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Welsh History Books 2

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These book descriptions on this second page were contributed by Gareth Hicks

Alphabetical list of books detailed on this second page only

1. Romilly's Visits to Wales 1827-1854

Extracts from the Diaries of the Reverend Joseph Romilly.

By M G R Morris. ISBN 1-85902-454-8 . Published 1998 by Gomer Press in Llandysul

To quote from the back cover;

"The Rev Joseph Romilly [1791-1864] was a bachelor don at Cambridge University, he recorded 10 visits to Wales in his diaries. He held the family living at Porthkerry church, Gla., spent 4 weeks there, and stayed with relations in Pembrokeshire, and on the Hereford border. Few parts of Wales went without at least a passing visit. The life of the Welsh gentry, travel by coach, paddle steamer or the early railways, landscape, buildings and industry are all vividly described. Romilly portrayed people with a witty and critical pen . He attended the Eisteddfod and learnt Welsh. "

My abiding  impression is that his observations are a little superficial and hyper critical in style and concentrate on "the gentry" more than lesser mortals. The present author's historical background notes are good value however.
Despite the glossy paper and a sprinkling of diagrams and photographs it might  by some be thought a tad expensive at £18.95 for 120 or so pages, has a good index though !
The contents page headings for The Visits are ; The Menai Bridge[1827]; Milford to Hereford [1827]; The Rector of Porthkerry [ 1830]; Unchronicled visit [1831] Swansea Copper and Cardiff Eisteddfod[1834]; Glamorgan Calls [1836]; Grand Tour from Bristol [1837] South Wales Circuit [1838]; Presteigne to Pembrokeshire [1840]; A Sunshine Holiday [1854].

2.The People of Wales

Ed. Gareth Elwyn Jones and Dai Smith, 1999. BBC Radio Wales , A Millennium History. Gomer ISBN 1-85902-743-1


Introduction, the people's nation by Gareth Elwyn Jones

Chapter 1, Medieval experiences: Wales 1000-1415, by Huw Pryce

Chapter 2, Land, life and belief : Wales 1415-1642, by Mathew Griffiths

Chapter 3, Between two revolutions: Wales 1642-1780, by Philip Jenkins

Chapter 4, 'As rich as California....': Opening and Closing the Frontier: Wales 1780-1870, by Neil Evans

Chapter 5, Banqueting at a movable feast : Wales 1870-1914, by Bill Jones

Chapter 6, 'In the Wars' : Wales 1914-1945, by Mari A Williams

Chapter 7, On a border in history ? Wales, 1945-85, by Chris Williams

Conclusion, The Nation's People, by Dai Smith

Apart from one BBC man, all the contributors are academics at Welsh Institutions of Learning

Although the breadth of coverage in terms of the whole millennium is initially off putting , I  actually found the mixture of selected fact and personal opinion to be stimulating and enlightening, not your average "dry as dust" history book by any means, an useful addition to any  bookshelf I think.

3. People, Protest and Politics Case studies in C19 Wales

By David Egan, Gomer 1987.  Welsh Teaching History Materials Project. ISBN  0-86383-350-0


Case study 1; The Merthyr Rising 1831.

Case study 2; The Rebecca Riots

Case study 3; Chartism in Wales

Case study 4; The Tithe War in north east Wales.

Written in a straightforward style for students, good general coverage of the individual case studies, an useful introduction . Plenty of historic quotes and pictures. 117 pages, good value at £6.95

4. Coal Society. A History of the South Wales Mining Valleys 1840-1980.

By David Egan, Gomer 1987.  Welsh Teaching History Materials Project. ISBN  0-86383-239-3



Section 1, Introduction

Section 2, The Industry---Geography & Geology of the South Wales Coalfield; The History of the Industry to 1840 ; The History of the Industry 1840-1920 ; Coalmining Techniques.

Section 3, The Coalowners---Landlords & Coalowners; Ownership and Management; The Lifestyle, Attitudes & Reputation of the Coalowners.

Section 4, The Miners --- The Collier Boy; Mineworkers ; The Collier ; Miners' Unions.

Section 5, Coalfield Society 1---The Creation of Coal Society ; The Nature of Coal Society ; Homes & Family Life; Poverty & Public Health.

Section 6, Coalfield Society 2---Popular Culture & Pastimes; Religion ; Education ; Politics.

Section 7, Coal Society in Crisis---Introduction ; The 1914-18 War and After; The Coal Industry in the Inter-War Years ; The Depression -Effects ; The Depression-Resistance, Protest and Despair ; The South Wales Coalfield since 1945; Conclusion.

Appendices---Glossary; Conversion Tables ; Places to visit.

Written in a straightforward style for students, good coverage of the subject, a very useful introduction . Plenty of historic quotes , maps and pictures. 150 pages, very good value at £7.50

5. Crime and Punishment in England & Wales- an Outline History

By Eldon Smith, Gomer, 1986


What are crimes ?

Early Law Systems

The Anglo-Saxon period

The Norman Period

The Late Medieval period

Welsh Law

The Period of Tudors & Stuarts

Is Being Poor or Strangely Dressed a Crime ?


Early Prisons

Changes in the C18

Some of the Worst C18 Offenders

C18 Prisons

John Howard


The Fielding Brothers

Elizabeth Fry



Some Circumstances Seem to Produce More Crimes

C19 Prisons

The Classification of crimes

Development of The Modern Police Force

Reforms in the Law Courts

Two very Modern crimes

C20 Prisons and Punishments

Why Have Crimes been Committed ?

A good outline introduction to a big subject, geared to students , useful to have on one's book shelf .56 pages, £3.25.

6. The Rebecca Riots- A Study in Agrarian Discontent.

By David Williams, 1986 , UWP,Cardiff. ISBN 0-7083-0933-X


The Gentry of West Wales

Local Government and Administration

The Economic Background

Social Conditions

The Growth of Opinion

The Roads of West Wales

The Outbreak of Rioting

Midsummer madness

Smoulderimg Embers

Rebecca Triumphans

Introduction from cover of the book

"The Rebecca Riots in West Wales began in the summer of 1839. They ceased as suddenly as they had started, and for three and a half years the countryside was undisturbed. Then, in the winter of 1842, they broke out again with greater violence, and this time continued throughout the following year. By day the countryside seemed quiet, but at night fantastically disguised horsemen , many dressed as women, careered along highways and through narrow lanes on their mysterious errands. They developed uncanny skill in evading the police and the infantry, and although their mounts were unwieldy farm horses, they also succeeded in outwitting the dragoons.

The movement has unusually been represented as the uprising of an oppressed peasantry, particularly against the burden of the toll gates. Its causes, however, were far more deep seated than that; the gates were only tangible objects which could be destroyed. The early C19 saw a breakdown in the social structure of rural Wales, with its outmoded systems of government and administration, when the pressure of a greatly increased population upon a backward economy produced disturbances. The early chapters of this book are therefore devoted to an analysis of the social structure and to an examination of the underlying factors which brought about its collapse.  In the last four chapters , a narrative account is given of the rioting and many strange characters are introduced to the reader."

I can do no more than quote verbatim  one of the credits from the book's cover.

"It is a model of its kind, compact and readable , yet based on deep understanding and meticulous research" Journal of Modern History.

7. Secret Sins . Sex, Violence & Society in Carmarthenshire 1870-1920.

By Russell Davies 1996, UWP, Cardiff. ISBN 0-7083-1367-1

A contents listing/introduction and index  to the names and places contained in it is available online on    INDEX

8.The Welsh Cattle Drovers

By Richard J Colyer, 1976 ,UWP,Cardiff.

There is a contents listing/introduction and an online  index compiled by Catherine Davies-Shiel available on    INDEX

9.Land and People in C19 Wales

By David W Howell, London, 1977.


The Historical Perspective

The Structure and Distribution of Landownership

Landowners and Agriculture

Land Occupancy and Size of Holdings

Tenurial Relations

The Agricultural Labourer


Farming Practice


Introduction from the book's dust jacket.

"This study will be of central importance to students of the history of Wales. It should appeal equally to those interested in the economic history of late modern Britain.; students of C19 British Agriculture and the rural community ; historical geographers ; and all those concerned with peasants and peasant societies. Essentially an economic history with strong emphasis on human factors, it examines the reasons for the backwardness of much of the farming of the region and discusses in detail how agricultural resources and organisation directly affected the nature of social relationships within the community.

The traditional view that the political, religious and cultural division between landowners and tenants produced mutual distrust and so deterred tenants from improving the land , is re-examined. The conclusion reached is that the Land Question was a figment of the political imagination so far as it applied to the sizable estates and that the lag on improvement stemmed basically from the distinctly peasant attitudes of the Welsh tenant.

The author demonstrates how the close intimacy of personal relationships sprang fundementally from the economic interdependence of farm and cottage , which was imposed in turn by the isolation, backwardness and relative poverty of the region. Such close knit communities , he contends, were to have an important bearing on the extent of labour organisation and protest."

10. The Revolt of Owain Glyn Dwr  [ 1400-1409 ]

By R R Davies 1995 , Oxford.


Part 1---Portrait of a Society : Wales in the 1390s

The Country; A Tale of Two Travellers

Peoples and Power

Tensions and Aspirations

Part 2---Revolt


Revolt in Wales 1400-1409

Part 3---The Anatomy of Revolt

Owain Glyn Dwr

The Programme: National Salvation


Friends and Foes

Guerrillas and Garrisons

Survival and Recrimination

Submission and Aftermath

Epilogue, the Making of a Hero

Introduction from book's dust jacket

"Owain Glyn Dwr is arguably the most famous figure in the history of Wales.  His revolt of 1400-1409 was the last major Welsh rebellion against English rule. It established a measure of unity such as Wales had never previously experienced and generated a remarkable vision of Wales as an independent country with its own native prince , its own church, and its own universities.

In the event, Owain's rebellion was defeated, or perhaps more correctly , burnt itself out . But Owain himself was not captured ; and soon after his death he became a legendary hero among the Welsh people.  In more recent times he has come to be regarded as the father of modern Welsh nationalism.

Written by one of Britain's leading medieval historians, this book will appeal to those who are fascinated by national heros in all periods. It is also of particular interest to those who are intriguesd by this most famous movement in the history of Wales, and by the remarkable man who led the rebellion."

11. A History of Carmarthenshire

Edited by Sir John E. Lloyd M.A., D.Litt., F.B.A. [Emeritus Professor of History at  the University College of North Wales] for the London Carmarthenshire Society. Cardiff, 1935.

The book is in two volumes.


Volume 1---From Prehistoric Times to the Act of Union [1536]

List of Subscribers


Physiographical Background [ E G Bowen M.A. of UCW, Aberystwyth]

Boundaries and Local Divisions [ Editor]

Dialects [T Gwynn Jones B.A. Ammanford]

Chapter I

Carmarthenshire in Prehistoric and Roman Times  [Sir Cyril Fox Ph.D, FSA., Director of the National Museum of Wales ; and E G Bowen assisted by L F Cowley M.Sc., W F Grimes M.A, FSA., and R E Mortimer Wheeler M.A., D.Lit.,FSA., Director of the London Museum]

Carmarthenshire in the Old and Middle Stone Age

Carmarthenshire in the New Stone Age

Carmarthenshire in the Bronze Age

Carmarthenshire in the Early Iron Age

Carmarthenshire in the Roman Age

Chapter II

The Age of the Native Princes [ 400-1282 A.D] [Editor]

The Early Church: Rise of the Kingdom of Deheubarth

Hywel the Good: Gruffydd ap Llywelyn:Rhys ap Tewdwr

The Norman Conquest of the Towy Valley

Carmarthenshire under Henry I

Recovery of the Welsh under Stephen

The Lord Rhys--Early Struggles

The Ascendancy of the Lord Rhys

Family Feuds

The Intervention of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth

Revival of the English Power

The Death of Llywelyn and its results

The Rise of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd

Llywelyn and the Barons

The Last Years of Independence

Chapter III

The Later Middle Ages [ 1282-1536] [D L Evans B.A., B.Litt., Assistant Keeper of the Public Records]

Rhys ap Maredydd

The Government of the County : the Sheriff : the Welshry.

The " English County" of Carmarthen : the English County Court

The Lordships

The Reign of Edward II

Carmarthenshire under Edward III and the Black Prince

Glyn Dwr and After

The Wars of the Roses ; Gruffydd ap Nicholas ; Rhys ap Thomas

Chapter IV

Castles, Boroughs and Religious Houses [A J Richard M.A., of the County School. Port Talbot]

Castles---The Stone Castles, Parts of the Castle, Material and Garniture


Religious Houses[Supplementary note re The Tiles of Whitland and Talley Abbeys]


Pedigree of the Princes of Deheubarth

Pedigree of the Lords of Kidwelly

Archdeacons of Carmarthen

Constables and Keepers of Carmarthen


Volume 2--- From the Act of Union [1536] to 1900

Supplementary List of Subscribers 

Chapter I

Political Affairs from 1536 to 1900 [Glyn Roberts M.A., Lecturer in History at the University College of Swansea ]

Political Organisation

Political Institutions

Political Life





Chapter II

History of the Church in the County [Rev Canon David Ambrose Jones M.A., sometime Vicar of Kidwelly]

The Reformation ; The Early Stuarts

Puritan Domination ; a Period of Depression

A Religious and Educational Movement

Renewal and Growth

Chapter III

Nonconformity and Methodism

Nonconformity from 1620 to 1715 [Thomas Richards M.A., D.Litt.,, Librarian at UC of NW, Bangor]

1620-1660 ; Early Puritanism ; "The Propagation of the Gospel" ; Baptists

1660-87 ; Independents ; Baptists ; Quakers ; The Census of 1676

1687-1715 ; Independents ; The Henllan Secessions ; Baptists ; The Lists of Dr John Evans

Note; The Gouge Movement

Nonconformity after 1715 : Methodism [Robert Thomas Jenkins M.A., LL.B., Head of Dept of Welsh History, UC of NW, Bangor]

The Society of Friends

Methodism and Associated Movements---Calvinistic Methodism ; Moravians and Sandemanians ; Wesleyan Methodism.

The Older Dissent ; Expansion and Organisation ; Church Life ; Carmarthen Academy and Dissenting Education ; Arminianism.Ariansism.Unitarianism ; Concluding Remarks.

Chapter IV

Economic and Social Life [E G Bowen M.A., Lecturer in Geography at UCW, Aberystwyth, assisted by B Lewis Davies M.A., Leslie Wynne Evans M.A., Annie B Jones M.A., T H Lewis M.A.,HMIS., and G Dynfallt Owen, Ph.D.]

Introduction [E G Bowen]

Agriculture [G Dynfallt Owen] ; The Sixteenth Century ; The Seventeenth Century ; The Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth  Centuries

The Woollen Industry [A B Jones and B L Davies]

The Early Iron and Coal Industries [ L W Evans] ; Iron ; Coal

The Development of Communications; Highways [G D Owen] ; Bridges [G D Owen];  Tramroads and Canals [ L W Evans]

The Non-Ferrous metal Industries [ L W Evans] ; The Copper Industry ; Lead and Silver Industries ; Yellow Metal and Brass Industries

The Tinplate, Steel and Coal Industries [ L W Evans ] ; The Iron and Early Tinplate Industry ;  The Tinplate and Steel Industries ; The Anthracite Coal-Mining Industry ; Minor Industries, Railways, Docks and Shipping

Public Elementary and Secondary Education

Epilogue [ E G Bowen]

Chapter V

Literature and Literary Associations [ Rev .Howell Elvet Lewis M.A., D.D.]

Legendary Lore

Ancient Literature

The Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

Hymnody and Sacred Poetry

General Literature [ Welsh]

English Literature

Literary Guests


Archdeacons of Carmarthen

High Sheriffs of the County

Members of Parliament

Mayors of Carmarthen


Campbell of Stackpole Court and Golden Grove

Jones of Abermarlais

Philipps of Cwmgwili

Philipps of Picton

Rice of Newton and Dynevor

Vaughan of Golden grove

Williams of Edwinsford

12. The Story of Carmarthen

By Malcolm and Edith Lodwick, 1953



FOREWORD [ By Professor E G Bowen MA, FSA.]

PRICELESS THINGS [Introduction by Malcolm Lodwick]

CARMARTHEN[Poem by Malcolm Lodwick]




ROMAN CARMARTHEN. What's in a Name ?





The Priory. The Black Book of Carmarthen. The Friary. The First Grammar School.



Old Carmarthen's Charters. New Carmarthen's Charters. The Amalgamation. The Town Walls.



Sir Rhys ap Thomas. Rice Griffith Fitzurien.



St. Peter's Church. Water Street Chapel. Tabernacle Welsh Baptist Chapel. Penuel Baptist Chapel. Lammas Street Chapel. Wesleyan Chapel. St. John's Church. St. David's Church. Christ Church. Union Street Chapel. Lammas Street Baptist Chapel. Parc-y-Velvet Chapel. Priordy Chapel. Zion Chapel. Bethania Chapel. Lammas Street Congregational Chapel. St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church.


St. John's Chapel. St. Catherine's Chapel. St. Barbara'sChapel. Prince Edward's Chapel.




The Queen Elizabeth Grammar School. Sir Thomas Powell's Grammar School. The Presbyterian College. Trinity College. Meyrick's Library and School. School of Art. Pibwrlwyd Farm Institute.


Public and Church Schools. Private Schools. Sunday Schools. Ashbridge's School. "At Reasonable Terms."



The Old Oak and Merlin. Love Spoons. The Bidding Letter.



Whig and Tory Riots. Lost Inheritance. Sea Serjeants' Club. The Cheese Riots. The Rebecca Riots.



The Port of Carmarthen. Tin and Iron Works. Lead and Silver Works. Printing Pioneers [ including a list of local printers with some history  for each one]. Early Banks. The Welsh Hat.



"Sons of the Soil" (Agricultural Conditions, 1776). The Best English. Pirouetting Periwigs. The People "Under the Bank". The Infirmary.



The Eisteddfod. Carmarthen Literary and Scientific Institute. Carmarthen County Museum.


INNS AND TAVERNS [including a historic list of inns in each street]



The State Sword. Borough Coat of Arms. The Guildhall.



Early Sportsmen.



Sir Richard Steele.John Dyer. John Nash. General Sir Thomas Picton. General Sir William Nott. Sir Lewis Morris.


HIGHWAYS AND BYWAYS [including a list of streets with historic reasons for their names]

Bridging the Centuries. Civil War Defences. The Market. Milestones. Red Lion Yard. Job's Well. Monuments. Llangunnor Hill.







Tudor Aled. Lewis Glyn Cothi. Bishop Ferrar. Humphrey and Robert Toy. Rhys Pritchard. Stephen Hughes. Dr. Lewis Bayly. Griffith Jones. William Williams. Peter Williams. Thomas Charles. David Charles. David Peter. Thomos Glyn Cothi. Connop Thirlwall.


William Spurrell. Alcwyn C. Evans. George Eyre Evans. Ernest Vale Collier.


MAYORS 1400-1953.


































































BISHOP FERRAR .               

13. The Story of Carmarthenshire

Volume 2, From the C16 to 1832

By A G Prys-Jones. Llandybie, 1972


1. Henry Tudor, Son of Prophecy.

2. The Union of England and Wales. (New Shires. Parliamentary Representation. The Great Sessions.)

3. The Reformation. (The Breach with Rome. Dissolution of the Monasteries.)

4. Bishop William Barlow of St. David's. (Disposal of Monastic estates. Church tithes become lay property.)

5. Changes in Religion. (Advanced Protestantism. Return of Roman Catholicism. Martyrdom of Bishop Robert Ferrar.)

6. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement. (Conditions in St. David's diocese. The Well-cult.The recusants.)

7. The Welsh Prayer Book, New Testament and Bible. (William Salesbury. Bishop Richard Davies. Bishop William Morgan.)

8. Carmarthenshire and Jesus College, Oxford. (Seven Principals from the County. Edmund Meyrick.)

9. The Tudor Grammar Schools. (Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Carmarthen. Later amalgamation with Sir Thomas Powell's Charity School.)

10. The Vaughans of Golden Grove. (1485-1804)

11. "Poor Cambriol's Lord". (Sir William Vaughan, Colonial pioneer, writer and agricultural reformer.)

12. Carmarthenshire during the Civil Wars.(1642-1648)

13. Bishop Lewis Bayly: Vicar Prichard. ("The Practice of Piety: " "Canwyll y Cymry")

14. Carmarthenshire during the Commonwealth and the Protectorate. (The Early Puritans.)

15. Stephen Hughes, Nonconformist "apostle" of Carmarthenshire. (Thomas Gouge-the WelshTrust.)

16. Carmarthenshire Dissenters under the last Stuarts. (Persecution. The Penal Code. The Toleration Act.)

17. The Pattern of Carmarthenshire Politics in the 17 century.

19. Carmarthenshire and S.P.C.K. (Sir John Philipps and John Vaughan.)

19. Griffith Jones, Llanddowror. (The Circulating Schools. Madam Bevan.)

20. The Welsh Academy. (The Presbyterian College, Carmarthen.)

21. Carmarthenshire and the Drovers. (Dafydd Jones of Caeo. Banc yr Eidion Du.)

22. Carmarthen Borough Politics, 1700 - 1764 (Riots. The Sea Serjeants. The New Charter.)

23. Carmarthenshire Politics in the 18th and early 19th centuries. "Blues"and "Reds" Y Lecsiwn Fawr)

24. Carmarthen Borough Politics, 1768-1832.

25. The Methodist Revival.

26. Carmarthenshire Leaders of the Revival

27. The Carmarthenshire Rural Structure in the 18th century

29. The Carmarthenshire Rural Scene in the 18th century

29. Welsh Radicalism in the late 18th century

30. Carmarthenshire Turnpike Trusts

31. Interesting Personalities of the Period


1. Madam Bevan (from portrait by Allen Ramsay at Derwydd).

2. John Dyer (from a line engraving by J. Bater in the National Museum of Wales.)

3. Sea Serjeants' badge and Wine Glasses.

4. Lord Carbery (second Earl).

5. Vicar Prichard's House, Llandovery.

6. William Williams, Pantycelyn.

7. Pantycelyn (Tal Jones).

9. Griffith Jones, Llanddowror.

9. Llanddowror (Map).

10. Efail Fach. Birthplace of Morgan Rhys.

11. Sir Richard Steele.

12. Grongar Hill.

13. Carmarthen and Cwmdwyfran Ironworks, 1790.

14. Title Page of the First Welsh Bible 1588.

15. Dynevor Castle 1822.

16. Thomas Charles of Bala.

17. Car Llusg

18-19. Map. Carmarthenshire Relief and Drainage (marking land over 600 ft.)

20. Old Welsh Plough.

14. Chapels in the Valley

A Study in the Sociology of Welsh Nonconformity

Fieldwork in the Aberdare Valley, Glamorgan

By D. Ben Rees. Merseyside 1975

There are many  extracts from the book on Not Everyone knows this under Aberdare Valley









I L L U S T R A T 1 0 N S

1. Aerial view of Aberdare.

2. David Alfred Thomas (1856 - 1918).

3. Calfaria Welsh Baptist Chapel.

4. Mountain Ash.

5. J. Keir Hardie.

6. Dr. Thomas Price (1820 - 1888).

7. Victoria Square, Aberdare.

8. Co-operative Store, Aberdare.

9. Penrhiwceibr Workmen's Hall and Institute.

10. Bryn Seion Welsh Congregationalist Chapel, Cwmbach

11. Abercynon Welfare Hall.

12. Aberdare from Graig Mountain.

13. Hen-dy-Cwrdd Unitarian Chapel, Trecynon.

14. View of Mountain Ash and Abercwmboi.

15. Hermon Presbyterian Church of Wales, Penrhiwceibr

16. Mountain Ash from the Perthcelyn Road.

17. Ynysboeth Industrial Estate.

18. Penrhiwceibr Colliery.

19. Mountain Ash from Newtown Quarry.

20. Aberaman Public Hall and Grand Social Club.

21. A modern Social Club.

22. Hirwaun Trading Estate.

Introduction from the dust jacket of the book;

"The need to look at Welsh Nonconformity from the standpoint of sociology is an urgent field of research which has largely been neglected. That is why this book is a valuable introduction to Welsh Nonconformity, a phenomenon, which, with the Industrial Revolution, changed the whole fabric of Welsh Society. D. Ben Rees puts forward the original thesis that the decline in Nonconformist Chapels in mining areas can be attributed to industrial as well as economic, social and historical factors. He gives the results of fieldwork carried out in the Aberdare Valley as evidence.

The old method of mining by hand at the coal face was founded on a small team of miners which was not only conducive to the maintenance of a community-based Nonconformity, but also exhibited similar characteristics; the responsible autonomy of the miner being reflected in the role of the elder or deacon. However, the advent of mechanisation meant the disappearance of this method of mining so conducive to the structure of Welsh Nonconformity. A 'small team' in a single tradition could maintain a 'Chapel culture' intact and in isolation from others, within a particular community setting. When the 'small team' was swept away with the coming of mechanisation Nonconformity lost a base and a support.

This book deals with all aspects of the structure of a Chapel, from the Sunday School to the Seiat (a group controlled meeting), from the Sisterhood to Youth Clubs; to the image of Nonconformity in a permissive society, and the role of the Social Clubs in ousting the Chapels from their central position in the life of the community. The semi-peasant culture of Welsh Nonconformity depended to a large extent on the charismatic figures of extraordinary, powerful preachers and pastors. Charisma is a term introduced into the language of the sociologist to mean the power given to influence others. There is no doubt after reading this study that charismatic ministers like Dr. Thornas Price dominated Nonconformity in its heyday, and that politics in the form of Liberalism had a great deal of influence on the growth of the Chapel Movement. The coming of the Scotsman, Keir Hardie, into the valley, and the gospel of Socialism, is also well documented as an important factor in the decline of Welsh Nonconformity.

Nonconformity is challenged through this book and the possibility is spelt out of the imminent danger of the disappearance of the whole witness of Nonconformity as a religious tradition in the next decade in many a valley if the constructive suggestions spelt out are not met. The process of secularisation is removing from Welsh society one of its central supports, and the only solution is immediate action. This is why this sociological analysis must be taken seriously by leaders of Welsh society, and will be a useful addition as an essential introduction to the sociology of Welsh Nonconformity.

Written in an easy interesting manner this book will be a delight to academics and to ordinary readers on a subject which is so vital for the well-being of Nonconformist Wales."

15. The Cambrian Journal

Volume I, 1854

Published under the auspices of the Cambrian Institute. London, Longmans & Co; Tenby, R Mason

There is a part Introduction and a Contents index from the book on the Wales pages of Genuki, also some other extractions of articles.

16. Collieries of Wales [Engineering and Architecture]

There is an online index of the names of collieries which have diagrams or photographs in the book on INDEX

Edited for the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales by Stephen Hughes, Brian Malaws, Medwyn Parry and Peter Wakelin

Published 1994? ISBN 1-871184-11-8

An edited Introduction based on the Preface to the book itself.

From about the time of the 1984-5 miners strike it became obvious that the coal industry was in  a period of rapid contraction.........The Royal Commission instituted a programme of work in the complementary areas of field recording and the safeguarding of original architectural and engineering drawings......In the field the task was to photograph the collieries still operating, paying special attention to the installations highlighted as being of particular interest......Alongside this work on the ground the RC's aerial photographer was active in recording the large colliery complexes from the air.....A substantial part of the collection of John Cornwell, a freelance photographer, were purchased.... Two large sets of original Edwardian colliery drawings were loctaed and are now held by the Glamorgan Archives services.......The purpose of this publication is to portray the main surface elements of working Welsh collieries as they survived into the 1980s and 1990s, almost invariably multi-period complexes with structures adapted and re-adapted during successive rebuildings and enlargements.....Also to portray in simple terms the technology used in relation to theses structures and buildings, and also to place them in a historical context.



The Planning and Design of Collieries

Collieries Underground

Colliery Headframes

Winding Coal

Water Pumping

Mine Ventilation

The Use of Compressed Air

Preparation of Coal for Sale

Workshops and Stores

Colliery Offices

Pithead Baths


Surviving Colliery Machinery

Gazetteer of Protected Colliery Sites

17.Accounting, Costing & Cost Estimation[ Welsh Industry : 1700-1830]

By Haydn Jones 1985. Published by University of Wales Press.  ISBN 0-7083-0882-1  

This is as unlikely a title for inclusion in a list of Welsh history books as you're ever likely to come across !

However, it contains many references to and examples of sources of industrial  records relating to the period 1700- 1830 in Wales. Some of the detailed  illustrations of accounting matters are of interest to genealogists simply because they often include the names of "ordinary workers", not just the iron and coal masters themselves.
Many examples of this have been extracted and are included in the relevant sections of the Not everyone knows this part of Wales - Genealogy Help Pages.

There is a comprehensive Bibliography.

The book's own introduction, edited by me, says;

"This work traces the development and use of accounting data in Welsh industrial concerns in the period c 1700- 1830, against a background of extensive economic change culminating in the industrial revolution. The material is gathered almost exclusively from original documents and industrial records stored in various archives and libraries in the Principality. The collected data are analysed under separate headings dealing with , inter alia, the evaluation of accounting techniques including double entry concepts of profits and costs, the use of accounting information in decision making, the evolution of accounting reporting and the role of auditors. Planning and budgeting  concepts particularly are reflected in the accounts of landed estates. There are extensive illustrations of the original documentation with appropriate references.

Industrial data sources range from single documents to small foundries and mines to complete ledgers and journals of large copper and iron works........................ In addition to meeting some of the great entrepreneurs of the period--the Mackworths and the Crawshays, the Guests, Thomas Williams, Anglesey [Lord Uxbridge] and many others-- we meet their agents and "accountants"..................."

There follows a list of Works, companies and places mentioned in the book

Abersychan Iron Works


British Iron Company

Brown Lenox [Pontypridd]

Cambrian Smelting and Coal Co

Cawdor Estates

Chirk Castle Estate

Clydach Iron Works

Cornish Metal Company

Cyfarthfa Iron Works

Dowlais and Iron Company

Llanelly copper works

Llangyfelach copper works

Mona and Parys mines



Risca Brickworks

Spitty Ban Works

Stanley Smelting Company 


Tredegar and Machen forges

Vivian J. and Cornish Metal Company

18. Llandilo, Present & Past

An Illustrated Guide to the Ancient castles and Other Antiquities of the Neighbourhood.

A Sketch of the History and Annals of the Town, embracing that of the Kingdom of Dynevor.

By W Samuel, Carmarthen; "Welshman "Printing Office, 1868.

The contents of the book have now  largely been extracted and are to be found an    GENUKI 

19. Wales : Nation & Region

By Mervyn Phillips, Gomer 1997.

From the back cover;

" That Wales can operate effectively as a region within Europe will come as no surprise to those who, like the author, have worked in local government and have had access to wider visions and ideals than those to which Wales is subject in the British context. But to what extent can Wales consider itself a nation ? Thedevolution debate must take account not only of current politics but of the history, culture and self-identity of the Welsh people. Mervyn Phillips provides us with the means to understand these aspects more fully, democratically allowing space for readers, like voters, to come to their own decisions."

The Contents headings are as follows;


The United Kingdom---a multi national state

National identity and community

Wales as a region

Welsh nationality


Historic foundations

The laws of Wales



Modern Wales

Radical politics



Nationality and Sovereignty---Wales in Britain

The historic sovereignty of Wales as a nation

Beginning of Parliamentary Sovereignty

The nineteenth century in Britain

Should sovereignty be shared ?

Wales in Europe

Europe and the end of the Nation State

Europe and regionalisation

Regional networks

Minority rights

Wales. A Nation State

Period of Liberal Ascendancy

Inter war years

Decentralisation and administrative devolution

1979 Referendum

New Centralism

Party Plans and the future

Appendix: Counties and County Boroughs ,1994

20. An Illustrated History of Cardiganshire.

By W J Lewis;Cymdeithas Lyfrau Ceredigion, 1970

For chapter heading list and index of photographs, see   INDEX

21. A Mirror of Medieval Wales

Gerald of Wales and his Journey of 1188

By Charles Kightly ; Cadw ,1988

Gerald of Wales ; Giraldus Cambrensis ; Gerald the Welshman ; Gerallt Gymro, he is called ; Master Gerald de Barry, Gerald the Marcher, Gerald the Archdeacon, Gerald Bishop-elect of St Davids..................

Overview from the front cover;

"Eight centuries ago, Archbishop Baldwin of Canterbury rode round the four corners of Wales, gathering recruits for the Third Crusade. Accompanying him through the disputed eastern borderlands, the Norman-dominated south and the mountainous native strongholds of the north and west was his friend Gerald the Archdeacon---better known as Gerald of Wales, one of the most fascinating characters of the Middle Ages. Scholar, churchman and courtier, descendant of Norman Marcher barons and Welsh princes, this tireless traveller, naturalist and gossip compiled an account of their eventful journey which remains as fresh today as when it was first written. It mirrors a land of quicksands and mountain passes; of demons and vengeful saints ; of Norman knights and feuding Welsh rulers ; of battles and kidnappings ; and shrines, monasteries and castles.

This publication sets the journey against a background of the still visible traces of Gerald's Wales--which include many monuments in the care of Cadw: Welsh Historic Monuments--and in the context of his long turbulent and varied career as reformer, royal agent and champion of the Welsh Church. Lavishly illustrated by photographs of the places Gerald knew and by revealing and colourful manuscript illuminations, it celebrates a man and a land long-vanished yet still vividly alive."



Gerald of Wales--The Man

'The Little Bishop'--Gerald's Family, Childhood and Education

Gerald the Archdeacon

'Following the Court'--Gerald the Royal Servant and his Visit to Ireland

'This Man's Noble Deed'--Gerald and the Struggle for St Davids

The Journey Through Wales

The Travellers Set Out

The Journey through the Borderlands--New Radnor to Newport

The Journey through South Wales--Newport to St Davids

The Journey through West Wales--St Davids to the Dovey

The Journey through North Wales

Success and Failure--The Journey through Wales and the Third Crusade

Gerald and the Land of Wales

The Natural and Supernatural History of Wales

A Land of Wonders

The Creatures of Wales

Demons, Prophets and Fairies

Saints and Miracles

Gerald and the People of Wales

The Welsh at Home

The Welsh at War

Conquest or Resistance ?

Failure and Success--Gerald's Last Ten Years and Ultimate Achievement

Features ;

The Twelfth-Century Church in Wales [ Glanmor Williams]

Gerald and the Kings of the English [ Ralph A Griffiths]

Preaching the Cross [ Charles Kightly]

Gerald, King Arthur, and the Legendary History of Britain [ Huw Pryce]

The Hazards of Travel [ Charles Kightly]

St David and St Davids [ J Wyn Evans]

Gerald and the Princes of Wales [ R R Davies]

The Archaeology of Gerald's Wales [ David M Robinson]

Gerald the Writer [ Brynley F Roberts]

The Handlist of Exhibits at the Gerald of Wales Exhibition [ J M Lewis]. At National Museum of Wales in 1988.

22. Victorian and Edwardian Wales from old photographs

Introduction and commentary by E D Jones. Batsford 1972

There is an introduction and index of photographs on INDEX

23. A History of Cardigan, the Locality and its People Vol I

Edited and published  in 1991 by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies.

Compiled from the weekly series of articles  styled " Those Were The Days" column that appeared in the Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser over the previous 9 years.

A contents listing and an online index is available on INDEX

24. A History of Cardigan, the Locality and its People Vol II

Edited and published in 1992 by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies.

Compiled from the weekly series of articles  styled " Those Were The Days" column that appeared in the Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser over the previous 10 years.

This volume has not been indexed but a contents listing is available on INDEX

25. The History and Antiquities of the County of Cardiganshire

by Samuel Rush Meyrick , 1810

This 1907 re-print  has again been reprinted , in the COLLARD'S ANTIQUITIES OF WALES series. This is a brief extract from the publisher's web site which has now gone;

"His original book on Cardiganshire gives a parish by parish guide to the general, military, and ecclesiastical antiquities and following the same general layout as the History of Radnorshire it proved to be of as much  interest to the general reader as to the serious student. Illustrated with many drawings, sketches, and prints, as well including family pedigrees and detailed genealogical trees, it will not fail to nurture interest in this county. A vast 128 page introduction gives the reader a general background not only to the history of the county but also to Wales itself. Within the section directly relating to the parishes of Cardiganshire there are many topics of historical antiquity; the mansion houses of Hafod and Nanteos and large accounts of the principal towns of Aberystwyth and Cardigan. "

26. The History of the Parish of Llandybie

[Hanes Plwyf Llandybie] By Gomer M Roberts, 1939. Translated by Ivor Griffiths.

A contents listing and a name index compiled by Gareth Hicks available online at     Index

Copies of this book can be purchased from the translator, see Local History translations available

27. The History of the parish of Llannon

[Hanes Plwyf Llan-non] By Noel Gibbard 1984. Translated by Ivor Griffiths

A contents listing and a name index compiled by Peter Jones is available online at   Index

Copies of this book can be purchased from the translator, see Local History translations available

28.Old Characters of Bettws

By D Trumor Thomas  1894

Translated into English by Ivor Griffiths       

Name index compiled by Gareth Hicks available online at     Index

There is an extensive summary of the book on Genuki

Copies of this book can be purchased from the translator, see Local History translations available

29 The History of Brynamman

By Enoch Rees  1883/1896. Translated by Ivor Griffiths            

A list of section headings and a name index  to English version compiled by Anna Brueton available online at     Index
Name index  to Welsh version compiled by Anna Brueton  available online at     Index 2

Copies of this book can be purchased from the translator, see Local History translations available

30.  The History of Pontardawe

By John E Morgan[Hirfryn] 1911. Translated by Ivor Griffiths

An online index compiled by Gareth Hicks is available on     INDEX

Copies of this book can be purchased from the translator, see Local History translations available


Trade and Industry

A New Tinplate Works

Bryn Tinplate Works

The Coalfield

The Boundary Colliery

The Foundry


The Gas Works


Lime Kilns

Local Quarries

The Woollen Factory

The Swansea Valley Railway

History of the Post Office

The History of Education

Education in Trebanos


Education in Rhydyfro


Education in Cilybebyll

Bards and Rhymsters

Main Buildings in the District

Music in the District

Present Musicians on the District

Instrumental Music


Main Organists of the District

Choral Music

Male Voice Choirs

Winners in the National Eisteddfod

Religious History of the District

Peculiarities and Antiquities in the District

First Magistrates in Pontardawe Court

Various Councils and the School Board

Population of the Pontardawe Union

Important Moves by the District Council and the Guardians


Strange Characters of the District

Notables of the District

31. Pit Memories [ Up and Under]

By William John Evans 1989. Dinefwr Press, Llandybie.  ISBN 0-9521783 2 X

Or in Welsh "Atgofion y Pwll " [ Lan a Lawr]. The book is bi-lingual although the 2 sections are not identical.

There is a list of contents and an index of photographs in the book on Index

32. A History of the parish of Llandyssul  [in the county of Cardiganshire]  [Hanes Plwyf Llandyssul] 

By the Rev.W J Davies 1896 .  Translated by Ivor Griffiths

Copies of this book can be purchased from the translator, see Local History translations available

There is a list of contents and  an online index on INDEX

33. Llafur- Journal of Welsh Labour History, Vol 5/1 1988


Glyn Lewis, Ifan Jones and Les Adlam looking over the Rhondda Valley, cover

Looking for coal on the slag heap, a classic image of Wales during the depression, 47

Glyn: 'We can make wireless sets, grow cabbages and do physical jerks, but it isn't paid work', 47

Les is passing his screen test having been asked to light a cigarette, 49

Glyn leaves the meeting: ' It's hard enough for us to live on 17 bob a week, let alone find £15 to build a blinking hut !'

Les makes his way to Joe's Bracchi Shop, 51

Glyn and Les are listening to a wireless talk in the Bracchi Shop

Glen Jordan with members of the Butetown Community History Project, outside the Peel Street Mosque, Butetown, Cardiff, 57

Detail from a much larger photograph taken at the wedding of Henrietta Louise Crawshay in 1871, 63


The Welsh Worker in the C14, an introduction to labour prehistory  ; by A D Carr

Police and Labour in the age of Lindsay, 1910-1936 ; by Jane Morgan

Nhw oedd y Chwarelwyr--Arwyr y Fro' : The Pembrokeshire Slate Quarrymen ; by Dafydd Roberts.

Mudiad y Di-waith Dyffryn Nantlle, 1956-1960 ; by Gwyn Edwards

'Kameradschaft' and after : The Miners and Film ; by Peter Stead

Today we live : The making of a documentary in a Welsh mining valley ; by Bert Hogenkamp

Images of Tiger Bay : Did Howard Spring tell the truth ? ; by Glenn H Jordan

The Virtuosi of Merthyr ; by Trevor Herbert

Bibliographical essay : 'How's the tenors in Dowlais ?' Hegenomy, Harmony and Popular Culture in England and Wales 1600-1900 ; by Gareth Williams

Essay in Methodology : Strikes in Wales 1888-1958 : A Case for Computing ; by Deian Hopkin.

34. Coal Dust & Dogma

By Glyn Anthony, 1987.


This is in fact a "fictional reconstruction" of the events in the period 1925-1931, the principal  fictional player being the "Rev Tom Parry" ; without such an approach it might have been rather "dry" but the author has managed to place the reader in the hearts and minds of people who might well resemble leading characters in this real life saga in the  Llannon/Carmarthenshire village of Tumble. The story revolves around the local Calvinistic Methodist chapel and brings in politics in the form of local members of the ILP[Independent Labour Party]. And a very readable story it turns out to be [Gareth]

From the book's back cover ;

"In 1925 the Rev Tom Nefyn Williams, a most unusual minister of religion, came to the village of Tumble, near Llanelli, to take over the pastorate of Ebenezer Presbyterian Church.

His ideas, style of preaching and conduct of church services and affairs became matters of interest and discussion in the village, the neighbourhood, and even nationally. His ideas and doctrines were considered by some to be modern and sensible, by others to be heretical, revolutionary and outrageous. The village divided for and against, and it is the story of this division and religious controversy that has inspired this book.

However, Coal Dust and Dogma does not merely retell the story of that old debate : Glyn Anthony, who was a young man at the time, recreates in loving detail the Tumble of his youth, with its vigourous ferment of ideas and the rich pattern of its social life."


'Bryngwanwyn' [actually Llain-y-Delyn] ; turning the first spadeful of ground for the new building

Outside Soar [actually Ebenezer Chapel, Tumble]. Mr Parry [ presumably the Rev Tom Nefyn Williams] is seventh from the left in the third row from the front.

Platform Pulpit 'Bryngwanwyn'

35. Before Rebecca, Popular Protests in Wales 1793-1835

By David Jones, published by Allen Lane 1973.

There are snippets  based on this book on Not everyone knows this..

From the dustjacket;

"With this rich and complex study of popular disturbances in Wales during the decades before the 1832 Reform, David Jones makes a contribution to social history, that is exciting not only in academic terms but for anyone interested in the history of ordinary people.

Emigration and attachment to religion were two traditional Welsh responses to the economic and social tension of the period. "Before Rebecca" examines a third response- violence. In this difficult period of change direct action was to be expected ; the police force was weak ; the governments showed little concern for social welfare, and the channels of constitutional protest were inadequate. The author, by an intensive search of legal and Home Office records , shows that disturbances occurred on a vast scale, though many of them have long disappeared from popular memory. The later Rebecca Riots were only the climax of a long series of 'reactionary' protests such as enclosure and attacks on officers of the law.

Political and industrial disputes are also considered, and here again the author reveals that violence was a common weapon. Defeat for the popular side led to bitterness, and in this atmosphere heroes like Dic Penderyn and Edward Morgan became martyrs. The reaction of the authorities was to strengthen the police force, and to promote enquiries into social conditions.

For many people, especially small farmers, squatters and weavers, the government's interest came too late, and this book is a testimony to their anger and frustration. Yet few of the rioters thought in terms of revolution; their demands were limited and immediate. "Bread or Blood" was their slogan, not their political gospel."


Pre-Industrial Unrest

Corn Riots in Wales, 1793-1801

The Resistance of Small Farmers and Squatters, 1793-1830

Industrial Unrest

The South Wales Strike of 1816

The Scotch Cattle and their Black Domain

Disturbances during the Reform Crisis

The Carmarthen Riots of 1831

The Merthyr Riots of 1831


Law Enforcement and Popular Disturbances in Wales, 1793-1835


Food Riots in the Early C19

Pamphlets Associated with the Swansea Corn Riots of February 1793

A Paper Found near Penydarren on Monday 27 January 1817

Grievances of the Clydach Colliers, 1823

A Petition of 1826

Document Presented to Sir Watkin Williams Wynn on 30 December 1831

36. This Small Corner, a History of Pencader and District

By Steve  Dubé. 266 pages, 62 illustrations, 6 maps, published by Carmarthenshire County Council, 2000

I don't have this book personally.

A review (by Steve Dubé);

"This Small Corner is a history of the north Carmarthenshire village of Pencader which focusses particularly on the people who have lived in the district from the earliest times.

It explores well-known stories, such as Gerald of Wales's Old Man of Pencader; the 17th century Apostle of Carmarthenshire Stephen Hughes, who made the village a stronghold of Nonconformity; and the tragic story of Sarah Jacob, the Fasting Girl of Pencader, who died of starvation in an episode that scandalised Victorian Britain and retains the capacity to shock the modern reader.

The book also looks at lesser known personalities such David Evans, a Pencader shepherd boy who became the first Minister to be ordained in the United States, and Evan Stephens, who became the most important musical figure in the Church of the Latter Day Saints in Utah, the man who put Mormonism to music.

There are detailed histories of the principal families and studies of the poor, accompanied by frequent lists from early tithe and rental surveys, with a good selection of photographs, maps and illustrations.

The author is French-Canadian born Western Mail journalist Steve Dubé, who settled in the village nearly 25 years ago and has investigated the published and unpublished records of the area over the past 12 years.

The title itself is part of the speech which Gerald of Wales reports the Old Man of Pencader delivering to Henry II in 1163 when the Anglo-Norman emperor encamped in the area in pursuit of the outstanding Welsh prince of the 12th century, Lord Rhys of Deheubarth, whom he ultimately failed to subdue. The Old Man's prophecy, that Welsh language will answer for this small corner of the earth until the Day of Judgement, has so far proved true.

The book is designed for people to read conventionally, or to dip in and out and to read chapters in isolation.

There are large sections from school log books, which will be of particular interest to local people, together with many lists of names and places, which will be useful source material for local and family historians.

"It is well researched and so readable you don't even notice the writing - the hallmark of a well crafted piece," says a review in the magazine Carmarthenshire Life.

"We are the beneficiaries of a dig which has lasted a dozen years. These pages are filled with the facts, the stories and above all the people - named and anonymous - of Pencader,

"Not least of the book's merits is a 34-page final section which includes a long appendix made up of some fascinating extracts from various school log books and a bibliography of the 38 books and 13 other sources which provided much of the material, a list which gives some indication of Steve Dubé's toil. He will know - and we are happy to confirm - that it has been worth the effort." "


1 Introduction - This Small Corner

2 Axemen and Kings -From Bronze Age to Normans

3 The Old Man of Pencader-The legendary meeting between King and Commoner

4. Bounds and Circuits-The Talley Abbey Grange of Gwyddgrug and its people

5. Gentry and Upstarts-The voracious Tudor gents

6. Mudhuts and Mansions-The richer homes and families in the parish of Llanfihangel ar Arth

7 The Big Issue-A study of the parish treatment of homelessness

8 The Church's Two Foundations-The history and the churches of St Michael, Llanfihangel ar Arth and St Mary's, Pencader

9 The Meeting House is Seated-The history of Nonconformity in the parish

10 Children of the Chapel-The notable religious men, and sometimes women, produced by the chapel

11 Total Immersion-The baptist tradition in Pencader

12 Spiritual Ecstasy-Methodism in the parish

13 A Cow for Two Years-The operation of the Poor Laws

14 Goats I Leave You-The story of David Evans, who became the first Minister ordained in America

15 Roads and Riots-The history of the road system - and the Rebecca Riots

16 A Musical Mormon-The tale of Evan Stephens, who became the Handel of Mormons

17 A Ticket To Ride-One hundred years of the railway

18 A Precocious Child-The tragic history of the Fasting Girl of Pencader

19 The Singing Was Good-Education through the centuries

20 The Deep Depravity of the Human Heart-A look at crime and punishment

21 Merchants, Makers and Mills-Men and women at work

22 A Most Discreditable Thing-The sometimes peculiar operations of the Parish Council and its members

23 Tasty, Gossipy, Little Paragraphs-The short-lived Pencader and Llandyssul Guardian

24 The Chemist, His Wife, Some Houses and a Field-Derwenydd and Mari Morgan and their legacy

25 Remember Them-Soldiers, singers, writers, lovers and protesters

26 The People and Their Cottages-Stories, myths and legends


1. Tithe Survey, 1720

2.Extract from the Crown Manor of Mab Utryt, 1650

3. School log books from Pencader, New Inn, Alltwalis and Llanfihangel ar Arth

List of Illustrations



37. The Economic Development of Swansea and of the Swansea District to 1921

By D Trevor Williams. University College of Swansea Pamphlet 4.  1940

There are substantial extracts from the book on Not everyone knows this..

First paragraph of Preface;

"The economic development of the Swansea District reflects the interplay of a number of factors; there are periods of slow and gradual progress, of stagnation and retardation, and times of remarkable industrial acceleration and progressive expansion. In the following account, an attempt has been  made to trace the stages in the economic history of Swansea and its geographic hinterland, to recognise and assess the contribution of complex factors --natural resources and human effort, native and external to the region--and to furnish evidence and documentation in so far as the prescribed limits of this publication would allow......"


List of Maps & Figures

Pre C19 Developments

General Background and Earlier Developments

C17 Maritime Trade

Smelting Industries

Coal-mining and Coal-trade, C18.

River & Harbour Improvements, C18

Canals, C18

Coal-Mining 1800-1921

Smelting Industries


Non-ferrous Industries, other than copper

Iron [including Steel and Tinplates]

Port Developments, And Maritime Trade

Population, Migration, Occupations, and Settlement


Iron and Steel Works[omitting Maesteg/Pyle region]

Tinplate and Sheet Works

Iron Works of the Maesteg/Pyle sub-district

The Landore Siemens Steel Works, 1874

38. Pembrokeshire.

By Brian John, published by David and Charles, 1976.

From the dust sheet introduction ;

In the minds of government officials, Pembrokeshire passed out of existence in April 1974. Here is a book to demonstrate that it is still very much alive, a thriving region of unique character. South Pembrokeshire has been known for centuries as "Little England beyond Wales", although once across an invisible demarkation line, the north has always been indomitably Welsh.  Pembrokeshire's split personality is further reflected in the many contrasts between north and south, especially in scenery and local atmosphere. Pembrokeshire has its own National Park and a quite magnificent stretch of coastline, yet, in Milford Haven, there is found Britain's greatest concentration of oil refineries.

This book is the first in-depth portrait of the area for almost twenty years....................................

[Of course, the name of Pembrokeshire was restored in 1996 when the composite county of Dyfed itself disappeared]


The single street of Cosheston

Frost-shattered rock from the Ice Age

The submerged forest at Marros

Summit fort of Moel Drygarn

The skeletons at St Patrick's Chapel, Whitesand Bay

St Govan's Chapel

St David's Cathedral

Five Arches, Tenby

Johnston church tower

Llanwnda church

Lime kilns at Solva

The "blue lagoon" slate quarry at Abereiddi

The corn-mill at Carew

Industrial token of 1792

The Fishguard Fencible

Rosebush holiday poster

Pembroke's Norman fortress

Work on Porthgain Harbour in 1903

Grey seal pup

The Grassholm gannetry

Manorbier Castle

Orielton mansion

A farmhouse at Garn

St David's post office in 1870

A stepped-segment long-house in Trefin

Tourist pressure at Saundersfoot

The new Haven Bridge

The Llysyfran reservoir under construction

The Esso refinery  near Milford

Figures ;

The Neolithic dwelling house at Clegyrfwya

The cromlech at Longhouse

A page from The Description of Pembrokeshire

Rebecca rioters

The Pembrokeshire Landsker

The Tudor Merchant's House in Tenby

Maps ;

Geological map of Pembrokeshire

Location map of Pembrokeshire

English and Welsh church-types and place-names

The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park

The early medieval Landsker showing main castle types

Milford Haven waterway

Contents ;


Introduction : The Region and its Character

The Natural Landscape

Rocks and Structure

Coastal Contrasts

Platforms and Valleys

The Ice Age

Myths, Monuments and Mysteries

The Stone Age


The Stonehenge Myth

The Age of Metal Tools

The Welsh, their Saints and their Stories

The Celtic Saints

Dewi Sant and his followers

The Celtic way of life

The Viking sea-rovers

The creation of Little England

The coming of the Normans


The Anglo-Norman towns

The Medieval world

George Owen's Pembrokeshire

The English and the Welsh

Country life and agriculture


The gentle game of cnapan

Changing fortunes

The Civil War


The Drovers

The Religious Revivals

The last invasion of Britain

The Rebecca Riots

Seafaring and life by the sea

Coastal trading



Smuggling and Piracy

The Pembrokeshire Lighthouses

The coming of the railway

Milford Haven and its 'New Towns'

The New Town of Milford


Pembroke Dock and its dockyard

The protection of the Haven

Coal, Stone, Slate and Iron : Pembrokeshire's Industrial Revolution

The Coal Industry



Other works and factories

Town and country

Modern Haverfordwest

Road and rail

Farming today

Military establishments

The English, the Welsh, and the Landsker

The Englishry

The Welshry

The Landsker today

The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park

Plant life


Bird life

Tourism and its management

Buildings : Medieval Castles, Palaces and Churches

The Strategic fortresses

Other major castles

Landsker castles

Lesser strongholds

The Bishop's Palaces

Churches great and small

The monastic houses

Buildings : Homes for rich and poor

Country cottages


Country mansions

Town houses

The rediscovery of Milford Haven

The Oil industry

The environmental impact

Milford Haven and the  Celtic Sea Oil search

Conclusion : Pembrokeshire, Dyfed and the future

39. Pembrokeshire

By R M Lockley, published by Robert Hale Ltd 1957/58

Part extract from the Introduction on the dust jacket ;

Pembrokeshire is one of the last unspoiled coastal countries in Britain. Although part fo South Wales, it is quite free from smoke-stack industries, has no great towns and lives peacefully by its agriculture and fisheries. Its roads wind through lanes of wild flowers to a clear blue sea. Invaded and setled during thousands of years by a succession of sea faring peoples, it is rich in ancient cave dwellings, earthworks, cromlechs, and stone circles........................................St Patrick and St David brought Christianity to Celtic Wales on the site of the present village cathedral of St David. The historian will find the county absorbing..............


Early history

The land

The people

The southern shore

More islands

The west coast

The north coast

Milford Haven

Castles and Palaces

Modern times

For the naturalist

Illustrations, with edited descriptions ;

Tenby Harbour, with steeple of St Mary's church

The Green Bridge of Wales-a limestone arch on the south coast

Pilgrimage to St David's-from a misericord in the cathedral

"In Vallis Rosina"-St David's Cathedral from the east, with ruins of the bishop's palace and those of St Mary's College

"Pray for the soul of me, Catuoconus" - an inscription

Manorbier Castle

South Pembrokeshire men whose faces are said to show traces of Flemish ancestry

St Govan medieval chapel

Low tide by Pembroke Castle

Angle village

Lawhaden Castle

A fisherman from Marloes

Cross at Carew

Salmon fishermen in coracles sheep washing on the River Teifi,  at Cenarth

Cave on Caldey Island

St Margaret's Isle

Monastery on Caldey Island

Typical farm steading of Dewisland

Interlaced cross stone at Nevern church

Carew, Cheriton church

Memorial commemorating last invasion of Britain near Fishguard in 1797

Upton Castle

Herd of grey seals

Limestone stack off Castlemartin peninsula

Gannetry of 8000 nests on Grassholm

Sketch map of area

40. Life in Wales

By A H Dodd.

Published by B T Batsford, London, 1972

At 170 odd pages, with an illustration on every other page, it could only be an  introduction to the subject. Written in a very straight forward style, the sort of book you can get through in an evening.


List of Illustrations

The Earliest Inhabitants

Cymry, Teutons and Normans

A Conquered People, 1282-1485

Union, Reformation and Renaissance, 1485-1630

Educational and Religious Movements, 1630-1780

Economic Development, 1700-1850

Towards Contemporary Wales, 1780-1914

Epilogue : Wales since 1914

41. Rebirth of a Nation: Wales 1880-1980

By Kenneth O Morgan

Oxford University Press, 1981

Contains a comprehensive bibliography of primary and secondary source materials relating to the history of Wales ; including manuscripts, official papers, newspapers and periodicals, reports and works of reference.

From the cover;

"Kenneth Morgan's survey of Welsh history from 1880 to the present day considers the political, social, and economic dimensions, as well as the literary, religious, intellectual, and sporting aspects. His analysis spans the years of Liberal ascendency and of national renaissance from 1880 to 1914 ; the period of economic depression, Labour ascendency and tension between Welsh and Anglo-Welsh from 1914 to 1945 ; and the social and cultural changes, the reborn sense of national identity in the years from 1945."


"This book will serve as a fulcrum of historical debate for a generation" Gwyn A Williams, Guardian.


Part 1: The Re-awakening, 1880-1914

Wales in the Eighties

The Liberal Ascendency

Economic Progress and Social Conflict

The National Revival

The Edwardian High Noon

Part II : The Ordeal, 1914-1945

The Crisis of War

The Post-War Mood

Wales's Locust Years

Welsh and Anglo-Welsh

The Labour Ascendency

Part III : The Renewal, 1945-1980

Restructuring the Economy

The New Society

Nationalism and Devolution



The counties of Wales [to 1973]

The collieries of the South Wales coalfield in 1913

42. Land of My Fathers

By Gwynfor Evans.

Y Lolfa, paperback, 1992

See brief review above.

From the cover;

"This uniquely comprehensive illustrated history of Wales was first published in Welsh and was an immediate best seller. Written with superb lucidity of style and a masterful organisation of material, it has proved a classic.

In English translation it is equally enthralling. For those who have visited wales and want to know more of its past, it is the ideal introduction. For the historian, the student of politics, for all those interested in Welsh contemporary life, it is an indispensable companion.............."


Celtic Wales

The Celtic Legacy

Background of first century Wales

Roman Wales

The Roman Invasion

The Welsh Defence

The Druids

Nature of the Roman Occupation

The Military and Defence System

Magnus Maximus [Macsen Wledig] and the Roman Heritage

Welsh Wales

The Irish



Creation of Brittany

From Brythonic to Welsh - Taliesin and Aneirin

Independent Wales

A Country of Small States

Vortigern [Gwrtheyrn]

Myth of English Expulsion of the Welsh


Toughness of the States

Maelgwn Gwynedd

Men of the Old North

Christian Wales

From Elen to Cadog

Illtud and Education

Dewi [David] in the Surge

Steeping Gwynedd and Powys in the Gospel

The Celtic Christian Community of Nations

The Unbroken Continuity of the Tradition

Consequences of the Christian Revolution

Facing the English

The  Saints of Bangor-on-Dee and Augustine

Cadwallon and the Welsh Defence

The End of Rheged and Gododdin

Age of Cadwaladr

The Church of the Welsh

Golden Age of Ireland

Offa's Dyke and Beyond

The Grip of the States

Art, Literature and Learning

Merfyn Frych

Rhodri Mawr


Hywel Dda

Age of Maredudd ab Owain

Gruffudd ap Llywelyn

Facing the Normans

The Normans' Powerful Incursion

Rhys ap Tewdwr

Gruffuff ap Cynan

Revival of National Strength

Owain Gwynedd

The Lord Rhys

Court Poets and Story-tellers of the Mabinogion

Giraldus Cambrensis and the Church Struggle

Llywelyn Fawr [Llwyelyn I]

Llywelyn ap Gruffudd [Llywelyn II]

The Centuries of Glyndwr and the Uchelwyr [Nobility]

Government by English Officials

Wars of Madog and Llywelyn Bren

Scottish Revival under William Wallace

The Glory of the Uchelwyr[Nobility]

Dafydd ap Gwilym

Owain Lawgoch and the Expectation of a Deliverer

The Great Effort to Restore Freedom

Welsh Feuds between English Parties

Pyrrhic Victory of the Welsh

The Great century

Colonialist Interlude

For Ever and Henceforth Incorporated and Annexed

Facing the British

Treachery of the Nobility

The Loyal Remnant

The Coming of Britishness

More Feuds between English Parties

Upholders of the Tradition

Griffith Jones and Welsh Education

Howel Harris and the Spiritual Revival


New Growth from Old Roots

Merthyr Insurrection: Chartists : Beca

Treason of the Blue Books

The Glory of the Gwerin

Bourgeois Victory

Establishing the English System

Michael D Jones and the National Awakening


Wales Endures

43. A Topographical Dictionary of Wales

By Samuel Lewis.

This is the 1833 edition, two volumes.

It has entries for all the Welsh parishes, and some towns, please see any one of the Cardiganshire parish  pages of Genuki for specimens entries.

44. Wales in Industrial Britain c1760-c1914

By David Evans. Published by Hodder & Stoughton, 1996. Focus on Welsh History series.  pp81.

"Specifically developed to meet the requirements of the National Curriculum History Order for Wales, Focus on Welsh History provides a lively and accessible coverage of Welsh and British History from before the Norman Conquest up to the Great War..................................... Wales in Industrial Britain uses a strong narrative style to blend perspectives of the industrial, economic, social and political aspects of Wales during this period................"


A time for change

Wales 200 years ago

People with new ideas

Steam-power and the age of the machine

Wool, cotton, and the start of the factory system

New industries - what changes did they bring ?

Life in the factory towns

Welsh coal

Popular protest

Dic Penderyn - Welsh folk hero ?

Rebecca and the toll-gates

Towpaths, locks and barges

Disease and poverty

Victorian reformers


From tramroads to railways

Education for a few

To church or to chapel ?

The reform of Parliament

A Crystal Palace or a 'Monstrous Greenhouse' ?

Years of the Empire

Ireland - 'The Great Hunger'

'United we stand'

Liberals and the rise of Labour

Fighting disease and pain

Writers, musicians and poets

Entertainment and sport

Change and continuity


45. Wales

By Wynford Vaughan-Thomas, with photographs by Derry Brabbs

Published by Michael Joseph, 1981. pp223

"Wynford Vaughan-Thomas is one of the best-known interpreters of the beauty of the countryside of Britain..................in this book he recounts the steps by which he grew up to appreciate the delights of the Welsh countryside, villages and towns............"


Welcome to Wales

Land of the Setting Sun

The Great Escarpment

Great Little Trains

Castles, Princes and Kings

The Island Spell

Dylan's Wales

The Wilds of Snowdonia

Cromlechs and Chapels

'Every Valley shall be Exalted'

The Roof of Wales

Kilvert's Country

Wales from the Saddle

'We'll keep a Welcome'

46. British Government and Administration (Studies Presented to S B Chrimes).

Edited by H Hearder and H R Loyd.

Published by University of Wales Press, 1974. pp250

The book was compiled to mark the occasion of Professor Chrimes's retirement from the Chair of History at Cardiff.


The Hundred in the Tenth and early Eleventh Centuries (H R Loyn)

The Justiciarship in England, 1258-1265 (C H Knowles)

The Collectors of Customs in the Reign of Richard II (Anthony Steel)

The English Campaign in Scotland, 1400 (A L Brown)

Government and the Welsh Community: the North-East Borderland in the Fifteenth Century (J Gwynfor Jones)

Patronage, Politics, and the Principality of Wales, 1413-1461 (R A Griffiths)

The Chancellor, the Chancery, and the Council at the End of the Fifteenth Century (Nicholas Pronay)

Prophecy, Poetry, and Politics in Medieval and Tudor Wales (Glanmor Williams)

The Crown and the Provincial Immigrant Communities in Elizabethan England (Lionel Williams)

Lawmaking in the Second Protectorate Parliament (Ivan Roots)

The Financial Settlement in the Parliament of 1685 (C D Chandaman)

The Role of the Justice of the Peace in Social Administration (Dorothy Marshall)

Jeremy Bentham and the Machinery of Social Reform (Ursula Henriques)

Some Limitations of the Age of Reform (Norman McCord)

The Prime Minister and Foreign Policy: the Balfour Government 1902-1905 (E W Edwards)

The 'Coercian of Wales' Act, 1904 (G O Pierce)

King George V, the General Strike, and the 1931 Crisis (H Hearder)

The Principal Writings of S B Chrimes, compiled by (Nora Temple)

47. Wales in Maps

By Margaret Davies. Published by University of Wales Press, 1951. pp 111

One of the most useful little books I have.

" the book doesn't profess to be a complete geography of Wales....it is rather a collection of data ... the commentary on the maps has been restricted to one page in each case ...."

List of Maps;

Welsh Place-Names


Land over 600 ft



Sections across North and Central Wales

Sections across South Wales

River Profiles

Solva Harbour

Nant Ffrancon

Nant Bwa-Drain

Cwm Parc

Cader Idris area

Annual Rainfall

Monthly rainfall

Monthly temperature

Range of temperature


Cromlechau and Stone Circles

Iron Age and Roman Forts

Medieval Stone Castles

Main Religious Houses

Agriculture and Settlement

Land Use, Llantrithyd Parish, 1840

Land Use, Llantrithyd Parish, 1950

Types of Farming

Land Use and Livestock

Types of Farms

Country and Coalfield Valleys

Small holdings : Groeslon

Types of Villages: Mathry, Llandwrog, Llanllyfni, Cosheston, Llanfechain, Llanfair PG, Llanfihangel Genau'r-Glyn










Commerce and Industry

Elizabethan Sea Trade

Ports and Mineral Industries c 1830

The Main Drovers Roads

The Woollen Industry

Chief Industries of Country Towns

North-East Wales: Tudor

North-East Wales: Modern

The North Wales Coalfield

New Industries in the North Eastern Area

Wrexham c 1830 and 1950

Bro Morgannwg and Blaenau Morgannwg

Merthyr Tydfil c 1830 and 1950

Newport, Mon c 1830 and 1950



South Wales Mines, 1945

Future Developments in the South Wales Coalfield

South Wales: the Lifting Sky

Trading Estates and New Factories in South Wales



Density of Population

Population Changes, 1921-31

Population Changes, 1931-39

Population Graphs

Distribution of Spoken Welsh

48. Mining Reader

Coal Mining, A Reader for Primary Schools and Evening Continuation Classes.

By Henry Davies. Published by The Welsh Educational Publishing Co, Merthyr Tydfil, 1904. pp186

There are selected extracts on the Glamorgan Genuki pages .

49. The Welsh House

A Study in Folk Culture

By Iorwerth C Peate, Honourable Society of Cymrodorion, 1940

Full details of contents etc are on the Wales Genuki pages

50.  Hen Dy Ffarm    [Welsh] 

By D J Williams. Published by Gwasg Aberystwyth, 1953.

Cyflwynedig i driglion y Pedwar Plwyf; Llansawel a Chaeo, Pencarreg a Llanybydder.

The author was born in Penrhiw, Llansawel parish in 1885, the book tells of his life and that of his family, friends and local characters.

The Old Farmhouse/Hen Dy Ffarm. trans. from Welsh by Waldo Williams. 1961 (Harrap). 238pp. well-known account of farming life in the Carmarthenshire parishes of Llansawel, Caio, Pencarreg and Llanybydder at turn of 19th and 20th centuries. Also a  parallel-text Welsh/English version published by Gomer, Llandysul, 2001/2, (1 84323 032 1). "Since it was first published in 1953 Hen Dy Ffarm has become a classic of Welsh literature......."

51. Swansea - Its Port and Trade and their Development

By Alderman Edward Harris. Published by Western Mail & Echo, 1935.

There are substantial extracts from the book on the Glamorgan pages of Genuki

52. Growing up in Wales

See review on  Page 1

53. Cofiant Dafi Dafis Rhydcymerau     [Welsh ]

(A Biography of David Davies, Rhydcymerau in Llansawel parish, CMN)

Gan y Parch James Morris, Dolgellau, 1898

There is a contents listing and name index on the Llanybydder parish pages of Genuki

54.  Dafydd Jones o Gaeo    [Welsh ]

Gan Gomer Morgan Roberts, Gwasg Aberystwyth 1948

Dafydd Jones  (1711-1777) was born at Cwmgogerddan, Caeo and died at Hafod, Llanwrda. He was a farmer and cattle drover. The latter occupation took him frequently to England, and it was probably this, rather than his early education, that fitted him to become one of the greatest translators into Welsh of the century.

He associated himself with the Independent church at Crug-y-bar, his hymns struck a more joyful note than those of Morgan Rhys. He translated the Psalms of Dr Isaac Watts, and also his Hymns ; his Salmau Dafydd appeared in 1753 and the hymns in 1775 titled Hymnau a Chaniadau Ysprydol. Apart from his unrivalled translations, he produced a considerable number of original hymns which were issued in parts bearing the title Difyrrwch i'r Pereinion, the first part appeared in 1763. Some of these hymns still hold their rank as the most popular in the language.

There is a contents listing and name index on the Conwil Caio parish pages of Genuki

55. Hanes Eglwys Aberduar   [Welsh]

[The History of Aberduar Church - a Baptist chapel in Llanybydder parish, CMN]

By W Hugh Davies, Gomer 1962

There is a contents listing and name index on the Llanybydder parish pages of Genuki

56. Hanes Eglwys Cwmllynfell    [Welsh]

(The History of Cwmllynfell Church - an Independent chapel in Llangiwg parish, Glamorgan)

By The Reverends J Dyfnallt Owen M.A , J D Jones and Ben Davies.

Published by W Spurrell & Son, Carmarthen, 1935.

There is a name index on the Llangiwg parish pages of Genuki

57. History of Coal Mining in the Amman Valley

By Ifor Davies, published by the  author 2001

The book is bi-lingual.

"Ifor Davies was born in the village of Gwaun Cae Gurwen where he lived for 40 years. At the age of 14 he started his working life at the local Maerdy Pit, and after its closure moved on to the nearby Steer Pit, followed by Ammanford Colliery and finally Abernant ......."

There is a contents listing and index of photographs on the Betws, CMN parish pages of Genuki

58. Hanes Eglwys Annibynnol, Esgairdawe [Welsh]

(The History of Esgairdawe  Church - an Independent chapel in Pencarreg, CMN)

By Mary E Williams, 1992

There is a name index on the Pencarreg, CMN parish pages of  Genuki

59. Annibynwyr Gwaun-Cae-Gurwen     [Welsh]

(The Independents of Gwaun-Cae-Gurwen - The History of the chapels of Carmel, Gwaun-Cae-Gurwen and Tabernacl,Cwmgors

By Llywelyn C Huws 1942

There is a complete translation and name index on the Llangiwg parish pages of Genuki

60. Hanes Eglwys Radnor Walk, 1859-1959, Chelsea:Llundain [Welsh]

(The History of Radnor Walk, 1859-1959 - an Independent chapel in Chelsea, London)

Chapter headings;

Hynt a Helynt y Daith (Ifor O Huws)

Deugain Mlynedd yn ol yn Eglwys Radnor Walk (J Edryd Jones)

1929-1941 (Ifor O Huws)

1947-1951 (Cyril G Williams)

1952-1959 (Dewi Eirug Davies)

Cerrig Milltir (Mrs C Arthian Davies, Ellis Richards, Tom Jones, Bryn T Jones, D T Evans)

61. Llandysul Ddoe (Llandysul Yesterday)     [Bilingual]

Gwasg Gomer 1992           ISBN 0 86383 903 7

There is an index of the photographs in this book  on the Llandysul, CGN parish pages of Genuki

62. Dyffryn Aman 'Slawer Dydd       [Bilingual]

(The Amman Valley Long Ago)

Compiled by David A Evans & Huw Walters ; Gomer 1987

There is an introduction and index of photographs on the Llandybie, CMN parish pages of  Genuki

63. Dyffryn Aman a'r Cylch         [Bilingual]

(The Amman Valley and District - A Photographic Portrait )

By Brian Lewis 1996         ISBN 1 85902 421 1

There is an introduction and index of photographs on the Llandybie, CMN parish pages of  Genuki

64. A Book of Wales

Edited by D M & E M Lloyd  

First published 1953, reprinted 1965

This is a real treasure chest of a  little book [384 pages] , there is an introduction and a listing of the Contents and Illustrations on the Wales pages of Genuki.

65. Betws Mas o'r Byd         

(Betws beyond the World)

Compiled and edited by Carol Murphy and Chris Dixon & published by The Betws History Group, 2000

There is a contents listing and name index on the Betws, CMN parish pages of   Genuki

66. Around Pontardawe, the Second Selection

Compiled by the Pontardawe Historians, Images of Wales series 1999

There is a contents listing and name index on the Llangiwg, Gla parish pages of  Genuki

67. Around Pontardawe

Compiled by the Pontardawe Historians, The Archive Photographic Series 1996

There is a  name index on the Llangiwg, Gla parish pages of    Genuki

68. History of Pontardawe & District

By John Henry Davies 1967

There is a contents listing and name index on the Llangiwg, Gla parish pages of    Genuki

69. The Politics of Rural Wales, A study of Cardiganshire

P J Madgwick with Non Griffiths and Valerie Walker

Published by Hutchinson, London, 1973. pp273



The Structure of the Community

The Liberal Constituency: Political Life in Cardiganshire 1921-72

The Impact of Religion

Welsh Culture: 'A Way of Life' and Outlook

The Politics of the Language

Radicalism: Cardiganshire as a 'Radical County'

Social Differences and Social Class

Deprivation and Development

The Politics of Local Government

The Political Parties and the Cardiganshire Voter

The Political Culture of Cardiganshire

70. The Itinerary through Wales and the Description of Wales, by Gerald Cambrensis.

Published by J M Dent & Sons, first issue 1908, reprinted 1912.1919.

The text is that of Sir Richard Colt Hoare who published an English translation from the original Latin, chiefly from the texts of Camden and Wharton in 1806.

There are two extracts from the books' introduction together with a listing of chapter headings for each book on the wales pages of   Genuki

71. The Tribal System in Wales.

By Frederic Seebohm.

Longman, 1904. 2nd print, 238 pp & 127 appendices.


Chapter I - The Land System in Anglesey, as Described in the Extents

The Cymwds and Cantrefs of Anglesey

The So-called Manor of Aberffraw

The Free Tenants of Aberffraw

The So-called 'Villani' and 'Nativi' of Aberffraw

The Outlying Hamlets of Aberffraw

Dues and Services from the Rest of the Cantref

The Relative Burden of the Dues and Services

Summary of the Evidence of the Anglesey Extents

Chapter II - T he Denbigh Extent of 8 Edward III. The Weles and Gavells of Tribesmen

The Value of the Denbigh Extent

The Wele of Lauwarghe ap Kendalyk

The Weles of Canon ap Lauwarghe and Pythle ap Lauwarghe

The Wele of Rand' Vaghan ap Asser

The Shifting of the Location of the Kindreds after the Conquest

The Gwely in South Wales. Extent of the Lands of St David's, AD 1326

Chapter III - The Structure of Tribal Society

Nature of the Evidence of the Codes and Traditions

The Distinction between Tribesmen and Non-Tribesmen primarily one of Blood

The Kindred and its Organisation

The Grade of Kindred to the Seventh and Ninth Degrees

The Reason of the Three Grades of Kinship

Chapter IV - The Structure of Tribal Society continued

The Relation of the Grades of Kindred to the Occupation of Land

The Property of the Individual Tribesman under the Cymric Tribal System

The Application of the Grades of Kindred to Mutual responsibility for Crime

The Grades of Aristocracy in the Kindred as marked by the 'Galanas'

Confirmatory Evidence of the Denbigh Extent

Chapter V - The Relation to the Tribe of Strangers in Blood

The Various Classes of Strangers

The Link of Fosterage between Tribesmen and Non-Tribesmen

Further Evidence from 'Celtic Scotland'

The Reception into the Tribe of Strangers in South Wales

Chapter VI - Chieftainship in the Tribe

The Grades of Chieftainship

The Tribal Chieftainship that of a Family

The Chieftainship in its Relation to Land

The Chieftain's Food-Rents from Free Tribesmen

The Chieftain's Dues from Non-Tribesmen

Corroboration of the Codes by the Extents

Chapter VII - T he Tribal System and the Church

The Immunity of the Church from the Exactions of Tribal Chieftains

The Nature of the Early Records of Donations to the Church

The MS Entries in the 'Book of St Chad'

The Evidence of Gildas

The Form of Contemporary Continental Records of Donations to the Church

The Early Records of Donations in the 'Book of Llan Dav'

The Donations to the Monastery of St Cadoc

The Donations to the Monastery of St Cadoc

The Donations to the Monastery of St Cadoc

Authenticity of the Early Evidence

Value of the Early Evidence

Chapter VIII



List of Maps

72.  When Was Wales ?

By Gwyn Alf Williams

(A History of the Welsh)

Penguin Books 1985.

Certainly one of the 'best' books I have read on the broad Welsh history theme


1. Prologue to a History



2. British Welsh

Britannia Prima

The Wars of British Independence

West Britons

Aliens in their own Land

3. The First Crisis of Identity

A People and its Kings

Kings and King-makers

High Kings and Hard Facts

A Crisis of Survival

4. European Welsh

The Frontier

A New Civilisation

Welsh Wales


5. The Last Prince

The Contradictions of Colonialism

A Crisis of Society

The Deliverer

6. Welsh British

The Return of Arthur

The Invention of Britain

Poor Taffy

7. Welsh in a Great Britain

Great Britain and its Atlantic Province

An Alternative Society

Druids and Democrats

Birth and Death of a Nation

8. The Crucible

9. The Frontier Years

Sons of Vulcan and Daughters of Rebecca

A Nation of Nonconformists

A Political Kingdom

10. An Imperial democracy

Imperial Wales

A Nation and a People

Gog and Magog Myths: gwerin and working class

An Alternative People

11. The Dismantling of Wales

12. Cataclysm and Community




13. Travail's Acre

Walking Naked

73. A Helping Hand

By W J Jones

(A guide for learners)

Gomer, 1996.

Not a history book as such but still one of my most interesting aquisitions.

"The roots of a nation's history, its traditions and language are intertwined. This book seeks to introduce the Welsh language learner to a few of these roots................................every topic is treated in a light hearted manner, offering a helping hand that encourages the reader to delve deeper still into the rich and thriving roots of our Welsh heritage..."

74. South Wales and the Marches

Published in 1951 by Collins for the Festival of Britain Office

"These books are a guides to the living Britain.....planned to give you the fundamental facts about its scenery, its monuments, its buildings, its natural history, its people and their work and characteristics....."

75.  Wales

By R M Lockley

Batsford, 1966, repr 1967




Snowdonia and Lleyn

North-East Wales

Harlech and Dolgellau

Lakes Bala and Vyrnwy

Cader Idris to Llandrindod Wells

Aberystwyth and the Elan Valley


By Mountain and Sea to Carmarthen


Cardigan and North Pembrokeshire

Little England beyond Wales

Tenby and Milford Haven

St David's and Fishguard

The Gower Peninsula


Welsh Place names

76.  A Prospect of Wales

The King Penguin Books series; Penguin Books, London, 1948.

A series of 20 water-colours by Kenneth Rowntree and an essay on Wales by Professor Gwyn Jones of the University of Wales

Not history but a truly delightful little book.

77. Wales Before 1066, a Guide

78. Wales Before 1536, a Guide

Two books by Donald Gregory

Gwasg Carreg  Gwalch, 1989 and 1993

Very useful introductions to the subject of early Welsh history

Wales Before 1066


Prehistoric Times

General Survey

The archaelogical record

Roman Interlude

From 61 to 383 AD

Roman remains in the twentieth century

The Celtic Church

The Age of the Saints

Surviving Christian memorial stones and wells

External Threats

The Saxon and Viking menace

Evidence in Wales today


Wales Before 1536


Towards Unification

Rhodri Mawr: Leader of Men

Hywel Dda: Peaceful Organiser

The Spread of Feudalism

Gruffudd ap Llywelyn, King of all Wales

Early Norman Infiltration

Notes and illustrations

The Knitting Together of Wales

National awakening under Owain Gwynedd and Rhys ap Gruffudd.

The Christian Church in Medieval Wales

Giraldus Cambrensis - Prelate and Chronicler

Changing fortunes under Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and Llywelyn ap Gruffudd

Owain Glyndwr: Hero of wales

Notes and illustrations

Towards Union - or Annexation

The Tudor Triumph

The Act of Union 1536

Notes and illustrations

 79. Sarn Helen, Walking a Roman Road through Wales

By John Cantrell and Arthur Rylance

Cicerone Press, 1992.


1. Caerhun to Pont Newydd

2. Pont Newydd to Caer llugwy

3. Caer Llugwy to Dolwyddelan

4. Dolwyddelan to Trawsfynydd

5. Trawsfynydd to Dolgellau

6. Dolgellau to Machynlleth

7. Machynlleth to Trawscoed and Llanio

8. Llanio to Carmarthen

80. The Drovers' Roads of Wales

By Fay Godwin and Shirley Toulson

Published by Wildwood House, London, 1977

There is a listing of Contents, Photographs & Maps on the Wales pages of Genuki

81. The Companion Guide to South Wales

By Peter Howell and Elisabeth Beazley

Collins, 1977. pp351

Covers ; Breconshire; Cardiganshire; Teifiside to the Sea; Pembrokeshire; Carmarthenshire; Monmouthshire; Glamorgan

82.  Canu'r Pwll a'r Pulpud   [Welsh]

By Hugh Walters

Published by Cyhoeddiadau Barddas, Swansea; 1987

"Literary activity on a grand scale occurred in the industrial valleys of south Wales throughout the nineteenth century', states the author of this book in his 'Introduction'. What we have in this volume is a thorough and detailed study of this activity. It focuses on the literary pursuits of the working classes in one district alone, namely the Aman Valley. ....."

There is a contents listing and a translation of the introduction and preface on the Llandybie, CMN parish pages of  Genuki

83. National Library of Wales journals

I have a part set of National Library of Wales journals 84 in all, (79 is the complete set from 1939-1980) plus Summer 1983, Summer & Winter 1985, Winter 1986 and Winter 1987.

The full listing of contents can be seen on the Wales Genuki pages.

84. Monks to Millennium

(The Story of the Village of Cilffriw)

Cilffriw Millennium Book Group, limited edition of 1000 copies. Published Dec 2000

There is a contents listing and names index on the Cadoxton juxta Neath, Gla parish pages of  Genuki

85. The Old Series Ordnance Survey Maps of England and Wales - Volume VI Wales

Published by Harry Margary, Lympne Castle, Kent. 1992

Scale 1 inch to 1 mile.

"A Reproduction of the 110 sheets of the Survey in Early State in 8 Volumes"

This is Volume VI covering Wales, in book format. (Excludes a small part of Flintshire, Radnorshire and eastern Monmouthshire and includes parts of Cheshire, Herefordshire and Shropshire)

The maps are similar but not identical to the separate maps sold by David & Charles under their Victorian 1" OS series.

86. The History of Brynteg, Gorseinon

By John Ceri Williams and D Tom Davies (no date but after 1971)

Translated by Ivor Griffiths.

There is a name index on the Llangyfelach, Gla parish  pages of  Genuki

Copies of this book can be purchased from the translator, see Local History translations available

87. Old Characters of Gellinudd

By John E Morgan [Hirfryn] 1908.

Translated by Ivor Griffiths

There is a name index on the Cillybebyll, Gla parish  pages of  Genuki

Copies of this book can be purchased from the translator, see Local History translations available

88. History of Y Gwrhyd

By Joshua Lewis, Penydderi, Llangiwg in 1897.

"An entertaining history-detailed of an interesting old place.
Of peculiar people who gave us the past."

Translated by Gwyn Davies , Pontardawe and Mary Carpenter,Trebanos.

There is a name index on the Llangiwg Gla parish  pages of  Genuki

I only have a poor quality photocopy of the original book held at W Glamorgan Archives.

89. History of Llansawel

By Fred S Price

Published by the author in 1898

There is a substantial, but edited, extract from this book on the Llansawel, CMN pages of  Genuki

I only have a photocopy from the original as supplied by Carmarthhen Library.

90. Old Characters of Cwmgors and Gwauncaegurwen from 1840

(Hen Gymeriadau - Cwmgors a'r Waun o'r flwyddyn 1840)

By Jonah Evans, 1907.

Translated by Jenni Hyatt.

I have a photocopy of the original book in Welsh, now deposited with W Glamorgan Archives.

The English translation and name index are on the Llangiwg, Gla parish pages of Genuki

91. Cwm Aman   [Welsh]

(Amman Valley)

Cyfres y Cymoedd (Valley Series)

Golygydd (editor) Hywel Teifi Edwards.

Gomer, 1996.

Cynnwys; (Contents)

Cyflwyniad (Hywel Teifi Edwards)

Cerddi (Brian Martin Davies; Einir Jones; Tudur Hallam)

Ar Drywydd Esboniadau ? (Derec Llwyd Morgan)

Watcyn Wyn, 1844-1905 (W J Phillips)

'Gwydderig oedd ddihareb' (Islwyn Jones)

Nantlais, 1874-1959 (T Gareth Jones)

Barddioniaeth Bryan Martin Davies (Dafydd Johnston)

Yng Nghwmni'r Cerddetwr (Huw Walters)

Golwg ar Ddiwylliant Cerddorol Dyffryn Aman, 1910-1922 (Lyn Davies)

Sain, Cerdd a Chan ym Mrynaman (Rhianydd Morgan)

Y Brifwyl yn y Cwm (Hywel Teifi Edwards)

Braslun o Hanes Cynrychiolaeth Seneddol Dyffryn Aman er 1885 (Beti Jones)

'Hen Arwr Maes y Glo Carreg': John James 1869-1942 (Ioan Matthews)

Atgofion Dyn Dwad (D G Lloyd Hughes)

92. Cwm Tawe   [Welsh]

(Tawe or Swansea Valley)

Cyfres y Cymoedd (Valley Series)

Golygydd (editor) Hywel Teifi Edwards.

Gomer, 1993

Cynnwys; (Contents)

Cyflwyniad (Hywel Teifi Edwards)

Rhagir (D Ellis Evans)

'Welsh' (Merion Davies)

Y Pentref Hwn (Dafydd Rowlands)

'Llwyr Wybodau, Llen a Llyfrau': Hopcyn ap Tomas a'r Traddodiad Llenyddol Cymraeg (Christine James)

Diwylliant y Ffin (Brynley F Roberts)

Y Ddinas a'i Phentrefi (Ieuan Gwynedd Jones)

Iaith Gudd y Mwyafrif: Y Gymraeg yn Abertawe ganol y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg ( Heini Gruffydd)

Gardd y Gweithiwr (Hywel Teifi Edwards)

Dau Gor (Rhidian Griffiths)

Tafodiaith Cwm Tawe (Robert Owen Jones)

Tywi yng Nghwm Tawe (Noel Gibbard)

Can y Fwyalchen : Golwg ar waith J J Williams, 1869-1954 (Robert Rhys)

'Y Sant' Gwenallt (Peredur Lynch)

93. Ceredigion (Journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society)

The Society was formed in 1909, it suspended operations in 1940 and resumed in 1947.

I have the following issues of the annual journal

Vol IV/3   1962

Vol V/2    1965

Vol V/4    1967

Vol VI/1   1968

Vol VI/2   1969

Vol IX/1   1980

Vol IX/3   1982

Vol IX/4   1983

Vol XII/2  1994

Vol XIII/1 1997

Vol XIII/3 1999

94. Life of David Lloyd George

By Herbert Du Parcq.

Caxton, London. (no date)

I have three volumes, the chronological coverage is ;

Volume I;   1863 to 1899

Volume II;  1899 to 1904

Volume III; 1903 to 1912

95. The Anthracite Coal Industry of the Swansea District

By A E C Hare, published by the University of Wales Press Board, 1940. pp84

(Social and Economic Survey of Swansea and District, pamphlet No 5)



World Production of Anthracite

Output, Export and Home Consumption

The Amalgamation Movement


Employment, Mechanisation and Costs

Summary of Conclusions

Note on the Bituminous Coal Industry of the Swansea District

96.  Journal of the Historical Society of the Church in Wales

Edited by the Rev Canon E T Davies

Volume 10, No 15 - published in 1960


The Election of David Martin, Bishop of St David's, 1293-6 (W Greenway)

Disciplinary Cases against Churchwardens in the Consistory Courts of St David's (W T Morgan)

Bunsen's Reviewer (Rev Owain W Jones)

Papers and Correspondence about the Restoration of Llanbadarn Fawr Parish Church, Cardiganshire, 1862-1870 (Rev O G Rees)

Dylanwad Gudiad Rhydychen yng Nghymru; III - Y Gymdeithas Leygol (Rev D Eifion Evans)

97. Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymrodorion

Session 1904-05, published in 1906.


The late Stephen Evans: an appreciation (Sir Lewis Morris)

Er Cof am Stephen Evans. (Syr T Marchant Williams)

The Brehon Laws and their Relation to the Ancient Welsh Institutes (Sir D Brynmor Jones)

Yr Arwrgerdd Gymreig (R A Griffiths)

The Melodies of Wales (Robert Bryan)

Sir John Philipps of Picton, the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and the Charity-School Movement in Wales, 1699-1737 ( Rev Thomas Shankland)

98. The Welsh Almanac

By Terry Breverton

Wales Books, 2002

Some 250 pages, each day of the year has a wealth of historical dates attached.

99. 100 Great Welshmen

(Eminent Britons Volume 1)

By Terry Breverton

Wales Books, 2001

From Oliver Cromwell to Richard Burton, 360+ pages packed with  bio data.

100. An A-Z of Wales and the Welsh

By Terry Breverton.

Published by Christopher Davies, Swansea, 2000.  pp294

The Contents pages are too long to copy here, this edited excerpt from the cover will give a good idea of what is in it.

"An A - Z of Wales is an exciting, unashamedly pro-Welsh book about a  country that has seemingly by-passed and been by-passed by world events. ...........this is a marvellous story of the survival of a beautiful and largely unknown land......this is the story of Wales, the Hwyl and the hiraeth, its people, its ancient language, its landscape, its lifestyle and culture. "

101. The Dragon Entertains

(One Hundred Welsh Stars)

By Alan Roderick

Wales Books, 2000.   pp218

From Harry Secombe to Bob Hope to Catherine you know who.........

"....a reference book with a difference, a highly readable, informative account of the lives of 100 Welsh Stars. Within its pages the reader will find 100 concise mini-biographies, word pictures detailing all the relevant, basic facts about the entertainer's career...."

102. The Dictionary of Welsh Biography down to 1940.

Under the auspices of The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 1959

(Editors; Sir John Lloyd, R T Jenkins - in association with Sir William Llewelyn Davies and Miss Margaret B Davies)

Over 1150 pages of entries.

103. The Dictionary of Welsh Biography 1941-1970

Published by The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 2001

Together with a Supplement to the 'down to 1940' edition

(Editors; R T Jenkins, E D Jones, Brynley F Roberts)

449 pages of entries

104. The Welsh Princes

By Roger Turvey.

(The Native Rulers of Wales 1063-1283)

Longman, 2002


Family Descent and Inheritance: The Princes and their Principalities

Conflict or Coexistence: Marchia Wallie and Pura Wallia

Challenge and Response: English Kings and Welsh Princes

The Governance of Native Wales: The Princes as Rulers

Conquest and Consolidation: The Princes as Warriors

Culture and Religion: The Princes as Patrons

Conclusion: The Princes after Conquest

105.  Directories

1. The Blue Guides -Wales -  by Muirhead, 1953. pp320

2. Ward Lock - North Wales (Northern section). 14th edition

3. Ward Lock - North Wales (Southern section). 1934/5

4. Ward Lock - Cardiff and South Wales. 1928/9

106. Glamorgan and its Topography

By C J O Evans

Williams Lewis, 1938.


Name, Situation, Extent, and Administration

Features and Climate

Geological Features: soil

People; Language; Population



Political History

Religious History

Natural History



Welsh Glossary

Terminology, or Glossary of Special terms

Description of Places (arranged alphabetically)


Lots of maps and illustrations

107. The Welsh Revival of 1904

By Eifion Evans.

Evangelical Press of Wales, 1969 with 3rd ed paperback in 1984.

"....it is not merely a recital of facts but truly a study....."


Previous Awakenings

Evangelistic Agencies

Theological Decline

Cardiganshire Village

Spiritual Ferment

Revival Centre

Scattered Blessings

Inspired Itinerary

Widespread Achievements

Notable Characteristics

Militant Aftermath

108. Man of the Valleys

(The Recollections of a South Wales Miner)

Edited by Mary Paget

Alan Sutton, 1985.

"Colliery Place, Risca, was the strip of land between the river and the mountain, the Sirhowy on one side and the railway on the other. William Paget was born in this corner of South Wales........in 1870....... and died in 1968.........he was 12 years old when he went to work in the pit........."

This is a very good read whether your mining ancestors come from Mon or Gla or where ever.

109. Customs and Traditions of Wales

By Trefor M Owen

University of Wales Press/Western Mail, 1991

A Pocket Guide


Working the Land

Customs of Hearth and Home

Community Traditions

Church Festivals and Practices

Changing Traditions

Studying Folk Customs

110. Famous Welshmen

Short biographies prepared by the Welsh department of the Board of Education in cooperation with the University of Wales Press Board. 1944

80 entries from Saint David to Dr D Vaughan Thomas.

111. They Look at Wales

An Anthology of Prose and Verse

University of Wales Press, 1941

Another little treasure chest with a wide variety of material..................

".......a scrap book, pages of casual gleanings to be turned over in moments of leisure......"

76 pieces under the broad headings of;







Index of Authors

112. Wales and the Drovers

(The Historical Background of an Epoch)

By P G Hughes.

Foyle's Welsh Co Ltd, 1943, repr 1944. pp63

There is a contents listing and name index on the Wales pages of Genuki

113. Welsh Crafts

By Mary Eirwen Jones

An account of the historic Welsh crafts as they exist today.

Batsford, 1978

There is a contents listing and other data on the Wales pages of Genuki

114. The Place Names of Wales

By Hywel Wyn Owen

University of Wales Press, 1998.  pp103

A Pocket Guide.

"......a readable and informative guide which brings together most of what is currently known about selected place-names in Wales. The bulk of the book is made up of a dictionary of place-names which provides both the derivation and meaning of the names....."

115. The Physicians of Myddvai

( Meddygon Myddfai)

Translated, with an Introduction, by John Pughe.

"A facsimile reprint by the Welsh MSS Society, (1993) of the English text first published in The Physicians of Myddfai, Llandovery, in 1861-  including an Introduction, the Legend of the Lady of the Lake, and translations from the Welsh of two of the ancient texts of remedies purporting to have come down from the original Physicians of the twelfth century."

116.  Twm Shon Catty

(The Welsh Robin Hood)

By T J Llewelyn Prichard

The Comical Adventures of Twm Shon Catty (Thomas Jones Esq)

Facsimile repr by Llanerch Publishers, 1991.

"Thomas J l Prichard may be described as the author of the first Welsh novel, The Adventures and Vagaries of Twm Shon Catti, the first edition of which appeared in 1828...with revised and enlarged editions in 1839 and 1873........The present facsimile is of the revised and enlarged edition published by W Nicholson and Sons with neither date nor mention of the author's name on the title page. The adventures of Twm Shon Catti are said to have been based on incidents in the life of Thomas Jones of Tregaron (c1530-1609)."

117. The Black Book of Carmarthen

Introduction and translations by Meirion Pennar.

Published by Llanerch Enterprises, 1989.

"A product of St John's Priory, Carmarthen, the famous Black Book includes a mixture of thirteenth-century secular and religious items penned by a Welsh monk, but there also passages purporting to come from more ancient times. Merion Pennar's selected translations include the dialogue between Myrddin (Merlin) and Taliesin, and the verses said to have been written by Merlin after the Battle of Arderydd, when he was hiding in the Caledonian Forest."

118. The Heart of Wales, An Anthology

Edited by James A Davies

Seren, 1994. pp293

(Welsh writing in English)

I find this a most enjoyable read - to be dipped into from time to time

Numerous well known Welsh authors.

".......beginning with the travellers of the 18th and early 19th centuries this anthology captures the  drama of coal mining, iron and steel making, slate quarrying, and agriculture, of political agitation, the language question, leisure, worship, education, and domestic life....."

119.  Ceredigion: a Wealth of History

By Gerald Morgan  

Gomer, 2005. ISBN 1 84323 501 3

Dust jacket

Was Cardiganshire ever as radical as tradition claims?
What is the Black Spot?
And what indeed of the Cardi's supposed tightfistedness?

From Ceredigion's beginnings, four hundred million years ago at the bottom of the ocean, until the day before yesterday, this book tells a unique county's unique story.
We meet its sailors, soldiers and saints; its poets, princes and paupers. What is more, because of Gerald Morgan's intimate knowledge of the land, we are allowed to explore the farmer's soil and the lead-miner's deepest caverns in fascinating detail.
With over two hundred illustrations to complement the meticulous research, Ceredigion: a Wealth of History is sure to have an immediate popular appeal.

If you are already a Cardi, it will affirm and enrich your heritage; if you have come to the county, this is the essential guidebook to your new home.

It is  remarkably comprehensive and the writing is suffused with affection for the landscape and people of Ceredigion. A most illuminating book.

Professor John Davies


  • 1. The Nature of the Land
  • 2. Naming Ceredigion
  • 3. Cairns and Hill Forts
  • 4. Romans in Ceredigion
  • 5. The Early Kingdom
  • 6. Resisting the Invaders
  • 7. Peace and Rebellion: 1277-1543
  • 8. The Church: Llanbadarn Fawr to Llangeitho
  • 9. Civil Society, Civil War
  • 10. Women's Lives in Cardiganshire
  • 11. Growing, Getting and Spending
  • 12. Lead, Silver, Zinc
  • 13. The County Gentry: Zenith and Nadir
  • 14. Order and Disorder
  • 15. 'Boanerges was his name': Christianity in Cardiganshire
  • 16. The Cardi goes to School
  • 17. Living by Water
  • 18. Getting About, Getting Out
  • 19. Politics and Local Government
  • 20. The Poor and the Sick
  • 21. Counting the People
  • 22. The Use of Languages: Dialect, Literature and the Press
  • 23. Entertainment and the Arts
  • 24. Cardiganshire at War
  • 25. Cardiganshire Yesterday: Ceredigion Today
  • Afterword by Owen Watkin, Ceredigion's Chief Executive Officer