fife Family History Society and the Tay Valley Family History Society; and in some local libraries. There is a list of the LDS library reference numbers for the OPR films here. You can download lists of OPR films held by Fife Council libraries.

The Detailed List of the Old Parochial Registers of Scotland, published 1872, gives details of the coverage of the OPR volumes including the gaps within them. These pages list the information about the Fife parishes.

Deaths and burials are listed on Fife Family History Society's  Pre-1855 Fife Deaths CD.

Some of the OPR entries can be searched on the FreeREG site.

The searchable LDS website - Family Search (and the IGI):
Note on using Family Search and IGI Batch Numbers:
It is not always easy to locate your ancestors in Family Search using the search mechanisms provided at the above LDS site. Manually typing the batch numbers into the search screen can be tedious. Hugh Wallis has made an exhaustive search of the likely ranges of batch numbers and created a database of those numbers and the source records that they apply to. A very powerful feature included is a hotlink from each batch number to the actual search engine provided at the Family Search site, including the ability to enter the surname you are looking for. This makes it very easy to search all the batches for a particular geographic location using just the last name you are searching for - something that is not possible directly from the LDS site without doing a lot of typing. This is Hugh Wallis's site.

The Kirk Session of a parish consists of the minister of the parish and the elders of the congregation. It looks after the general wellbeing of the congregation and, particularly in centuries past, parochial discipline. Kirk Session records for the Dunfermline and Kirkcaldy Presbyteries are held in the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh. Those for the Cupar and St Andrews Presbyteries are held in the Manuscript Department of the Special Collections Department of St Andrews University Library, but digital copies may be seen at the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh (and at some other archives in Scotland). Some Kirk Session material is often to be found amongst the Old Parish Registers. The Kirk Session records have been scanned with a view to making them more widely available soon.

The Heritors were the landowners in each parish who were responsible (until 1925) for the maintenance of the church and manse and (before 1878) for the parochial school. They were also responsible, with the Kirk Session, for the Poor of the parish until 1845. Their records are also to be found in the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh.

Records of the Synods and Presbyteries are to be found in either the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh or the Manuscript Department of the Special Collections Department of St Andrews University Library.

For information about the ministers, see Occupations below.

Other Churches:

Records of many other churches, particularly Free Churches and United Presbyterian Churches, are also to be found in either the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh or the Manuscript Department of the Special Collections Department of St Andrews University Library. Some of these records include baptism and marriage registers. Many of these have been transcribed and published by the Fife Family History Society. Some of these records are also available on microfilm in LDS Family History Centres and there is a list of them and their library reference numbers here.

Records of the Catholic Church in Scotland are held by the Scottish Catholic Archives, in Edinburgh. Indexes to and images of the Roman Catholic registers of births and baptisms (1703-1908),  banns and marriages (1794-1934), deaths and burials, and other events, are available at the National Records of Scotland and on the ScotlandsPeople website.

Photocopies of pre-1855 Roman Catholic registers of marriages at Dunfermline and Kirkcaldy are held by the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh. Roman Catholic marriages which took place in Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy and Edinburgh (St Mary's, Broughton Street) prior to 1855 have been transcribed and published by the Fife Family History Society in Publication 22 - Fife Roman Catholic Marriage Registers 1793 - 1854.

Records of the Synods and Presbyteries are to be found in either the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh or the Manuscript Department of the Special Collections Department of St Andrews University Library.

Records relating to Jews in Scotland from the eighteenth century are held by the Scottish Jewish Archives Centre, Glasgow.

Civil Registration

Registration of Births, Marriages and Deaths began in Scotland on 1st January 1855. The original registers are held at the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh. Indexes can be searched and copies of certificates can be purchased, viewed and downloaded at the ScotlandsPeople website. Records currently available online are Births (1855 -1913), Marriages (1855 -1938) and Deaths (1855 -1963).

The indexes to later Births (1914 - 2013), Marriages (1939 - 2013) and Deaths (1964 - 2013) are also online at the ScotlandsPeople website. Copies of these certificates can be purchased online for postal delivery. Current (2014) cost is £12 each.

Copies of some of the records on microfilm may be consulted in LDS Family Search Centres around the world. The records available on film are for 1855 - 1875, 1881 and 1891. The LDS library catalogue numbers for the films are given for births, marriages and deaths. The births and marriages for 1855 - 1875 are included in the Family Search website and the microfiche IGI (see Church Records above. Batch numbers - using Hugh Wallis's site - are those beginning C and M for 1855-1875).

Registration districts did not necessarily coincide exactly with parishes. In the 20th century especially, there were frequent changes in registration districts. Unfortunately there are no published maps which show registration district boundaries. The parish pages indicate which registration districts covered each parish.

There is a list of Registration Offices in Fife, together with their opening hours and telephone numbers. Unlike their English counterparts, local registrars in Fife may not necessarily hold all the historic registers for their district. These older registers are now held by the larger area registration offices (e.g. at Cupar and Dunfermline). Because of this, searches and applications for copies are better conducted at the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh (online at the ScotlandsPeople website).

Histpop, the online historical population reports website, in its Registrar General section provides access to all the published registration reports from 1855 - 1920, giving statistical information on numbers of births, marriages and deaths, as well as some medical statistics. There is no personal information on the site.

A very informative site, giving a lot of information about the history of registration in Scotland from 1855 to the Second World War is The Scottish Way of Birth and Death. The section on Marriage, in particular, can explain a lot about the details of a Scottish marriage certificate.

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Court Records

Fife Family History Society have produced Fife Convicts Transportees 1752-1867 which lists convicts transported to Australia, America and the West Indies.

An Index to Consistorial Processes and Decreets at the Commissariot of Edinburgh, 1658 - 1800, is available at the Open Library. These are court actions concerning marriage, legitimacy and divorce.

The Sheriff Court Book of Fife, 1515-1522 was published by the Scottish History Society in 1928.

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Description and Travel

Web pages with much interesting Fife material, including some beautiful photographs, are on Tommy Manson's Fife Post.

There are many photographs in the St Andrews University photographic collection and the George Washington Wilson collection at Aberdeen University.

A Vision of Britain provides historical descriptions from various gazetteers.

Surrounding counties: Angus (Forfarshire), Perthshire, Kinross-shire, Clackmannanshire, Stirlingshire and West Lothian (Linlithgowshire).

Directories

Many Scottish directories can be read and downloaded at the National Library of Scotland's Scottish Directories pages. They are also available in different download formats at the Internet Archive texts (search for 'scottishdirectories').

There are short commercial listings for Cupar, Dunfermline and Kirkcaldy in Holden's Annual Directory 1811 available on CD from S&N Genealogy Supplies.

The County of Fife is included in Pigot's 1825/6 Directory of Scotland, available on CD from Archive CD Books. It is also at the Scottish Directories pages.

Pigot's National Commercial Directory for the whole of Scotland, 1837, is online at the Scottish Directories pages, at Google Books. The Fife & Forfarshire sections are available on CD from S&N Genealogy Supplies.

Slater's 1852 Directory of Scotland is available on microfiche from The Parish Chest.

Slater's 1861 Directory of Scotland is at the Scottish Directories pages.

Westwood's Parochial Directory for the Counties of Fife and Kinross for 1862 and 1866 are online at Google Books. On the Records pages of the Fife Family History Society website there is a transcription of the 1862 edition.

Worrall's Directory of the North-Eastern counties of Scotland, comprising the counties of Forfar, Fife, Kinross, Aberdeen, Banff, and Kincardine, 1877, is at the Scottish Directories pages.

Slater's 1878 Directory of Scotland is at the Scottish Directories pages.

Slater's 1886 Directory of Scotland is at the Scottish Directories pages.

Slater's Royal National Commercial Directory, 1889, is online at familyrelatives.com.

Slater's 1903 Directory of Scotland (vol. 1) is at the Scottish Directories pages.

Many Fife residents will be found in the County Directory of Scotland, at the Scottish Directories pages. Editions for 1862, 1868, 1872, 1875, 1878, 1882-85, 1886-9, 1893-6 and 1901-4 are available online there. Editions for 1901-4 and 1912 are also at familyrelatives.comThe 1912 edition is available on CD from the Scottish Genealogy Society. [The series started as Directory to Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Seats, Villages, etc. in Scotland, then became the Directory to Gentlemen's Seats ... . Editions for 1843, 1852 and 1857 are also at the Scottish Directories pages. These volumes are very useful in locating farms and country houses.]

You can download lists of directories held by Fife Council libraries.

Emigration and Immigration

Fife Family History Society have produced two publications: Fife Emigrants and their Ships - part 1 - Australia and New Zealand and Fife Emigrants and their Ships - part 2 - Australia and New Zealand (Publication 30). Both contain biographies of Fifers who have migrated overseas.

Gazetteers

If you are looking for a place in Fife, try searching the Where in Fife is ... ? pages which locate 2300 places in Fife. Once you have located the parish, go to the relevant parish page where a link to Places in .... parish takes you to a selection of online historical and modern maps.

You will find other places not in Fife listed in the GENUKI Gazetteer which covers the whole of England, Wales and Scotland and can be searched by place-name (or part of a place-name) or Ordnance Survey Grid References (six-figure, eg NO360130). If there are multiple place-names matching the name you enter, you will initially be presented with a drop-down list of the matching place-names with their distances and bearings from Cupar, Fife.

Samuel Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, published 1846, online at British History, contains parish descriptions. It is also worth searching for places within the parishes.

Barbieri's Descriptive and Historical Gazetteer of the Counties of Fife, Kinross and Clackmannan, published 1857, is at Google Books.

Descriptive gazetteer entries for the county, each parish and some places within the parishes from Frances Groome's Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland (1882-4) and John Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles (1887) are onA Vision of Britain (click on "Historical descriptions").

Edinburgh University Geography Department have produced the first new Gazetteer of Scotland since 1885.

Genealogy

There is an online Kingdom of Fife Surnames List. If you are researching any names in the Fife area, please add your interests to this list.

RootsChat Messaging Forum - Fife section

RootsWeb Mailing List - Fife

Both the Fife Family History Society and the Tay Valley Family History Society have mailing lists for their members.

Ideas for messages to the Lists may include:

The Fife pages of the World GenWeb project contain links to other pages of Fife material.

HappyHaggis has a lot of useful genealogical material on all parts of Scotland.

The Fife section of Curious Fox - "the village-by-village contact site for anybody researching family history, genealogy and local history in the UK and Ireland".

Two useful collections of biographies are available at the Open Library: Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Men of Fife, MF Conolly, 1866, and Lives of Eminent Men of Fife, J Bruce, 1846. Another very useful book is Conolly's Fifiana or Memorials of the East of Fife, 1869, which contains a supplement to his Eminent Men....

On the Records pages of the Fife Family History Society website there are extensive reviews of many published family histories.

The People of Medieval Scotland 1093-1314 is a database of all known people of Scotland between 1093 and 1314 mentioned in over 8600 contemporary documents.

Heraldry

The Public Register of all Arms and Bearings in Scotland (1672 - 1908), the register of coats of arms in Scotland, is kept by the Court of the Lord Lyon in Edinburgh. It is part of the National Records of Scotland, with online access via the ScotlandsPeople website.

Historical Geography

On 15th May 1891, there were changes to the boundaries ofseveral parishes and to the boundaries between Fife, Perthshire and Kinross. Details are given on the individual parish pages. However, the most important changes were that the complete parishes of Culross and Tulliallan were transferred from Perthshire to Fife; and Arngask and Abernethy were transferred to Perthshire.

The full published text of the boundary changes was Boundaries of Counties and Parishes of Scotland - 1892 by Hay Shennan. The text is available on the ScotlandsPlaces website. Fife researchers will need to access the texts for Fife, Kinross and Perthshire.

A Vision of Britain provides historical descriptions, population & housing statistics, historic boundaries and maps.

History

Fife Family History Society have transcribed the Prospectus of the East of Fife Railway 1845, on the Records pages of their website.

The Survey of Scottish Witchcraft lists 382 witches who lived in Fife between 1563 and 1736.

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Land & Property

Valuation Rolls from 1855-1975 are held at the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh (ref. VR101 - Fife; VR113 - Culross & Tulliallan before 1891); and for some years by the Special Collections Department of St Andrews University Library, and the Fife Council Archive Service. You can download lists of valuation rolls held by Fife Council libraries. The rolls for 1875, 1885, 1895, 1905, 1915 and 1920 are online at the ScotlandsPeople website.

Valuation Office field books and plans (for the Valuation Office survey of 1911-1915) are held at the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh.

Robin Alston has created The Country House Database, a very useful reference source, "listing country houses in the British Isles from the late medieval period to ca. 1850, together with an index to all the families so far traced as having occupied them". It includes a section on Fife.

Information about many Fife buildings can be found by searching the Dictionary of Scottish Architects 1840-1940.

Details of historic buildings and archaeological sites are held by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, Edinburgh. They are catalogued at the ScotlandsPlaces website. In the results, click RCAHMS. Unfortunately, not all entries have digital images.

Fife is included in the 1873 Return of Owners of Land (Scotland), which is available on the ScotlandsPlaces (under 'Land Ownership Commission 1872-3'). website. It has also been published as Scottish Landowners and Heritages 1872/3 on CD from S&N Genealogy Supplies. This includes all those who owned more than 1 acre of land.

Services of Heirs:

2 books deal comprehensively with the architecture of Fife:

Manor and Estate Records

A good place to start searching for estate papers is the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh. Some estate papers can be found by searching the NRS catalogue for the name of the parish and reference starts "GD".

Other places to search include the Fife Council Archive Centre and St Andrews University Library Manuscripts Dept.

Maps

Historic maps:

This British Library webpage uses small examples of historical maps of London to show the differences between maps at various scales.

This Charles Close Society Sheetfinder will provide the sheet numbers for historic Ordnance Survey 1-inch and 6-inch maps for any location.

Present-day maps:

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Medical Records

Hospital records (mostly of an administrative nature) are held by the Fife Council Archive Centre. The following hospitals are included: Adamson Hospital, Cupar 1865-1979; Dunfermline and West Fife Hospital (originally Dunfermline Cottage Hospital) 1891-1948; East Fife Hospitals Board of Management 1948-1974; Kirkcaldy Cottage Hospital 1891-1948; Memorial Cottage Hospital, St Andrews 1875-1949; Dunfermline Combined Poorhouse and Hospital 1859-1867; Randolph Wemyss Memorial Hospital 1912-1948; Stratheden Hospital, Cupar 1867-1970s (including records of Fife and Kinross District Lunacy Board and its successors). Only Stratheden Hospital has extensive patient records. Patient records are closed for 100 years.

Migration, Internal

The published census reports, available online at histpop, give information on the birthplaces of those who were resident in Scotland. This allows a picture of the internal migration (population movement within Britain) to be built up. The population reports give information about

The figures for 1841 (not as comprehensive as for other years), and 1911 are analysed here.

Military History

On the Records pages of the Fife Family History Society website there is a list of Fife men who enlisted 1794-1801 in the Loyal Tay Fencibles.

Military forces connected with the county included The Fife Fencibles, The Fife & Forfar Yeomanry, The Fife Yeomanry Cavalry, The Fife Artillery, The Fife Militia, The 1st Fifeshire Rifle Volunteers and the Black Watch.

The Fife Military Project website has a wealth of information on the historical military forces in Fife, including Fife Fencibles, Militia, Yeomanry, etc.

The Scottish National War Memorial at Edinburgh Castle commemorates nearly 150,000 Scottish casualties in the First World War, 1914 - 1918, over 50,000 in the Second World War, 1939 - 1945, and the campaigns since 1945, including the Malayan Emergency, the Korean War, Northern Ireland, the Falklands War and the Gulf War. You can carry out an on-line search of the Scottish Roll of Honour.

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission's "Debt of Honour Register" is the Commission's database listing the 1.7 million men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars and the 23,000 cemeteries, memorials and other locations worldwide where they are commemorated. The register can also be searched for details of the 67,000 Commonwealth civilians who died as a result of enemy action in the Second World War. This site records some Scots not listed on the Scottish National War Memorial, and, for those listed in both databases, contains some additional information.

An increasing number of military records held by The National Archives (TNA), Kew, can be searched online including those for World War 1 Campaign Medals, World War 2 Seamen's Medals, Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, and Registers of [Royal Navy] Seamen's Services (1873-1923) and soldiers discharged to pension (WO97 and WO121).

The Scots at War site, reached through the Internet Archive, gives information about the Fife and Forfar Yeomanry. See also the Yeomanry's museum above. The publication The Fife and Forfar Yeomanry and 14th (F. & F. Yeo.) Battn. R.H. 1914-1919 by David D. Ogilvie, is available at Project Gutenberg.

Many Fife men served with The Black Watch.

Fife Family History Society's Publications Series, No. 25, Some Fife Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen has articles about Fife holders of the Victoria Cross, Fifers in South Africa 1900-01, some Fife Soldiers from World War 1, and some Fife Veterans.
Their Publication 47, Some Other Chelsea Pensioners and Others (Chiefly of the Peninsular Period) contains details of many Fife soldiers.

War graves can be seen at the Scottish Wargraves Project and war memorials can be seen at the Scottish War Memorials Project.

There is a listing of grave locations in Fife of holders of the Victoria Cross.

The Kirkcaldy [Boer] War Album with photographs of over 200 Fife men 1900-1902 is online at Ancestry.co.uk.

The parishes of Abernethy, Arngask, Culross and Tulliallan parishes will be included in the Perthshire Milita collection, 1680-1891, located at the Perth and Kinross Council Archive, Perth. Several databases are searchable online.

An excellent site with a lot of detailed information about the British Army in World War 1 is the Long, Long Trail.

(Monumental Inscriptions - see Cemeteries)

Names, Geographical

The Ordnance Survey Object Name Books provide a description of every town, village, building, archaeological site and natural feature. They were created during the compilation of the O.S. First Edition maps of Fife and include notes and observations, many from local people, on all features on the original six-inch maps published around 1856. The originals are at the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh (reference RH4/23/83 - 93). Copies are held by the Fife Council Archive Service and Cupar, Dunfermline & Kirkcaldy libraries.Library staff have indexed all parishes except Culross and Tulliallan on the Fife Council website. Links to the indexes here.

Newspapers

Fife's local libraries have copies of historic newspapers, mostly on microfilm. They also have some indexes to them. You can download lists of historical newspapers held by Fife Council libraries.

An index of the portraits in the Fife News Almanacs, 1886-1942, has been published by the Fife Family History Society in their Publications 41, 42 & 43. It also includes portraits published in the Coast Chronicle Illustrated Almanac, 1908-1909, covering Leven.

The British Newspaper Archive, also available available on findmypast.co.uk, has:

Historical editions of The Scotsman, published in Edinburgh, can be searched online for the period 1817 - 1950.

You can search the catalogue of the British Library to find details of the newspapers which have been published and which are held by the British Library.

The National Library of Scotland is the main repository for Scottish newspapers, although Fife's local libraries may provide easier access to copies. The National Library does, however, have an online guide to Scottish newspaper indexes.

There is a listing of current Scottish newspapers. Those of particular local interest in Fife include: The Courier (Dundee), The Fife Free Press, Fife Online, and The Scotsman (Edinburgh).

The Edinburgh Gazette, the official newspaper of record, contains legal notices, insolvencies, estates fallen heir to the Crown, etc.

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Obituaries

Fife Deaths Abroad 1855-1900 - a compilation of overseas deaths recorded in Fife newspapers - has been produced by Andrew Campbell of Fife Family History Society. The Society have re-published it in their Publications Series.

Andrew Campbell has also produced Fife Deaths from Newspapers 1822-1854 - a compilation of deaths recorded in local newspapers. Copies of this index are held by the Fife libraries and the Family History Societies.

Occupations

Architects: Businessmen: Clergy: Criminals: Farmers: Mariners: Miners: Nurses: Photographers: Police Officers: Railwaymen: Shipowners: Shopkeepers & Traders:
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Politics and Government

Many references to places and persons in Fife are to be found in the searchable Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707.

Local government records for the whole of the county of Fife from 1709 are held at the Fife Council Archive Centre. They cover the functions which Fife Council still looks after today including roads maintenance, bridges, schools, police, etc. Also held there are records of most of the Parochial Boards and Parish Councils.

Records of the former burghs (towns) in Fife are held at several locations. Details will be found on the parish pages.

The Fife Council website has further information concerning present-day local government - including Registration, Archives, Cemeteries, etc.

Poorhouses, Poor Law, etc.

Until 1845, the relief of paupers was carried out by the Kirk Session and the Heritors (see Church Records).

The relief of paupers after 1845 was carried out by the Parochial Boards and later by the Parish Councils. Their records are at the Fife Council Archive Centre.

Peter Higginbotham has a detailed website about workhouses and poorhouses. There were 3 poorhouses in Fife: Dunfermline combination, Kirkcaldy combination and Dysart combination (which, despite the name, was in Thornton, in Markinch parish). Ceres parish had an almshouse and St Andrews also had an almshouse (the Eastern Poorhouse).

Records of the Dysart Combination Poorhouse are at the Fife Council Archive Centre. On the Fife Council website there is a list of people sent to the poorhouse by the Parish Councils of Dysart and Markinch, (includes Markinch Paupers 1868 - 1888, Dysart Paupers 1878 - 1883.) Fife Family History Society have published a more detailed copy of the index in their Publications Series, 34.

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Population

Year Population
1755 81570
1801 93743
1851 153546
1901 218837
1951 306778
2001 349429

There is a page with census statistics for all Fife parishes from 1755 to 1961 here.

A Vision of Britain provides population statistics from the 1801 census onwards.

Histpop, the online historical population reports website, provides statistics in the published population (census) reports (1801 - 1937).

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Probate Records ['Confirmations' in Scotland]

Good online background information about this subject can be found at the Scottish Archive Network (SCAN) Knowledge Base, in the National Records of Scotland online guides, and on the Scotland's People website.

Prior to 1824, most Fife testaments will be found in either the St Andrews Commissariot (CC20) or the Edinburgh Commissariot (CC8) records. There are also some in the Stirling Commissariot (CC21) and the Dunkeld Commissariot (CC7). These records are held at the National Records of Scotland. Printed indexes to these records up to 1800 were published by the Scottish Record Society and can be read online at the Open Library. Indexes to the all the testaments are now available on the Scotland's People website. This site has a searchable index to Scottish Wills and Testaments from 1513 - 1925, comprising over 878,000 names of 'defuncts'. The indexes may be searched free, and copies of the documents may be viewed and purchased. The Scotland's People website has indexes to the St Andrews Commissary Court, 1549-1823 (ref. CC20/4/1-31, some from CC20/6/1-97 and CC20/7/1-16); Dunkeld Commissary Court, 1687-1823 (ref. CC7/6/1-8); Stirling Commissary Court, 1607-1823 (ref. CC21/5/1-13 and some from CC21/6/1-105); and the Edinburgh Commissary Court, 1514-1829 (ref. CC8/8/1-152 and CC8/11/1-6).

From 1824 - 1960, commissary court business was conducted by the Sheriff Court of Fife at Cupar (SC20), and also by the Edinburgh Sheriff Court (SC70). These records are also held at the National Records of Scotland. On the Scotland's People website are entries from the Registers of inventories and settlements (wills) up to 1875, and, from 1876 - 1925, entries in the printed Calendar of Confirmations. There are no online indexes for testaments after 1925. The Scotland's People website has indexes to Cupar Sheriff Court Inventories, 1824-1925 (ref. SC20/50/1-114); Edinburgh Sheriff Court Inventories, 1808-1925 (ref. SC70/1/1-741) and Edinburgh Sheriff Court Wills, 1855-1925 (ref. SC70/4/1-595).

For deaths which occurred after 13 October 1960, commissary business has been conducted at Cupar (SC20), Dunfermline (SC21) and Kirkcaldy (SC23) Sheriff Courts.

The Scotland's People website also has records of Non-Scottish Courts, 1858-1900 (ref. SC70/6/1-83) which includes testaments relating to Scots who died in England and other foreign countries.

The wills of some Scottish soldiers and airmen, 1857-1964, are held by the National Records of Scotland.

Scots who owned goods or investments in England were supposed to have their wills proved in England as well as Scotland. Wills proved before 1858 at the Prerogative Court of Canterbury are held at The National Archives, Kew. There are also has a few Scots listed in the Death Duty registers. From 1858, the annual National Probate Calendars need to be consulted. There are online copies for 1858-1966 at Ancestry.co.uk.

Many wills can be found in the collections of Deeds deposited in various courts. Some of these have been indexed and some have indexes online.
The Records pages of the Fife Family History Society's website have indexes to the following:

Fife Family History Society have published printed indexes of:

For residents in the parishes of Abernethy, Arngask, Culross and Tulliallan, and also for those in the north-west of Fife in general, a search in the Perth Register of Deeds may be useful. They are held by Perth & Kinross Council Archive, Perth. An index to the Perth Register of Deeds, 1566-1811, is online at Ancestry.co.uk.

Services of Heirs: see Land & Property above.

Public Records

Many early Scottish state documents were transcribed and published in the nineteenth century. Some are now available on the internet. The earliest documents are in Latin.

Schools

Before1878, the parochial schools were the responsibility of the Heritors of each parish (see Church Records), although mention is frequently made to them in the Kirk Session papers.

After 1878, School Boards were created. Their records and / or school logbooks are held at the Fife Council Archive Centre.

A census of Religious Worship and Education was taken in 1851 at the same time as the census of population. There is a table of statistics about the schools and Sunday schools in Fife in 1851 here.

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Societies

There are two family history societies which cover this area.

The Fife Family History Society website has a wide range of information relating to Fife, plus details of their publications and how to join. Many of their resources are housed in Methil Library (currently closed for alterations). Society material temporarily housed at Leven Library. They have published the first 16 volumes of their journal, covering 1989-2004, on CD.

The Tay Valley Family History Society covers the former counties of Fife, Angus, Perthshire & Kinross, and the city of Dundee. They have a Research Centre, with an excellent library, at 179-181 Princes Street, Dundee.

Statistics

"Statistical accounts" were written on nearly every parish in Scotland on three occasions - in the 1790s (the "Old Statistical Account"), in the 1840s (the "New Statistical Account") and in the 1950s (the "Third Statistical Account"). The author was usually the parish minister. They give fascinating insights into the local topography and history, social and economic conditions, and even the daily lives of people of those times. Published versions include:

  1. The 'Old' Statistical Account, 1791-1799
    • is available online at edina (to view without charge, click on 'For non -subscribers, Browse scanned pages').
    • is also online at Google Books, but the parishes are not arranged in any order. Search in 'Advanced search' , 'full view only', for "statistical account" + the parish name.
    • It was reprinted as The Statistical Account of Scotland, 1791-1799 edited by Sir John Sinclair. Vol. X: Fife. With a new Introduction by R G Cant. Published by EP Publishing, Wakefield 1978. pp 816, and:
    • The Statistical Account of Scotland, 1791-1799 edited by Sir John Sinclair. Vol. XI: South and East Perthshire, Kinross-shire. With a new Introduction by Bruce Lenman. Published by EP Publishing, Wakefield 1976. pp 685. [This volume includes Arngask, Abernethy, Culross and Tulliallan.]
  2. The 'New' Statistical Account, 1845
    • the Fife volume (vol. IX) is online at Google Books
    • the Perthshire volume (vol. X) is online at Google Books. [This volume includes Arngask, Abernethy, Culross and Tulliallan.]
    • they also available online at edina (to view without charge, click on 'For non -subscribers, Browse scanned pages').
  3. The Third Statistical Account of Scotland - The County of Fife. Alexander Smith. Published by Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh 1952. 815pp.

A Vision of Britain provides statistics on population, housing, industry and social class from the 1801 census onwards.

Histpop, the online historical population reports website, provides statistics in the published population (census) reports (1801 - 1937), and the reports of the Registrar General for Scotland (1855 - 1920).

The ScotlandsPlaces website has a copy of the 1891 Medical Officer of Health's Report for Fife. (Those parts of Fife which were at that time in Perthshire are not included.)

Taxation

The hearth tax, due on every hearth in Scotland, and payable by both landlords and tenants, was levied between 1691 and 1695. Records (E69/10 - Fife, E69/19 - Culross & Tulliallan) are held by the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh and online at ScotlandsPlaces. A copy of the Fife listings is held by the  Tay Valley Family History Society.  The Perthshire hearth tax return (including Culross & Tulliallan) has been reprinted in Perthshire Hearth Tax 1691-1692 published by the Scottish Genealogy Society.

From 1748, taxes were levied on various items for varying lengths of time. These included windows (1748-1798), inhabited houses (1778-1798), retail shops (1785-1789), male servants (1777-1798), female servants (1785-1792), carts & carriages (1785-1798), farm horses, dogs, clocks & watches (1797-1798). The farm horse tax, which is the most useful of these returns, the clock & watch tax, the male servants tax and the female servants tax are all available on the ScotlandsPlaces website. Surviving records are patchy and originals are held by the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh.

Details of taxation records here.

The National Archives, Kew, has a few Scots listed in the Death Duty registers.

Town Records

The burghs (towns) in Fife were:

Records of the former burghs in Fife are held at several locations. Details will be found on the parish pages.

Voting Registers

For most of Fife, electoral registers are held by the Fife Council Archive Centre for the years 1914, 1918-1939 and 1950-2001.

There are Voters' Rolls at Ancestry.co.uk for Fife county for 1832-41, 1846, 1861-62, 1863-64, 1864-65, 1878-79; the Western District of Fife for 1860; and for Burntisland, Dysart, Dunfermline and Kinghorn burghs (various dates - see parish pages).

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